Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Corneille, Pierre

(515 words)

Author(s): Siepe, Hans T.
[German Version] (1606, Rouen – 1684, Paris), along with J. Racine and J.B. Molière one of the greatest authors of French classicism. He obtained the foundations of his Christian-humanistic worldview in a Jesuit college; after studying law and a brief period of activity as a lawyer, he turned to the theater in 1629. Of his more than 30 pieces, the tragedy Le Cid (1637) set in the conflict between amour and honneur, the Roman dramas Horace (1640), rooted in the tension between individual and state, and Cinna (1640), and the martyr drama Polyeucte martyr (1641/42) changed the history of t…


(187 words)

Author(s): Haacker, Klaus
[German Version] In Acts 10:1–11:18 and 15:6–11, 14, the “God-fearing” centurion Cornelius (cf. 10:2, 4, 35) functions as a key figure in Acts for the divinely ordained transition of early Christian mission to non-Jewish target groups. A double revelation (Acts 10:3–6 and 9–16) leads Peter to preach in the house of Cornelius. The outpouring of the Spirit to the assembly, manifested in praise to God and speaking in tongues (Glossolalia), justifies on-the-sp…


(152 words)

Author(s): Haendler, Gert
[German Version] (bishop of Rome 251–253). In the persecution under Decius, Bishop Fabian was martyred in 250. One year later (251), a majority chose Cornelius bishop. In his community, 46 presbyters were active, caring for 1500 widows and needy persons. Novatian led a minority community. In contrast to Novatian, Cornelius espoused a community practice that permitted Christians who had fallen away in the persecution to return after appropriate penitence. Bishop Cyprian of Carthage supported Cornelius; Cyprian's anthology of letters contains two letters of Cornelius ( Ep. 49 and …

Cornelius a Lapide

(165 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Cornelis Cornelissen van den Steen, SJ [from 1592]; Dec 8, 1567, Bocholt near Liège – Mar 12, 1637, Rome), exegete. He was professor in Leuven from 1598–1616, thereafter in the Collegium Romanum. He was an important interpreter of Scripture who commented on the entire Bible (except Job and Psalms), both in the sense of the multiple senses of Scripture as well as with a view to the literal meaning. He was influential on into the 20th century. Heribert Smolinsky Bibliography BCJ 4, 1893, 1511–1526 G. Boss, Die Rechtfertigungslehre in den Bibelkommentären des …

Cornelius, Peter von

(181 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (Sep 29, 1783, Düsseldorf – Mar 6, 1867, Berlin), from 1795 a student at the Academy in Düsseldorf, became known to a larger public through his illustrations for Goethe's Faust (published 1816), which are regarded as the key work of Nazarene art. In Rome (after 1811), Cornelius, along with J.F. Overbeck, was one of the dominant figures in the Nazarene Lucas Brotherhood (Lukasbund). In Munich, where he was director of the Academy from 1824, on the commission of King Ludwig I he crea…

Cornutus, Lucius Annaeus

(172 words)

Author(s): Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette
[German Version] (born in Leptis, North Africa) was active as a Stoic philosopher in Rome and was exiled under Nero between 63 and 65 ce. In addition to diverse scholarly commentaries, Cornutus authored an Overview of the Greek Doctrine of the gods (᾽Επιδρομὴ τῶν κατὰ τὴν ῾Ελληνικὴν ϑεολογίαν παραδεδομἑνων/ epidromḗ t#o->;n katà tḗn Hellēnikn theologían paradedoménôn). As ¶ an aid to elementary instruction in philosophy, the Overview offers a selection of the doctrines of the early philosophers. Cosmogony, important gods, their attributes and e…

Corona, Saint

(10 words)

[German Version] Victor and Corona, Saints


(1,065 words)

Author(s): Ott, Joachim
[German Version] I. Crown – II. Coronation – III. Coronation Orders I. Crown The c rown (etym.: Gk κορώνη/ korṓnē, curved object, then Latin corona, “wreath,” etc.) is, in the most common sense, a head adornment displaying the dignity of kings and queens, emperors and empresses (for the head covering of ecclesial potentates there is a specific vocabulary: primarily mitre, tiara; rarely: “papal tiara,” or such). Among insignia, the crown has long merited greatest attention f…

Coronati Quattuor

(186 words)

Author(s): Reinhard Seeliger, Hans
[German Version] (“Four Crowned”) is the customary designation since the 6th century for a group of martyrs of uncertain origin venerated in Rome. At the core, it includes the names Claudius, Nicostratus, Sempronianus (Symphorianus) and Castorius. The first three are already listed in the Depositio episcoporum/martyrum . In the 4th century, they were probably venerated in the Roman catacomb Inter duos lauros (Santi Marcellino e Pietro); since the end of the 6th century there has been a Roman titular church with the patronage of the group. The Passio (BHL 1836) from late 5th…

Corporate Culture

(307 words)

Author(s): Wieland, Josef
[German Version] Management and organizational theory understands corporate culture as a set of fundamental assumptions and values that belong to an organization. The corporate culture is the acquired knowledge of a corporation that unites its members affectively, guides their perception, and determines their behaviors by means of preferences (Schein, Bleicher). In the theory of transaction costs, corporate culture constitutes a component of the transactio…

Corporate Ethics

(10 words)

[German Version] Business Ethics, Economic Ethics

Corporate Identity

(232 words)

Author(s): Wieland, Josef
[German Version] This term originated in American management literature. It designates the identity of a company gained by setting out its self-image through a mission statement, which serves the purpose of self-assurance on a symbolic level (e.g. firm logo) and direction of behavior based on codified values. A distinction is made between performance values (e.g. customer orientation), interaction values (e.g. loyalty), and moral values (e.g. fairness), which are fixed in standards of behavior. Accordingly, corporate identity assumes that ¶ companies can be described as a …


(457 words)

Author(s): Oechsler, Walter
[German Version] In general, the term “corporation” refers to activities regardless of type or purpose that involve a potential danger for those undertaking them. Thus, a risk is always associated with a corporation (synonyms: “company,” “enterprise”). From a commercial viewpoint, corporations are commercial units in a market-oriented economic system (Market economy) whose objective is the production and utilization of goods and services (Service sector). …

Corporation Act

(141 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] In December 1661, an Act was passed by the “Cavalier Parliament” which required all mayors, aldermen, councilors, and borough officials to swear loyalty to the king and take “the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according to the rites of the Church of England” during the twelve months prior to their election. Conscientious Dissenters were thus removed from office; those who were elected (but who refused to communicate) were fined. Though increasingly ineffective, the Act remained highly contentious; it became a cause célèbre in the Dissenting campaign to enact …

Corpus Catholicorum

(8 words)

[German Version] Corpus Evangelicorum

Corpus Christianum

(1,246 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] The term “corpus Christianum” refers to the medieval concept of a unity of church and “state,” of spiritual and secular dominion. According to it, sacerdotium and imperium, empire and papacy are two powers within a unified respublica Christiana encompassing all of Christianity, membership in which is mediated by baptism. The invisible, unifying head of this corpus mysticum is Jesus Christ; it is governed by emperor and pope as earthly heads. The unity of this corpus Christianum was an argument, in particular, for the curi…

Corpus Christi, Feast of

(434 words)

Author(s): Lamberts, Jozef
[German Version] In response to the urging of Juliana of Mont Cornillon (c. 1193–1258), Robert of Turotte, bishop of Liège, decreed Corpus Christi Day in the year 1246 in his diocese with the document Inter alia mira. Juliana had visions in which she saw the shimmering disk of the full moon from which a small piece was broken off. The moon represented the church, and the missing part stood for the lack of a unique feast in honor of the Eucharist. The feast was supposed to constitute a counterweight to t…

Corpus Christi mysticum

(314 words)

Author(s): Werbick, Jürgen
[German Version] Following Pauline discussion of the body (of Christ), theologians in Antiquity understood the church as a body effectively symbolized in the celebration of the Eucharist and nourished by it (cf. Leo I: “Our participation in the body and blood of Christ strives for nothing other than to change us into what we receive”; Sermo 63.7). The church here is the corpus vere nourished and renewed by the reception of the Eucharistic body ( corpus mysticum). The discussion concerning the Eucharistic real presence resulted in the fact that, conversely, the eucharistic figure was ¶ des…

Corpus Evangelicorum

(726 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] Association of the Protestant imperial estates in the old empire. The Corpus Evangelicorum was presupposed in the Peace of Westphalia in the constitution of the empire. Here, in fact, art. V §52 of the Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugense (IPO, Osnabrück Peace Treaty) specifies that, in certain cases, the Imperial Diet will not decide by majority but only by amicable consensus ( amicabilis compositio) between the (Catholic and Protestant) estates of the empire. These cases include questions of religion and cases in which the two confessions separate “in duas partes” ( itio…

Corpus Iuris Canonici

(983 words)

Author(s): Landau, Peter
[German Version] I. The Decretum Gratiani – II. The Liber Extra – III. The Liber Sextus – IV. The Clementines – V. The Extravagants Since the end of the 16th century, the term Corpus Iuris Canonici has referred to the comprehensive collection of Catholic church law that developed out of various mutually complementary legal collections from 1140 onward. The designation became prevalent after it was used in the 1580 brief of Pope Gregory XIII, Cum pro munere pastorali, issued on the occasion of the publication of an official edition of the Decretum Gratiani. The so-called Editio Romana
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