Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(4,681 words)

Author(s): Moritz, Ralf | Clart, Philip
[German Version] I. History (to the 19th Century) – II. Confucianism in the 20th Century – III. Confucianism outside China – IV. Ethics and Social Philosophy – V. Religious Elements in Confucianism – VI. Literature I. History (to the 19th Century) Confucianism is an ethico-political teaching with reli- gious elements (see V below), which originated in ancient China and which derives the order of the world from the moral qualification of the individual. Its basic inventory of norms and values was formed between the 6th and 3rd centuries bce. At first, this was derived from …


(705 words)

Author(s): Moritz, Ralf
[German Version] (551 bce Qufu, state of Lu [Shandong/Shantung] – 479 bce, state of Lu) was the founder of the ethico-political system of Confucianism. The Chinese form of his name is Kong Qiu; to the family name Kong was added the personal name Qiu, after Ni Qiu, a hill where people prayed for the gift of children. The syllable ni became part of the name Zhongni, which he received upon reaching the age of majority (20), Zhong literally meaning “second child” – his father having previously had a disabled son with a concubine. He was…

Confutation of the Augsburg Confession

(323 words)

Author(s): Peters, Christian
[German Version] The Confutation ( Confutatio) was a Catholic response to the Augsburg Confession ( CA), which had been presented to the emperor. Late in June 1530, some 20 Catholic theologians (including J. Eck, J. Cochlaeus, and J. Fabri) were instructed to compose a refutation of the CA. The form it should take was disputed: the imperial court wanted a confessional presentation of Catholic teaching, while the papal legate wanted a definitive rejection of the teaching of the CA. There are three dis¶ tinct texts of the Confutation: (1) the Responsio theologorum (CR 27, 85–97),…

Congar, Yves

(300 words)

Author(s): Gy, Pierre-Marie
[German Version] (Apr 13, 1904, Sedan – Jun 22, 1995, Paris), French theologian and a Dominican (from 1925 onward). He began teaching theology at the Dominican faculty of Le Saulchoir in 1931. From 1940 to 1945 he was a prisoner of war in Germany. Congar lost his chair in 1954 as a result of the dispute over the Nouvelle Théologie and was expelled from France. John XXIII appointed him conciliar theologian for Vatican II. He became cardinal in 1994. Congar's theol…

Congo, Democratic Republic

(995 words)

Author(s): Wild-Wood, Emma
[German Version] (officially, in Fr. République Démocratique du Congo; until 1997: Zaire), the third-largest country in Africa (Africa, map), covers 2.3 million km2. Much of this area is equatorial forest in the Congo river basin, with lakes and mountains to the east, and savannah to the south and north. It is rich in mineral resources but the majority of its population live in poverty. Ethnologically and linguistically diverse, Congo is home to over 200 people groups, of whom 80% are Bantu. The …

Congo Kingdom

(8 words)

[German Version] Kongo Kingdom

Congo, Republic of,

(476 words)

Author(s): Sundberg, Carl
[German Version] officially, in French République du Congo (RC), country lying astride the equator in west central Africa, covering an area of 342,000 km2 with a population of 2,516,000 (1994; Africa, map). The capital is Brazzaville with 750,000 inhabitants (1992). Pointe Noire (450,000 inhabitants, 1992) on the Atlantic coast is the major industrial and commercial center. RC, formerly a part of French Equatorial Africa, became independent in 1960. The southern parts of the RC belonged to the sac…

Congregational Christian Churches

(521 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] When Congregationalists merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Church to form a new denomination, the United Church of Christ, in 1957, they were the major representatives in the USA of historic Anglo-American Congregationalism. These churches were descendents of separatist movements that had begun among English Protestants during the 2nd half of the 16th century. A pamphlet published in 1582 by R. Browne, A Treatise of Reformation without Tarrying for Any, proclaimed principles that would define the movement: Christ is the sole head of th…

Congregational Council

(9 words)

[German Version] Presbyter/Presbytery, Church Polity


(754 words)

Author(s): Shoemaker, Stephen
[German Version] which emphasizes the autonomy of the individual congregation, traces its roots back to post-Reformation England. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries proto-Congregationalists, then called Puritans, were distracted by the need for reform within the Church of England. They desired a pure Protestant church, and toward the end of creating this, a number removed themselves to the context of New England. The Pilgrims arrived in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620, followed by a larger Puritan ¶ settlement of the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Boston) in 1630…

Congregational Order

(159 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph
[German Version] Norms for the life and theology of Christian communities in the first century were primarily set by the two-Testament Bible, which had become a collection of authoritative texts, but also by church orders in the true sense, by the developing confession (of faith), initially set down in free formulations, and by theology, condensed into dogmas since the imperial councils of the 4th century (Nicea, Constantinople: IV). Naturally, after the demise o…

Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

(598 words)

Author(s): Schwedt, Herman H.
[German Version] The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the office of the Roman Curia that promotes and safeguards the church's doctrine on the faith and morals. At present it is made up of 23 cardinals and bishops, headed by a prefect. To promote better understanding of the faith ( fidei intellectus), it supports and publishes scholarly studies; to safeguard theological truth and moral integrity, it scrutinizes and if necessary rejects various writings. It can prosecute offences against the …

Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith

(404 words)

Author(s): Rivinius, Karl Josef
[German Version] The origins of the “Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith” ( Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, 1622; since 1967: Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelisatione) reach back to the middle of the16th century. Pope Gregory XV established it as a permanent institution in the Inscrutabili Divinae constitution of Jun 22, 1622. It was assigned the task of spreading the faith, notably in the territories lying outside of Europe, and of preserving the unity of the church (Church unity) throughout the world. It als…


(248 words)

Author(s): Riedel-Spangenberger, Ilona
[German Version] (Catholic Church). Among the departments of the Roman Curia, the congregations are on an equal legal footing with the Secretariat of State, papal tribunals, councils, offices, and other dicasteria. They exercise a pastoral ministry by supporting and representing the pope in the performance of his duties as supreme pastor and in the exercise of his sovereign juridical leadership over the universal church (cf. CIC/1983, c. 360). Nine dicasteria are expressly designated as congregations: the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, for…

Congreso Latinoamericano de Evangelización

(118 words)

Author(s): Altmann, Walter
[German Version] (CLADE; Latin American Evangelization Congress). CLADE is the designation for a broad movement among Protestant and Pentecostal Christians in Latin America who have committed themselves to the Covenant of Lausanne (Evangelicalism: IV) of 1974. To date, four major evangelization congresses have taken place (1969 in Colombia, 1979 in Peru, 1992 in Ecuador, 2000 in Colombia). The movement regards the Latin American continent mainly as a mission fiel…


(263 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Achim
[German Version] is a relatively new paradigm of cognitive science. Instead of reducing mental processes to sequential algorithmic symbol processing, as postulated by the traditional computer model of the mind, it attempts to simulate intelligent behavior with the help of artificial neural networks (so-called “connectionist architectures”). Such networks exhibit a highly parallel mode of operation, and are error-tolerant as well as adaptive. Neural networks consi…

Conolly, Philip

(171 words)

Author(s): Prentis, Malcolm David
[German Version] (1786, County Monaghan, Ireland – Aug 3, 1839, Hobart, Van Diemen's Land [now Tasmania], Australia), Catholic priest. Conolly was educated and ordained at Maynooth College, Ireland. In 1820 he and John Joseph Therry were the first two officially sanctioned Catholic priests to minister to the Roman Catholic community in the penal colony of New South Wales. He was sent to Van Diemen's Land in April 1821 and was the only Catholic pastor for the whol…

Conrad, Joseph

(332 words)

Author(s): Kretzer, Ulrich
[German Version] (Teodor Józef Konrad Korzeniowski; Dec 3, 1857, Berdichev, Ukraine – Aug 3, 1924, Bishopsbourne, England), author. The son of the Polish patriot Apollo Korzeniowski, he went to Marseille at the age of seventeen as an orphan. There he gambled away his money, smuggled weapons for the Carlists, had a passionate love affair, and shot himself in the chest. He began his naval career as an ordinary seaman on sailing ships and eventually became a captain…

Conrad, Paul

(163 words)

Author(s): Andresen, Bernd
[German Version] (Apr 1, 1865, Berlin – Sep 9, 1927, Berlin), ordained in 1891, was pastor and superintendent in Berlin, from 1910 pastor of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church, from 1917 privy counselor to the Supreme Consistory, and after 1912 a part-time member of the Senior Church Council of the Protestant Churches of the Old Prussian Union, in which he succeeded J. Kaftan as clergy vice president. If he seemed to many of his contemporaries an interim in this …

Conring, Hermann

(174 words)

Author(s): Mager, Inge
[German Version] (Nov 9, 1606, Norden – Dec 12, 1681, Helmstedt) was a philosopher, historian, scholar in diplomatics, legal historian, political scientist, physician, and author of theological writings. Having studied in Helmstedt and Leiden, he became professor of natural philosophy (1632), medicine (1637), and politics (1650) in Helmstedt; he also officiated as private physician and adviser at the courts of several princes (including Wolfenbüttel, Mainz, Paris, Copen…
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