Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Corneille, Pierre

(515 words)

Author(s): Siepe, Hans T.
[German Version] (1606, Rouen – 1684, Paris), along with J. Racine and J.B. Molière one of the greatest authors of French classicism. He obtained the foundations of his Christian-humanistic worldview in a Jesuit college; after studying law and a brief period of activity as a lawyer, he turned to the theater in 1629. Of his more than 30 pieces, the tragedy Le Cid (1637) set in the conflict between amour and honneur, the Roman dramas Horace (1640), rooted in the tension between individual and state, and Cinna (1640), and the martyr drama Polyeucte martyr (1641/42) changed the history of t…


(187 words)

Author(s): Haacker, Klaus
[German Version] In Acts 10:1–11:18 and 15:6–11, 14, the “God-fearing” centurion Cornelius (cf. 10:2, 4, 35) functions as a key figure in Acts for the divinely ordained transition of early Christian mission to non-Jewish target groups. A double revelation (Acts 10:3–6 and 9–16) leads Peter to preach in the house of Cornelius. The outpouring of the Spirit to the assembly, manifested in praise to God and speaking in tongues (Glossolalia), justifies on-the-sp…


(152 words)

Author(s): Haendler, Gert
[German Version] (bishop of Rome 251–253). In the persecution under Decius, Bishop Fabian was martyred in 250. One year later (251), a majority chose Cornelius bishop. In his community, 46 presbyters were active, caring for 1500 widows and needy persons. Novatian led a minority community. In contrast to Novatian, Cornelius espoused a community practice that permitted Christians who had fallen away in the persecution to return after appropriate penitence. Bishop Cyprian of Carthage supported Cornelius; Cyprian's anthology of letters contains two letters of Cornelius ( Ep. 49 and …

Cornelius a Lapide

(165 words)

Author(s): Smolinsky, Heribert
[German Version] (Cornelis Cornelissen van den Steen, SJ [from 1592]; Dec 8, 1567, Bocholt near Liège – Mar 12, 1637, Rome), exegete. He was professor in Leuven from 1598–1616, thereafter in the Collegium Romanum. He was an important interpreter of Scripture who commented on the entire Bible (except Job and Psalms), both in the sense of the multiple senses of Scripture as well as with a view to the literal meaning. He was influential on into the 20th century. Heribert Smolinsky Bibliography BCJ 4, 1893, 1511–1526 G. Boss, Die Rechtfertigungslehre in den Bibelkommentären des …

Cornelius, Peter von

(181 words)

Author(s): Hüttel, Richard
[German Version] (Sep 29, 1783, Düsseldorf – Mar 6, 1867, Berlin), from 1795 a student at the Academy in Düsseldorf, became known to a larger public through his illustrations for Goethe's Faust (published 1816), which are regarded as the key work of Nazarene art. In Rome (after 1811), Cornelius, along with J.F. Overbeck, was one of the dominant figures in the Nazarene Lucas Brotherhood (Lukasbund). In Munich, where he was director of the Academy from 1824, on the commission of King Ludwig I he crea…

Cornutus, Lucius Annaeus

(172 words)

Author(s): Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette
[German Version] (born in Leptis, North Africa) was active as a Stoic philosopher in Rome and was exiled under Nero between 63 and 65 ce. In addition to diverse scholarly commentaries, Cornutus authored an Overview of the Greek Doctrine of the gods (᾽Επιδρομὴ τῶν κατὰ τὴν ῾Ελληνικὴν ϑεολογίαν παραδεδομἑνων/ epidromḗ t#o->;n katà tḗn Hellēnikn theologían paradedoménôn). As ¶ an aid to elementary instruction in philosophy, the Overview offers a selection of the doctrines of the early philosophers. Cosmogony, important gods, their attributes and e…

Corona, Saint

(10 words)

[German Version] Victor and Corona, Saints


(1,065 words)

Author(s): Ott, Joachim
[German Version] I. Crown – II. Coronation – III. Coronation Orders I. Crown The c rown (etym.: Gk κορώνη/ korṓnē, curved object, then Latin corona, “wreath,” etc.) is, in the most common sense, a head adornment displaying the dignity of kings and queens, emperors and empresses (for the head covering of ecclesial potentates there is a specific vocabulary: primarily mitre, tiara; rarely: “papal tiara,” or such). Among insignia, the crown has long merited greatest attention f…

Coronati Quattuor

(186 words)

Author(s): Reinhard Seeliger, Hans
[German Version] (“Four Crowned”) is the customary designation since the 6th century for a group of martyrs of uncertain origin venerated in Rome. At the core, it includes the names Claudius, Nicostratus, Sempronianus (Symphorianus) and Castorius. The first three are already listed in the Depositio episcoporum/martyrum . In the 4th century, they were probably venerated in the Roman catacomb Inter duos lauros (Santi Marcellino e Pietro); since the end of the 6th century there has been a Roman titular church with the patronage of the group. The Passio (BHL 1836) from late 5th…

Corporate Culture

(307 words)

Author(s): Wieland, Josef
[German Version] Management and organizational theory understands corporate culture as a set of fundamental assumptions and values that belong to an organization. The corporate culture is the acquired knowledge of a corporation that unites its members affectively, guides their perception, and determines their behaviors by means of preferences (Schein, Bleicher). In the theory of transaction costs, corporate culture constitutes a component of the transactio…

Corporate Ethics

(10 words)

[German Version] Business Ethics, Economic Ethics

Corporate Identity

(232 words)

Author(s): Wieland, Josef
[German Version] This term originated in American management literature. It designates the identity of a company gained by setting out its self-image through a mission statement, which serves the purpose of self-assurance on a symbolic level (e.g. firm logo) and direction of behavior based on codified values. A distinction is made between performance values (e.g. customer orientation), interaction values (e.g. loyalty), and moral values (e.g. fairness), which are fixed in standards of behavior. Accordingly, corporate identity assumes that ¶ companies can be described as a …


(457 words)

Author(s): Oechsler, Walter
[German Version] In general, the term “corporation” refers to activities regardless of type or purpose that involve a potential danger for those undertaking them. Thus, a risk is always associated with a corporation (synonyms: “company,” “enterprise”). From a commercial viewpoint, corporations are commercial units in a market-oriented economic system (Market economy) whose objective is the production and utilization of goods and services (Service sector). …

Corporation Act

(141 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson R.
[German Version] In December 1661, an Act was passed by the “Cavalier Parliament” which required all mayors, aldermen, councilors, and borough officials to swear loyalty to the king and take “the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according to the rites of the Church of England” during the twelve months prior to their election. Conscientious Dissenters were thus removed from office; those who were elected (but who refused to communicate) were fined. Though increasingly ineffective, the Act remained highly contentious; it became a cause célèbre in the Dissenting campaign to enact …

Corpus Catholicorum

(8 words)

[German Version] Corpus Evangelicorum

Corpus Christianum

(1,246 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] The term “corpus Christianum” refers to the medieval concept of a unity of church and “state,” of spiritual and secular dominion. According to it, sacerdotium and imperium, empire and papacy are two powers within a unified respublica Christiana encompassing all of Christianity, membership in which is mediated by baptism. The invisible, unifying head of this corpus mysticum is Jesus Christ; it is governed by emperor and pope as earthly heads. The unity of this corpus Christianum was an argument, in particular, for the curi…

Corpus Christi, Feast of

(434 words)

Author(s): Lamberts, Jozef
[German Version] In response to the urging of Juliana of Mont Cornillon (c. 1193–1258), Robert of Turotte, bishop of Liège, decreed Corpus Christi Day in the year 1246 in his diocese with the document Inter alia mira. Juliana had visions in which she saw the shimmering disk of the full moon from which a small piece was broken off. The moon represented the church, and the missing part stood for the lack of a unique feast in honor of the Eucharist. The feast was supposed to constitute a counterweight to t…

Corpus Christi mysticum

(314 words)

Author(s): Werbick, Jürgen
[German Version] Following Pauline discussion of the body (of Christ), theologians in Antiquity understood the church as a body effectively symbolized in the celebration of the Eucharist and nourished by it (cf. Leo I: “Our participation in the body and blood of Christ strives for nothing other than to change us into what we receive”; Sermo 63.7). The church here is the corpus vere nourished and renewed by the reception of the Eucharistic body ( corpus mysticum). The discussion concerning the Eucharistic real presence resulted in the fact that, conversely, the eucharistic figure was ¶ des…

Corpus Evangelicorum

(726 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] Association of the Protestant imperial estates in the old empire. The Corpus Evangelicorum was presupposed in the Peace of Westphalia in the constitution of the empire. Here, in fact, art. V §52 of the Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugense (IPO, Osnabrück Peace Treaty) specifies that, in certain cases, the Imperial Diet will not decide by majority but only by amicable consensus ( amicabilis compositio) between the (Catholic and Protestant) estates of the empire. These cases include questions of religion and cases in which the two confessions separate “in duas partes” ( itio…

Corpus Iuris Canonici

(983 words)

Author(s): Landau, Peter
[German Version] I. The Decretum Gratiani – II. The Liber Extra – III. The Liber Sextus – IV. The Clementines – V. The Extravagants Since the end of the 16th century, the term Corpus Iuris Canonici has referred to the comprehensive collection of Catholic church law that developed out of various mutually complementary legal collections from 1140 onward. The designation became prevalent after it was used in the 1580 brief of Pope Gregory XIII, Cum pro munere pastorali, issued on the occasion of the publication of an official edition of the Decretum Gratiani. The so-called Editio Romana


(440 words)

Author(s): Großhans, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (Gk ὀρϑότης/ orthótēs; Lat. rectitudo). Plato employed ὀρϑότης in the sense of correctness in epistemological (cf. Rep. 515 d), philological (cf. Kratylos, 384 b-d) and ethical (cf. Gorg. 506 d) mean- ing. Anselm of Canterbury gave correctness (rectitude) a fundamental role by defining truth and justice with the common superordinate concept of rectitudo. ¶ Thus, Anselm defines truth as “correctness comprehensible with the intellect alone” ( veritas est rectitudo mente sola perceptibilis – cf. De veritate, ch. 11). Anselm's discussion of correctness presu…

Correctores Romani

(234 words)

Author(s): Landau, Peter
[German Version] This term refers to the members of a commission instituted after the Council of Trent by Pope Pius IV in 1566, who were entrusted with the preparation of an official edition of the Corpus Iuris Canonici . It included five cardinals and a large number of doctors of canon law. Gregory XIII approved the text of the Editio Romana in 1580 as authentic. His decree concerned only the authenticity of the text and in no way conferred the character of a law code on the Corpus Iuris Canonici. The Correctores Romani were to trace back in the Decretum Gratiani ( Corpus Iuris Canonici


(1,617 words)

Author(s): Miege, Frank | Feifel, Erich
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology – II. Dogmatics – III. Practical Theology I. Fundamental Theology While for E. Troeltsch correlation (interaction with the context, from Lat. conferre) was only a criterion for a theology reflecting its historicality and cultural location, the systematic theologian P. Tillich introduced correlation, with a broader resonance, to the 20th-century debate as a designation for his methodological program in his Systematic Theology. He demonstrated this by an ellipse with two foci, situation and Christian message, which are to be …

Correspondence Theory of the Truth

(10 words)

[German Version] Truth

Corrodi, Heinrich

(190 words)

Author(s): Hornig, Gottfried
[German Version] (Jul 31, 1752, Zürich – Sep 14, 1793, Zürich) studied theology in Halle and Leipzig, and from 1786 was professor of natural law and ethics at ¶ Zürich Gymnasium. As a student of J.S. Semler he supported a historical-critical theology, affirming the presence of myths in the Bible. Out of his own research there grew his Kritische Geschichte des Chiliasmus [Critical history of millenarianism] (initially anonymous, 2 vols. 1781; in 4 vols. 1794). Corrodi was the prime representative of Neology (Enlightenment: II, 4.c) in …

Cortés, Hernán

(226 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Jul 1485?, Medellín, Badajoz, Spain – Dec 2, 1547, Castilleja de la Cuesta, Seville), a Spanish conquistador in Mexico. He was from the lesser nobility; he did not finish his studies in Salamanca; in 1504, he was in Santo Domingo, and in 1511 in Cuba. Allied with Tlaxcalteks, he destroyed the Aztec empire (1519–1521). He conquered Tenochtitlán (now Mexico City) on Aug 13, 1521; in 1522, he became general captain and (until 1528) governor of “New…

Corvey Abbey,

(187 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] a Benedictine abbey near Höxter (Paderborn diocese). Founded in 822 by Corbie Abbey, Corvey experienced a rapid rise thanks to its favorable location on the ford of the Weser in Hellweg and its popularity with the Carolingians. The most important literary work written here was Widukind's Saxon history. Under Henry II of Germany, Corvey joined the Gorze Reform (Gorze), and under the influence ¶ of the Hirsau Reform (Hirsau), became a Gregorian center in the Investiture Controversy. In the so-called Osnabrück Tithe Controversy …

Corvinus, Antonius

(308 words)

Author(s): Zschoch, Hellmut
[German Version] (Feb 27 or Apr 11, 1501, Warburg – Apr 5, 1553, Hannover). Dismissed from the Cistercian abbey in Riddagshausen in 1523 because of his sympathies for Luther, Corvinus taught himself Reformation theology. In 1528, he obtained a preaching post in Goslar, in 1529, a pastorate in Witzenhausen, Hessen. On the commission of Landgrave Philip of Hessen, he disputed in 1535/36 with the imprisoned Anabaptists in Münster. In 1537, Corvinus signed the Schmalkaldic Articles ; in 1541, he participated as an auditor in the Regensburg religious …

Cosmas and Damian, Saints

(265 words)

Author(s): Wischmeyer, Wolfgang
[German Version] (feast day: Sep 26). As probably the most beloved of the Anargyroi (“those ¶ who heal without payment”), this uncertain eastern hagiological tradition (Syr., Gk, Arab., Georg., Lat.; three versions of the legend are distinguished: Passio Asiatica, BHG 372, 385–393, feast day: Nov 1; Passio Romana, BHG 376, feast day: Jul 1; Passio Arabica, BHG 378f., feast day: Oct 18), which is important for the history of medicine, knows of three pairs of physician brothers by this name in a large geographical area, including Rome, C…

Cosmas Indicopleustes

(173 words)

Author(s): Moffett, Samuel Hugh
[German Version] (Cosmas, the traveler to India). The book by this 6th-century merchant and explorer about his journeys and the composition of the world, Christian Topography, is presumably the oldest credible document attesting to the existence of a Christian church in South Asia. Cosmas may have been a Nestorian (Nestorianism) from Monophysite Alexandria and may never have reached India, but in his 11th book, he gives information concerning a church of Persian Christians on the islan…

Cosmas of Jerusalem (Saint)

(195 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, Lars M.
[German Version] (also Cosmas of Maiuma, Cosmas Hagiopolites, Cosmas the Melodist, Cosmas the Younger; 2nd half of the 8th cent. – c. 760), ¶ one of the most important hymnographers of the Byzantine church. His Vita displays markedly legendary elements and the typical hagiographical topoi. According to it, he was adopted by the father of John of Damascus, was educated in rhetoric by a Sicilian monk named Cosmas before entering, along with his adoptive brother, into the famed Great Laura of St. Sabas (Bethlehem). Ther…

Cosmas Presbyter

(136 words)

Author(s): Söllner, Konstanze
[German Version] ( Kozma Presviter; 2nd half of the 10th cent.), an Old-Bulgarian presbyter and author known only from his Beseda na novojavivščuju sja eres' Bogumilu (“Homily Concerning the Newly Arisen Heresy of Bogumil”). Most scholars date this extensive antiheretical tractate to the period shortly after the death of the Bulgarian tsar Petâr I (died c. 969/970). The Beseda is a major source of information on the emergence of Bogomilism (Bogomils) in Bulgaria and was included in Serbian and Russian antiheretical compilations until the…

Cosmas the Aetolian, Saint

(179 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (1714, Central Greece – Aug 24, 1779, Epirus), a saint in the Greek Orthodox Church, “teacher of the nation,” “apostle-equal,” and “neo-martyr,” whose feast day is August 24. He studied in Sigditsa and the Athos School, and became a monk in the Athos monastery of Philotheou with the name Cosmas (baptismal name: Constas). He was ordained to priesthood in 1759. With the permission of the monastery, he went to Constantinople, taught at the Patriarch…


(6 words)

[German Version] Creation


(3,917 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Hülser, Karlheinz | Herrmann, Klaus | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Stoeger, William R.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II.#x2002;Ancient Near East and Old Testament – III.#x2002;Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity – VI. History of Modern Science I. Terminology Cosmology is a specific culture's orientation in space and time as conceived in words, images, and rituals. The orientation combines signs that can be perceived with signs that are set. Only in the complementarity of the construed other does the “natural” phenomenon acquire the meaning of a significant marke…


(531 words)

Author(s): Peppel, Matthias
[German Version] (“world citizenship”), first attested in the cynic Diogenes of Sinope, who, asked about his origins, described himself as kosmopolitēs: citizen of the cosmos (from the Greek: κόσμος/ kósmos, “world,” and ¶ πολίτης/ polítēs, “citizen”; D. L. VI 63). Borrowed from the French cosmopolite (Ger. Weltbürger), it became a prog rammatic term of the Enlightenment in the 18th century, primarily through the work of C.M. Wieland. As a somewhat diffuse concept that requires a world-state or refers only to worldlines…


(8 words)

[German Version] Chaos, Cosmology, World

Costa, Isaac da

(228 words)

Author(s): Vree, Jasper
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1798, Amsterdam – Apr 28, 1860, Amsterdam) came from a prominent Sephardic-Jewish family and was a lawyer in Amsterdam. In 1822 he was baptized – with his friend A. Capadose – and joined the Dutch Reformed Church. Costa took this step, influenced by Willem Bilderdijk, whom he regarded as a connaisseur of the Ancien Régime, as a rebel against the zeitgeist, as a master in mysteries, but especially as a friend of Jews. Costa who was recognized for his poetry, became renowned in 1823 with his Bezwaren tegen de Geest der Eeuw (“Objections against the Spirit of…

Costa Rica,

(538 words)

Author(s): Picado, Miguel
[German Version] a republic in Central America with a surface area of 51,000 km2 and 3.43 million inhabitants (whites 87%, Asiatics 2%, Mestizos 7%, Mulattos 3%, others 1%), two-thirds of whom live in the region around San José, the capital city of Costa Rica. 97% of the population belongs to a Christian denomination. In addition to a religious minority, the Bahāʾi, segments of the Indian population have preserved traditional religions. Spain conquered the country in the 16…

Côte d'Ivoire

(8 words)

[German Version] Ivory Coast

Cotton, John

(187 words)

Author(s): McDermott, Gerald R.
[German Version] (Dec 4, 1584, Derby, England – Dec 23, 1652, Boston, MA), foremost preacher in the first ¶ generation of preachers in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Educated at Cambridge, Cotton won renown for his twenty years of powerful preaching in Boston, Lincolnshire, before he emigrated in 1630. He helped inspire the Great (Puritan) Migration to the New World by preaching that God was leading his flock to a place where they could practice freely “his holy Ordinances.” Cotton laid emph…

Coughlin, Charles Edwards

(138 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Oct 25, 1891, Hamilton, Ontario – Oct 27, 1979, Bloomfield Hills, MI), pioneer radio broadcaster, was ordained a Catholic priest in 1916. In order to raise money for his new aasignment at the parish in Royal Oak, MI, he took to the airwaves (Radio and television). His programs were at first strictly religious, but after the stock market crash of 1929 he added political commentary. In 1936 he organized the National Union for Social Justice and so…


(4,467 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Schneider, Hans | Schneider, Bernd Christian | Puza, Richard | Neuner, Peter
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Church Law – III. Dogmatics I. Church History 1. Early Church Council (Lat. concilium, Gk σύνοδος [Lat. synodum]; the two terms were first differentiated in modern usage; see also synod) are meetings of bishops from various communities for binding clarification of disciplinary, organizational, or doctrinal questions, whose decisions, as inspired by the Holy Spirit, are not in principle revisable and claim validity for the whole church r…

Council for World Mission

(302 words)

Author(s): Prasad, Andrew
[German Version] (CWM) was formed in 1977 in the United Kingdom as the successor of the London Missionary Society (LMS) and the Commonwealth (previously Colonial) Missionary Society (CMS; founded 1836). The LMS was led mainly by Congregationalists, although they were a non-denominational society. In 1966 the LMS and CMS united to become the Congregational Council for World Mission (CCWM) which later became CWM. In a crucial consultation in Singapore in 1975, the directors of CCWM and leaders from associate (so called “younger”) churches met for the first time. The resolution of CWM Sha…

Council of Brethren

(797 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] ( Bruderrat), designation for the leadership bodies of the Confessing Church ( Bekennende Kirche) at all levels. At first prevalent in especially the (pietistic) community movement ( Gemeinschaftsbewegung), after 1933 it emanated from the emphasis on collegiality and from the ideal of a new kind of “collegial” leadership in opposition to the Führer-principle. I. From Oct 20, 1933, the executive committee of the Pastors' Emergency League was a “Council of Brethren” headed by M. Niemöller; the representative committees …

Council of Christian Churches in Germany

(281 words)

Author(s): Hüffmeier, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Christlicher Kirchen; ACK). Founded in 1948 by, then, seven member churches (Evangelical Church in Germany [EKD], Old Catholic Church and five Protestant free churches), the ACK corresponds in function to national Christian councils or ecumenical councils in other countries. Legallly, it is a registered association. Its tasks include the promotion of information exchange, the cooperation of its members, and the representation of …

Council of Churches for Britain and Ireland

(564 words)

Author(s): Sheils, William J.
[German Version] (CCBI; founded 1942). The CCBI was originally founded in 1942 as the British Council of Churches, following the establishment in 1940 of the World Council Churches, in which W. Temple and W. Paton ¶ played leading roles. There were many reasons for such an ecumenical endeavor, but the move was accelerated by the need for a combined Christian response to the two atheistic ideologies of Communism and fascism which were advancing in Europe, and by the common threat to humanity presented by war. T…

Council of Indio-Missions

(11 words)

[German Version] CIMI (Conselho Indigenista Missionario)

Council of the Indies

(11 words)

[German Version] Consejo de Indias


(536 words)

Author(s): Browning, Don
[German Version] This discussion will deal with counseling in the context of the modern pastoral counseling movement, which synthesized insights from the secular psychotherapies, especially of psychoanalysis, of the non-directive methods of C.R. Rogers and of object-relations theory with the church's tradition of pastoral care. “Pastoral Counseling” stands for a counseling style performed by congregational ministers and priests or in counseling centers est…
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