Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Coadjutor Bishop

(8 words)

[German Version] Episcopal Titles

Cocceius, Johannes

(297 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] (Coch; Aug 9, 1603, Bremen – Nov 5, 1669, Leiden) was appointed professor in Bre¶ men in 1630 (Philologia sacra), in Franeker in 1636 (Hebrew; theology from 1643), and in Leiden in 1650 (theology). As a student, he acquired a lasting interest in Judaism and Islam from M. Martini (Bremen), and was thoroughly trained in the biblical languages by S. Amama (Franeker). His commentaries on nearly every book of the Bible and the preparatory work for his monumental Lexicon et commentarius sermonis hebraici et chaldaici Veteris Testamenti (1669) are closely connected to his…

Cochläus, Johannes

(293 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] (actually Dobeneck; 1479, Raubersried, Wendelstein parish [hence cochlea, “spiral stair”], Middle-Franconia – Jan 10 or 11, 1552, Breslau), studied arts and theology in Cologne, became rector of the Latin school in Nuremberg in 1510; a humanist, he studied law in Bologna, received the Dr. theol. in 1517 in Ferrara, was consecrated to the priesthood in 1518 in Rome and appointed dean of the Liebfrauenstift in Frankfurt; he became an opponent of Luther after reading De captivitate Babylonica ecclesiae praeludium, became canon of St. Viktor near Mainz i…

Cochrane, Thomas

(137 words)

Author(s): Anderson, Allan H.
[German Version] (1866, Greenock, Scotland – 1953). After completing medical training in Glasgow, Cochrane was sent by the London Missionary Society to Mongolia in 1897. In 1904 he founded the Peking Union Medical College and served as its first director until 1915. On returning to England, he started the periodical World Dominion and the following year founded the Survey Application Trust. In both ventures, he worked in collaboration with missionary author Roland Allen. In 1930 he founded the Movement for World Evangelism, …


(7 words)

[German Version] Rijnsburger Collegiants

Code Civil

(8 words)

[German Version] Napoleonic Era


(583 words)

Author(s): Richardi, Reinhard
[German Version] I. Definition – II. Historical Basis – III. Co-determination in the Churches I. Definition Conventionally, the term “co-determination” (Ger. Mitbestimmung) has been reserved for the institutional participation of employees (Employees/Employers) in ¶ directing and managing a business or corporation. As part of the labor constitution co-determination includes employee participation in matters that go beyond the social und economic structure of the company. With industrial action as a tool in confl…

Codex Iuris Canonici (1917)

(696 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The intention of restructuring canon law had existed ever since the preparatory work for Vatican I, although the popes of the time never followed up on it. Instead, several private outlines were drafted in which the methodic approach of the Codex Iuris Canonici ( CIC) was anticipated. The definitive work began under Pius X ( Motu Proprio “Arduum sane munus,” Mar 19, 1904). The objective was to harmonize the hitherto fragmented laws concerning the larger and more important issues of church life. A commission was then set up a…

Codex Iuris Canonici (1983)

(498 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] An aggiornamento of canon law had already been announced by John XXIII, as Vatican II had made the Codex of 1917 appear outdated. On Jan 28, 1963, a reform commission was established (commission of cardinals with consultors). The churchgoing public was widely integrated in the making of the new Codex Iuris Canonici ( CIC). Some drafts were withdrawn. John Paul II canonized and promulgated the CIC on Jan 25, 1983. It came into effect on Nov 27, 1983. The Codex itself is written in Latin, though authorized translations into several languages followed. The CIC applies…

Codex Justinianus

(497 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Wolfgang
[German Version] At the beginning of the year 528, emperor Justinian I (527–565) appointed a commission of high-ranking government officials to collect in a single code, arranged by subject, all the imperial constitutions already contained in earlier collections (Codex Gregorianus, Codex Hermogenianus, Codex Theodosianus) or issued subsequently; the new collection was to bear his name. The commission was directed to edit and unify the legal material by eliminating unnecessary ¶ and obsolete material from the constitutions and resolving contradictions. Textu…

Codex Theodosianus

(530 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Wolfgang
[German Version] The 16 books of the Codex Theodosianus contain constitutions of the Christian emperors from 312 to 437, including civil, administrative, and ecclesiastical law. Published for the East by Theodosius II (408–450) on Feb 15, 438, it was adopted for the West in the same year by Valentinian III (425–455). On Jan 1, 439, the code came into force for the entire Empire. Its authority was preemptive: for the period covered, the original constitutions beca…


(508 words)

Author(s): Zweigle, Birgit
[German Version] refers to common education and instruction for the two sexes. The first coeducational institutions were established in the USA in the late 19th century. Coeducation was introduced particularly in the newly-founded colleges and universities in the Midwest and West. Politicians and educators justified coeducation in the state universities in terms of financial pressures. The Northeast and South decided to establish women's colleges, which primarily…

Coe, George Albert

(252 words)

Author(s): Tippen, Brian A.
[German Version] (Mar 26, 1862 Mendon, NY – Nov 9, 1951 Claremont, CA) was professor at the University of Southern California, 1888–1890; Northwestern University, 1891–1909; Union Theological Seminary (NY), 1909–1922; and Teachers College, New York, 1922–1927. In 1909, Coe was called to Union Theological Seminary as the first professor of religious education at a Protestant seminary in the US. There he gave his inaugural lecture on the theme “Can Religion Be …


(357 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] (Lat. coercitio) takes place when a certain type of behavior is forcibly imposed upon a person against his/her declared will. “Means of coercion” are the embodiment of all instruments that are available for this purpose. The availability of such means is indispensable for the state if it is to fulfill its fundamental task of maintaining the peace. The latter requires it to enforce compliance with the legal order, especially on the part of t…

Co-existence, Religious,

(308 words)

Author(s): Feldtkeller, Andreas
[German Version] also known as “convivence,” which is derived from Span. convivencia and Port. convivência (“living together”). In medieval Spain, the latter denoted the peaceful coexistence of Jews, Christians, and Muslims; in Latin-American liberation theology (I), it refers to the communal life and solidarity of the poor which arises from bonds of kinship or neighborly relations and which the base communities have adopted as a structure of ecclesial life (Freire). The equivalent German term Konvivenz was introduced in German-speaking theology by Th. Sunderme…

Coffin, Henry Sloane

(178 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jan 5, 1877, New York – Nov 25, 1954, Lakeville, CT) was a leading Protestant educator and ecumenicist in the USA during the first half of the 20th century. After an education at Yale, Edinburgh, Marburg, and at Union Theological Seminary (NY), Coffin became a Presbyterian minister in New York. Soon he added duties as a professor at Union, where he became the president in 1926 (until 1945). Coffin was an early advocate of the Social Gospe…

Cognitive and Religious Development

(10 words)

[German Version] Development, Human

Cognitive Dissonance

(352 words)

Author(s): Bucher, Anton
[German Version] Developed by Leon Festinger in 1957, the theory of cognitive dissonance is one of the most important and influential theories of social psychology, and has since inspired thousands of studies. The theory claims that human beings go to great lengths to preserve a balance in their opinions, attitudes, and values. When this harmony is disturbed (e.g. the predilection for eggs by evidence that cholesterol may represent a health risk), the individual …

Cognitive Science

(372 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Achim
[German Version] is still a young discipline. It originated in the 1970s as an integrative research initiative combining the scholarly approaches from a wide vari¶ ety of fields such as psychology (esp. developmental and cognitive psychology), linguistics, computer science (esp. Artificial intelligence, neuroinformatics, and robotics), neuroscience, and philosophy (esp. the Philosophy of mind and philosophical psychology). Its research efforts are primarily focused on the (cognitive) …


(704 words)

Author(s): Gräb-Schmidt, Elisabeth
[German Version] generally denotes the relationship of two unrelated adults living together unmarried as a household with or without children. Structurally, cohabitation does not represent a new and novel way of life. Traditionally it was known as concubinage. What have changed, however, are the conditions that encourage cohabitation, the subjective significance assigned to it, and its biographical position. As late as the beginning of the 20th century, it served…

Cohen, Hermann

(509 words)

Author(s): Amir, Yehoyada
[German Version] (Jul 4, 1842, Coswig – Apr 4, 1918, Berlin). The philosopher and Jewish theologian Hermann Cohen was one of the intellectual leaders of liberal Judaism (III) and a cofounder of the neo-Kantian “Marburger Schule” (“Marburg school of thought”). His book on metaphysics, Logik der reinen Erkenntnis (1902), constructs a strict metaphysics that rejects sensory data as the starting point for the process of scientific philosophy. His Ethik des reinen Willens (1904) posits the “pure will” as the criterion of what is ethical; it does not focus on know…


(1,778 words)

Author(s): Grube, Dirk-M. | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Ethics I. Philosophy of Religion Coherence is essentially a syntactic relation that exists between various propositions, but not between propositions and reality. This relation is typically defined as an absence of contradictions between various propositions. More appropriate, however, is another definition of coherence as the logically and conceptually consistent integrability of certain propositions into a more comprehensive system of propositions. In a coherence theory of truth, truth is u…

Coillard, François

(212 words)

Author(s): Spindler, Marc R.
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1834, Asnières-lès-Bourges, France – May 27, 1904, Lealui, Zambia), French Reformed pioneer missionary in Southern Africa. Alumnus of the evangelical School of Missions in Paris, he was ordained in 1857 and sent to Lesotho, where he married Christina Mackintosh (1829–1891), daughter of a Scottish minister, in 1861. He wrote hymns, poems, tales, and translations in Sotho for use in schools. His ideal, however, was pioneering evangelizatio…


(283 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] A town and bishopric in Portugal. In the 8th century the town (Roman Conimbriga, today Condeixa) was transferred to the site of Aeminium, modern Coimbra. It belonged to the province of Emerita Augusta (Merida) and became the seat of a bishopric at the end of the 6th century. Conquered by the Moors in 715/716, Coimbra was finally retaken by Ferdinand I of Castile and Leon in 1054. The first bishop after the Reconquista was Paterno. When Portugal …

Coincidentia oppositorum

(9 words)

[German Version] Nicholas of Cusa


(6 words)

[German Version] Numismatics

Coke, Thomas

(159 words)

Author(s): Wigger, John H.
[German Version] (Sep 28, 1747, Brecon, Wales – May 3, 1814, Indian Ocean) earned a B.A. (1768) and a doctorate in civil law at Oxford. Ordained a priest in the Church of England in 1772, he was turned out of his parish for Methodist sympathies (Methodists) in 1776. He was promoted to be one of J. Wesley's advisers. Wesley set him apart as superintendent of Methodism in America. In the same year, after the first of 18 voyages across the Atlantic, Coke ordained F.…

Cola di Rienzo

(295 words)

Author(s): Weinhardt, Joachim
[German Version] (1313, Rome – Oct 8, 1354, Rome). The son of an innkeeper, Cola went to Avignon as a notary with a Roman delegation (1343/1344), whereupon Clement VI appointed him to a communal government office. Cola showed the Romans his enthusiasm for the ancient greatness of their city by explaining the extant relics to them. On the Feast of Pentecost (May 20) in 1347, he stirred a popular rebellion against the baronial nobility of the city and had the righ…

Colenso, John William

(216 words)

Author(s): Anderson, Allen H.
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1814, St. Austell, Cornwall – Jun 20, 1883, Bishopstown, Natal), Anglican missionary and bishop of Natal from 1853. Colenso studied at Cambridge and promoted higher biblical criticism in the English-speaking world, giving a series of sermons and commentaries on Romans and the Pentateuch between 1858 and 1879. Bishop Robert Gray of Cape Town called a synod in 1863 which deposed Colenso, who had refused to attend the synod or resign his of…

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor

(422 words)

Author(s): Volp, Ulrich
[German Version] (Oct 21, 1772, Ottery St. Mary, Devon – Jul 25, 1834, Highgate, London), English poet and theologian. A founder member of the English Romantic movement (Romanticism), he exerted great influence on English religious philosophy, literary criticism and theology. Coleridge was the son of an Anglican vicar and received a broad education in London and Cambridge, including ancient Greek literature and philosophy. His circumstances at Cambridge were very…

Cole, Thomas

(164 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (Feb 1, 1801, Boldon-le-Moors – Feb 11, 1848, Catskill, NY) is considered a pioneer of American landscape painting and the founder of the Hudson River School. Influenced by English Pietism, and especially by J. Bunyan, his thematic series of paintings entitled “The course of the Empire” (1833–1836) portrayed the history of humanity as a sort of pilgrimage from primal state to downfall. Inspired by C. Lorrain, Cole sought to make the spiritual quality of…

Colet, John

(244 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1467 [?], London – Sep 16, 1519, London) was the son of an influential clothier, who studied at Cambridge (from 1481; M.A. 1488) and Oxford (from 1490; D.D. 1504). From 1492 to 1496, he travelled to Italy and France to pursue his studies; it is uncertain whether his preoccupation with Neoplatonism and Marsilio Ficino began during this period. In 1498, he was ordained to the priesthood, and he was made dean of St. Paul's Cathedral, London…

Coligny, Gaspard de

(255 words)

Author(s): Dingel, Irene
[German Version] (Seigneur de Châtillon; Feb 16, 1519, Châtillon-sur-Loing – Aug 24, 1572, Paris) was admiral of France from 1552 onward, and governor of Picardy from 1555. A Calvinist sympathizer, he was captured by the Spanish at the battle of St. Quentin (1557) and held captive in the Netherlands. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (Apr 3, 1559) enabled him to resume his diplomatic functions. By speaking out in defense of his persecuted co-religionists during the a…


(323 words)

Author(s): Neijenhuis, Jörg
[German Version] The Latin term collatio is used in a variety of senses such as “bringing together,” “gathering,” “bestowing” (thus in Corpus Iuris Canonici, canon 147, for ¶ the conferment of an office), “comparing” (e.g. of a copy with the original). Rhetorics and philosophy employ the term for an amplifying figure of thought that compares two things on account of their similarity until it arrives at a complete comparison on the basis on a metaphorical tertium. In the context of church Latin, John Cassian's Collationes patrum (425–429) played a formative role: it contains 24 e…


(1,076 words)

Author(s): Georgi, Dieter | Ahlers, Reinhild
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Church History and Canon Law I. Bible The Old Testament mentions a great variety of contributions and offerings to the sanctuary (e.g. Exod 25:2–7; 2 Kgs 12:4–16; 1 Chr 29:1–19). The Psalms in particular show that temple offerings could be included in the trilogy of praise, thanksgiving, and profession of faith – not just in the sense of an act of devotion, but also in the formal legal sense. This became a means of transcending the concrete…


(6 words)

[German Version] Individualism

Collect Prayer

(195 words)

Author(s): Weil, Louis
[German Version] A collect is a prayer that concludes a section of a rite (e.g. an entrance rite). However, the word can also designate the prayer at the end of a liturgical unit, for instance the collect at the end of the litany. The standard collect form consists of three sections: an invocation to God (with predication), a petition, and a mediation (“through Christ our Lord”) closing with a Trinitarian doxology (III) and the Amen (II). The root of the word “collect” is the Latin verb colligere, meaning “to collect.” The Latin nouns collecta and collectio finally came to be used for the…

College of Bishops

(10 words)

[German Version] Bishops, College of

Colleges and Universities, Christian

(783 words)

Author(s): Benad, Matthias | Ringenberg, William Carey
[German Version] I. Europe – II. North America I. Europe In many European countries there are non-state church universities and colleges which provide research, doctrine, degree studies and professional qualifications. In the main these are faculties of theology; in line with its broad cultural standing, however, the Catholic Church also maintains some 25 universities in Italy, France, Spain, Poland, Belgium, Germany, Portugal, Ireland and the Netherlands. In Hungary there is…

Colleges and Universities, Jewish

(485 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Uri R.
[German Version] The tradition of Jewish colleges (Yeshivah) goes back to ancient times and derives from the study of written and oral teachings. Medieval Hebrew designations for academic degrees come astonishingly close to the Latin ones: chawer/magister, moreh/doctor. Groups cultivating religious traditions developed around the Yeshivot, as for example those belonging to Ashkenazi Judaism (II) in Speyer, Worms, and Mainz. Around 1800, governments began to consider how to improve the educational level of Jews and attempted to modernize the Jewish…


(491 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] Following episcopalism (I) and territorialism, collegialism was the latest of the three 17th- and 18th century theories on the origin and legitimation of vesting ecclesiastical authority of prince in the Protestant territories of the German Empire. The early collegialists (C.M. Pfaff, L. v. Mosheim) were concerned to limit the comprehensive claim to the prince's authority over religious matters as an aspect of public order asserted …


(365 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter
[German Version] It was Cyprian of Carthage who first used the term collegium for the collective episcopate ( Ep. 68, c. 254/255). The expression recalls the college of the Twelve in the New Testament and establishes communion among the bishops as leaders of their particular churches, thus guaranteeing the unity of the universal church (Church unity). Bishops were to be consecrated (Bishop, Consecration of) by at least three bishops as representatives of the collegium. With the development of papal primacy, the notion of collegiality receded into the backgroun…

Collegiate Chapter

(556 words)

Author(s): Schneidmüller, Bernd
[German Version] In 755/756, early medieval communities of clerics were given their first structural guidelines in the rule of Bishop Chrodegang of Metz, who used the apostolic lifestyles as prototypes of choir office and community life. The Institutio canonicorum promulgated in 816 at Aachen by Louis I, the Pious established the distinction between monastic communities and canonical communities. Collegiate chapters consisted of secular clerics who had often only taken the minor vows (Consecration/Ordination/Dedication: I) and who initially lived a communal life ( vita …

Collegium Urbanum de Propaganda Fide

(201 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Willi
[German Version] The Collegium Urbanum was founded by Urban VIII with the papal bull “Immortalis Dei” on Aug 1, 1627, with the purpose of training priests to disseminate the Catholic faith around the world. The initial means were provided by the Spanish prelate Juan Bautista Vives (1545–1632), who gave the Ferratini palace on the Piazza di Spagna to the Congregation (Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith) as a gift to the seminary in 1626. He bequeathed h…

Collenbusch, Samuel

(313 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Dietrich
[German Version] (Sep 1, 1724 Barmen-Wichlinghausen – Sep 1, 1803 Barmen) studied medicine in Duisburg and Strasbourg from 1745, and practiced medicine in Duisburg after 1754, where he also ran a refinery, and, from 1783, in Barmen and Schwelm. He received the Dr. med. in 1789. Coming to faith in the home of his Lutheran parents and under the influence of pastor Peter Wülfing (died1757), in 1760 he became acquainted with F.C. Oetinger's theosophy and J.A.Bengel's…

Collins, Anthony

(154 words)

Author(s): Pailin, David Arthur
[German Version] (Jun 21, 1676, Heston, Middlesex – Dec 13, 1729, London) was highly regarded by J. Locke as a prominent English Free thinker. His works evoked considerable hostility and in some cases numerous replies since they challenged the ratio¶ nal status of orthodox belief. An Essay concerning the Use of Reason (1707) rejects the distinction between matters above reason and those that are contrary to reason. A Discourse of Freethinking (1713) asserts that free enquiry is the right path to discern the truth and attacks clerical claims to authority. A Philosophical Inqui…

Colloredo, Hieronymus Graf von

(307 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (May 31, 1732, Vienna – May 20, 1812, ibid.) was the last prince-archbishop of Salzburg. His family (his father, and later his brother, were imperial vice-chancellors) secured his accession to ecclesiastical positions from early on: cathedral canon in Salzburg in 1747, auditor of the Rota in Rome in 1759, bishop of Gurk by appointment of Maria Theresia in 1761. In the latter function, his administration was marked by reform-Catholic tendencies. Elected a…


(1,945 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Klueting, Ham
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. City and Diocese – III. University I. Archaeology Evidence that Cologne was a particularly flourishing city in the 2nd and early 3rd centuries includes remains of the city wall, aqueduct, sewers, and praetorium, mosaic floors and mural paintings from private houses, several tombs, and a great variety of small artworks. Famous is the 3rd-century Dionysus Mosaic in the Römisch- Germanisches Museum, still to be seen in situ in the ceremonial room of a large house within the city walls. There is evidence of Christianity in…

Cologne Cathedral

(766 words)

Author(s): Nicolai, Bernd
[German Version] Holding the right to crown German kings, the archdiocesan cathedral church of St. Peter and St. Mary was, together with Mainz, the most important metropolitan see of the Holy Roman Empire. The monumental buildings erected from the 6th century onward (structures I–II) met high standards. These standards were raised even further with the new building begun in 1248. Though the latter was not completed during the Middle Ages, it remains the most impo…

Cologne Church Dispute/Cologne Troubles

(11 words)

[German Version] Prussian Church Dispute
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