Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Conzelmann, Hans

(177 words)

Author(s): Plümacher, Eckhard
[German Version] (Oct 27, 1915, Tailfingen, Württemberg – June 20, 1989, Göttingen) was a Protestant scholar in New Testament studies and a disciple of R. Bultmann. He was appointed professor in Zürich (1954), then in Göttingen (1960), where he became a member of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences in 1966. In his publications on the Lucan corpus, Conzelmann introduced the redaction-critical perspective into Protestant research by plausibly demonstrating that Luke is to b…

Coolhaes, Caspar Janszoon

(214 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1534, Cologne - Jan 15, 1615, Amsterdam). As a Reformed preacher and former Carthusian (1560 conversion to Protestantism), Coolhaes served in several German and Dutch congregations. Appointed at Leiden in 1574, he gave the opening lecture of the Academy in 1574 and assisted with lectures for a few months. In the conflict between the magistracy of Leiden and the Reformed Church Council concerning authority to fill the offices of preacher, …

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation

(197 words)

Author(s): Christie, Nancy
[German Version] (Canada). The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation originated in 1932 as a loose association of labor parties and farmers' protest movements. While its program of 1933, the so-called Regina Manifest, called for the abolition of capitalism, its radical outlook was tempered by the fact that its organization was primarily built out of groups strongly influenced by British “Fabian” socialism (a union of British intellectuals who sought to realize soc…

Coordination Theory

(180 words)

Author(s): Germann, Michael
[German Version] viewed the relationship between church and state as an equal partnership between two sovereign powers (Violence: IV). It is rooted in corresponding teachings on the relationship between empire and papacy, and was invoked by Roman Catholic doctrine in the 19th century as an argument against the modern state's claim to sovereignty (in its configuration as secular supremacy). After 1945, if only temporarily, it once again attained a h…

Coornhert, Dirck Volckertszoon

(222 words)

Author(s): de Groot, Aart
[German Version] (1522, Amsterdam – Oct 29, 1590, Gouda). The military conflict between Spain and the rebellious Netherlands marked the troubled course of his life. Coornhert was a humanist autodidact; he practiced various professions and was a fervent publicist. From 1560 to 1588, with interruptions, he was a notary in Haarlem, and from 1564 to 1567, an annuitant of the city council. He carried out some important assignments for William of Orange. In 1572, Coorn…


(209 words)

Author(s): Manzanera, Miguel
[German Version] city in Bolivia (department of La Paz, diocese of El Alto) lying 4,000 m above the sea level and located on the shore of the sacred Titicaca Lake; the population numbers c. 13,000. As the cradle of Aymará and Inca culture, Copacabana is characterized by a large number of archaeological sites, including the astronomical observatory Horca del Inca. The Spanish conquerors established a political and religious center in order to curtail the influence of the native religious cult of Pachamama, which they generally regarded as superstition, but which the In…

Copenhagen, University of

(699 words)

Author(s): Lausten, Martin Schwarz
[German Version] I. History – II. Theological Faculty I. History For unknown reasons, the papal approbation of 1419 permitting the establishment of a university in Denmark produced no results; not until the bull of Sixtus IV did it prove possible to found the University of Copenhagen on the model of Cologne(III), an event which took place under King Christian I (Jun 1, 1479). The founding documents and statutes of the faculty of law have been preserved. Closed down dur…

Copernicus, Nicolaus

(341 words)

Author(s): Życiñski, Józef
[German Version] (Dec 19, 1473, Torun – May 24, 1543, Frombork), Polish astronomer. Studied in Cracow (mathematics and painting), Bologna (astronomy), Padua (law and medicine), and Ferrara (canon law). Copernicus was secretary to the bishop of Warmia, Lukasz Watzenrode, and canon at the cathedral in Frombork. His project of a currency reform, which he proposed in his writing Monetae cudendae ratio (1517, 1526), later became known as “Gresham's Law.” During the war between the knights of the Teutonic Order (Orders of Germany) and the Kingdom…

Coptic Monasteries

(541 words)

Author(s): Ghattas, Michael
[German Version] The rise of Coptic monasteries coincides with the beginnings of Egyptian monasticism. At the start of the monastic movement there were two forms of monastic life. (1) The anchorites or hermits (Monasticism: III) retreated alone into the desert in search of solitude. Saint Anthony (died 356) represents this type. The anchorites began to flourish in the 4th century; hermitages and lauras arose along the Nile and in the interior of the land. …


(3,996 words)

Author(s): Ghattas, Michael
[German Version] I. Coptic Orthodox Church – II. Coptic Alphabet, Language, Literature, and Art I. Coptic Orthodox Church 1. History The Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt preserves the heritage of the Alexandrian Church (Alexandria: III) to this day. The Copts trace themselves back to an early stage of Egyptian history. The self-designation “Copt” resp. “Copts” or “Coptic” points to these origins, as it derives from the same stem as the Greek word Αίγυπτος/ Aígyptos. Coptic tradition ascribes the founding of its church to the Evangelist Mark. In Alexandria, w…

Corbie Abbey

(168 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] on the Somme (in the diocese of Amiens). Founded in 657/661 by the Merovingian Queen Balthild and assigned to Luxeuil Abbey. Kings and bishops favored it; it enjoyed its heyday (because of its scriptorium and library) under the Carolingians in the 9th century with such important abbots as Adalhard, Wala and Paschasius Radbertus. Monks in Corbie included the later missionaries Ansgar and Ratramnus (died 868) who authored theological …


(180 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (before 700, near Melun – c. 728/730, Freising). The only source is Arbeo's v ita of him. Initially a settler, Corbinian made two journeys to Rome (before 714 and 715/17), during which he was made priest and bishop. In 719/20, after previous contact with Theodo, duke of Bavaria, in Regensburg and establishing relations with the part-duke Grimoald in Freising, he founded a precursor of the monastery of Weihenstephan. When he opposed Grimoald's marriage to his sister-i…

Cordatus, Conrad

(217 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1480 or 1483, Leombach near Wels – Mar 25, 1546, while traveling near Spandau) began his studies in 1502 in Vienna, Rome and Ferrara (Lic. theol.). In Bohemia he came into contact with Hussites (J. Hus). In Hungary he supported the Reformation in his preaching, had to step down and came to Wittenberg in 1524. In 1525 he returned and was incarcerated in Esztergom (Gran). He managed to escape. Luther helped him to a teaching position in Liegnitz i…

Cordier, Leopold

(256 words)

Author(s): Schwab, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jul 14, 1887, Landau, Palatinate – Mar 1, 1939, Gießen). After studies in Halle, Berlin and Heidelberg Cordier gained his Dr. phil. and Lic. theol. From 1911 he was military chaplain in Karlsruhe, in 1914 parish minister in Eschelbronn (Baden), in 1917 in Frankfurt am Main, and in 1922 in Elberfeld. From 1925 he lectured in Bonn, where he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the faculty of theology in 1926. In the same year he was appointed ordi…

Córdoba, Pedro de

(427 words)

Author(s): Delgado, Mariano
[German Version] (1482, Córdoba, Spain – May 4, 1521, Hispaniola), OP, entered the order of Dominicans around 1500, and in September 1510 arrived in Hispaniola as acting superior of the first Dominican community. Under his leadership, on Dec 21, 1511 A. de Montesinos gave an epoch-making sermon against the oppression of the native population, which is considered the “beginning of prophetic theology” in the New World; against the governor Diego Kolumbus Córdoba de…

Cordovero, Moses

(182 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] (1522, Zefad [Safed]? – 1570, Zefad), the greatest Kabbalist in Zefad before I. Luria. His family, whose origin was in Córdoba, was exiled from Spain in 1492. Cordovero was a disciple of ¶ Rabbi Joseph Karo and Shlomo Alkabetz. His main work, an extensive commentary on the Zohar with the title Or Yaqar ( Precious Light) was first published in the last decades (printed in Jerusalem, 1961ff., 22 vols.). His best known work is Pardes Rimmonim ( A Garden of Pomegranates), a systematic presentation of Cordovero's interpretation of the classical Kabbalah. An…


(402 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] The location at the large east-west connection of the Mediterranean Sea, where ships had to be drawn across a short stretch of land from one sea to the other (with the harbors Cenchrea and Lechaion), made Corinth a junction of cultural contact in antiquity. With its colonies, the city was a water bridge and a land bridge from east to west and north to south. It attracted merchants and artisans – along with their religions –, Egyptians, Carthaginians, Jews, and the tent-maker Paul`. As the center of opposition against the Romans, Corinth was destroyed in 146 bce, but it did n…

Corinthian Epistles

(3,040 words)

Author(s): Mitchell, Margaret M.
[German Version] I. Significance – II. Attestation – III. Composition History – IV. Historical and Literary Reconstruction of the Corinthian Correspondence – V. Theological Legacy I. Significance The two letters of Paul in the biblical canon (Bible: III, 2.a; Paul) addressed to the “church of God that is in Corinth” (1 Cor 1:2; 2 Cor 1:1) and “all the saints ¶ throughout Achaia” (2 Cor 1:1) represent a collection of epistolary documents of inestimable importance for the history of primitive Christianity. As sources, they allow a …

Corinthians, Third

(7 words)

[German Version] Apocrypha/Pseudepigrapha

Corinth, Lovis

(331 words)

Author(s): Rombold, Günter
[German Version] (Jul 21, 1858, Tapiau, Eastern Prussia – Jul 17, 1925, Zandvoort, Holland), painter, studied art in Königsberg (1876–1880), in Munich (1880–1884), and in Paris (1884–1886). In 1887 he moved to Berlin, in 1891 to Munich, and in 1900 permanently to Berlin. He married Charlotte Behrend in 1903. He suffered a stroke in 1911 and spent the final years of his life from 1919 in Urfeld am Walchensee. In his early works he was a vital, sensual painter whos…
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