Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Coadjutor Bishop

(8 words)

[German Version] Episcopal Titles

Cocceius, Johannes

(297 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] (Coch; Aug 9, 1603, Bremen – Nov 5, 1669, Leiden) was appointed professor in Bre¶ men in 1630 (Philologia sacra), in Franeker in 1636 (Hebrew; theology from 1643), and in Leiden in 1650 (theology). As a student, he acquired a lasting interest in Judaism and Islam from M. Martini (Bremen), and was thoroughly trained in the biblical languages by S. Amama (Franeker). His commentaries on nearly every book of the Bible and the preparatory work for his monumental Lexicon et commentarius sermonis hebraici et chaldaici Veteris Testamenti (1669) are closely connected to his…

Cochläus, Johannes

(293 words)

Author(s): Burger, Christoph
[German Version] (actually Dobeneck; 1479, Raubersried, Wendelstein parish [hence cochlea, “spiral stair”], Middle-Franconia – Jan 10 or 11, 1552, Breslau), studied arts and theology in Cologne, became rector of the Latin school in Nuremberg in 1510; a humanist, he studied law in Bologna, received the Dr. theol. in 1517 in Ferrara, was consecrated to the priesthood in 1518 in Rome and appointed dean of the Liebfrauenstift in Frankfurt; he became an opponent of Luther after reading De captivitate Babylonica ecclesiae praeludium, became canon of St. Viktor near Mainz i…

Cochrane, Thomas

(137 words)

Author(s): Anderson, Allan H.
[German Version] (1866, Greenock, Scotland – 1953). After completing medical training in Glasgow, Cochrane was sent by the London Missionary Society to Mongolia in 1897. In 1904 he founded the Peking Union Medical College and served as its first director until 1915. On returning to England, he started the periodical World Dominion and the following year founded the Survey Application Trust. In both ventures, he worked in collaboration with missionary author Roland Allen. In 1930 he founded the Movement for World Evangelism, …


(7 words)

[German Version] Rijnsburger Collegiants

Code Civil

(8 words)

[German Version] Napoleonic Era


(583 words)

Author(s): Richardi, Reinhard
[German Version] I. Definition – II. Historical Basis – III. Co-determination in the Churches I. Definition Conventionally, the term “co-determination” (Ger. Mitbestimmung) has been reserved for the institutional participation of employees (Employees/Employers) in ¶ directing and managing a business or corporation. As part of the labor constitution co-determination includes employee participation in matters that go beyond the social und economic structure of the company. With industrial action as a tool in confl…

Codex Iuris Canonici (1917)

(696 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] The intention of restructuring canon law had existed ever since the preparatory work for Vatican I, although the popes of the time never followed up on it. Instead, several private outlines were drafted in which the methodic approach of the Codex Iuris Canonici ( CIC) was anticipated. The definitive work began under Pius X ( Motu Proprio “Arduum sane munus,” Mar 19, 1904). The objective was to harmonize the hitherto fragmented laws concerning the larger and more important issues of church life. A commission was then set up a…

Codex Iuris Canonici (1983)

(498 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] An aggiornamento of canon law had already been announced by John XXIII, as Vatican II had made the Codex of 1917 appear outdated. On Jan 28, 1963, a reform commission was established (commission of cardinals with consultors). The churchgoing public was widely integrated in the making of the new Codex Iuris Canonici ( CIC). Some drafts were withdrawn. John Paul II canonized and promulgated the CIC on Jan 25, 1983. It came into effect on Nov 27, 1983. The Codex itself is written in Latin, though authorized translations into several languages followed. The CIC applies…

Codex Justinianus

(497 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Wolfgang
[German Version] At the beginning of the year 528, emperor Justinian I (527–565) appointed a commission of high-ranking government officials to collect in a single code, arranged by subject, all the imperial constitutions already contained in earlier collections (Codex Gregorianus, Codex Hermogenianus, Codex Theodosianus) or issued subsequently; the new collection was to bear his name. The commission was directed to edit and unify the legal material by eliminating unnecessary ¶ and obsolete material from the constitutions and resolving contradictions. Textu…

Codex Theodosianus

(530 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Wolfgang
[German Version] The 16 books of the Codex Theodosianus contain constitutions of the Christian emperors from 312 to 437, including civil, administrative, and ecclesiastical law. Published for the East by Theodosius II (408–450) on Feb 15, 438, it was adopted for the West in the same year by Valentinian III (425–455). On Jan 1, 439, the code came into force for the entire Empire. Its authority was preemptive: for the period covered, the original constitutions beca…


(508 words)

Author(s): Zweigle, Birgit
[German Version] refers to common education and instruction for the two sexes. The first coeducational institutions were established in the USA in the late 19th century. Coeducation was introduced particularly in the newly-founded colleges and universities in the Midwest and West. Politicians and educators justified coeducation in the state universities in terms of financial pressures. The Northeast and South decided to establish women's colleges, which primarily…

Coe, George Albert

(252 words)

Author(s): Tippen, Brian A.
[German Version] (Mar 26, 1862 Mendon, NY – Nov 9, 1951 Claremont, CA) was professor at the University of Southern California, 1888–1890; Northwestern University, 1891–1909; Union Theological Seminary (NY), 1909–1922; and Teachers College, New York, 1922–1927. In 1909, Coe was called to Union Theological Seminary as the first professor of religious education at a Protestant seminary in the US. There he gave his inaugural lecture on the theme “Can Religion Be …


(357 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] (Lat. coercitio) takes place when a certain type of behavior is forcibly imposed upon a person against his/her declared will. “Means of coercion” are the embodiment of all instruments that are available for this purpose. The availability of such means is indispensable for the state if it is to fulfill its fundamental task of maintaining the peace. The latter requires it to enforce compliance with the legal order, especially on the part of t…

Co-existence, Religious,

(308 words)

Author(s): Feldtkeller, Andreas
[German Version] also known as “convivence,” which is derived from Span. convivencia and Port. convivência (“living together”). In medieval Spain, the latter denoted the peaceful coexistence of Jews, Christians, and Muslims; in Latin-American liberation theology (I), it refers to the communal life and solidarity of the poor which arises from bonds of kinship or neighborly relations and which the base communities have adopted as a structure of ecclesial life (Freire). The equivalent German term Konvivenz was introduced in German-speaking theology by Th. Sunderme…

Coffin, Henry Sloane

(178 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jan 5, 1877, New York – Nov 25, 1954, Lakeville, CT) was a leading Protestant educator and ecumenicist in the USA during the first half of the 20th century. After an education at Yale, Edinburgh, Marburg, and at Union Theological Seminary (NY), Coffin became a Presbyterian minister in New York. Soon he added duties as a professor at Union, where he became the president in 1926 (until 1945). Coffin was an early advocate of the Social Gospe…

Cognitive and Religious Development

(10 words)

[German Version] Development, Human

Cognitive Dissonance

(352 words)

Author(s): Bucher, Anton
[German Version] Developed by Leon Festinger in 1957, the theory of cognitive dissonance is one of the most important and influential theories of social psychology, and has since inspired thousands of studies. The theory claims that human beings go to great lengths to preserve a balance in their opinions, attitudes, and values. When this harmony is disturbed (e.g. the predilection for eggs by evidence that cholesterol may represent a health risk), the individual …

Cognitive Science

(372 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Achim
[German Version] is still a young discipline. It originated in the 1970s as an integrative research initiative combining the scholarly approaches from a wide vari¶ ety of fields such as psychology (esp. developmental and cognitive psychology), linguistics, computer science (esp. Artificial intelligence, neuroinformatics, and robotics), neuroscience, and philosophy (esp. the Philosophy of mind and philosophical psychology). Its research efforts are primarily focused on the (cognitive) …


(704 words)

Author(s): Gräb-Schmidt, Elisabeth
[German Version] generally denotes the relationship of two unrelated adults living together unmarried as a household with or without children. Structurally, cohabitation does not represent a new and novel way of life. Traditionally it was known as concubinage. What have changed, however, are the conditions that encourage cohabitation, the subjective significance assigned to it, and its biographical position. As late as the beginning of the 20th century, it served…
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