Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(440 words)

Author(s): Großhans, Hans-Peter
[German Version] (Gk ὀρϑότης/ orthótēs; Lat. rectitudo). Plato employed ὀρϑότης in the sense of correctness in epistemological (cf. Rep. 515 d), philological (cf. Kratylos, 384 b-d) and ethical (cf. Gorg. 506 d) mean- ing. Anselm of Canterbury gave correctness (rectitude) a fundamental role by defining truth and justice with the common superordinate concept of rectitudo. ¶ Thus, Anselm defines truth as “correctness comprehensible with the intellect alone” ( veritas est rectitudo mente sola perceptibilis – cf. De veritate, ch. 11). Anselm's discussion of correctness presu…

Correctores Romani

(234 words)

Author(s): Landau, Peter
[German Version] This term refers to the members of a commission instituted after the Council of Trent by Pope Pius IV in 1566, who were entrusted with the preparation of an official edition of the Corpus Iuris Canonici . It included five cardinals and a large number of doctors of canon law. Gregory XIII approved the text of the Editio Romana in 1580 as authentic. His decree concerned only the authenticity of the text and in no way conferred the character of a law code on the Corpus Iuris Canonici. The Correctores Romani were to trace back in the Decretum Gratiani ( Corpus Iuris Canonici


(1,617 words)

Author(s): Miege, Frank | Feifel, Erich
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology – II. Dogmatics – III. Practical Theology I. Fundamental Theology While for E. Troeltsch correlation (interaction with the context, from Lat. conferre) was only a criterion for a theology reflecting its historicality and cultural location, the systematic theologian P. Tillich introduced correlation, with a broader resonance, to the 20th-century debate as a designation for his methodological program in his Systematic Theology. He demonstrated this by an ellipse with two foci, situation and Christian message, which are to be …

Correspondence Theory of the Truth

(10 words)

[German Version] Truth

Corrodi, Heinrich

(190 words)

Author(s): Hornig, Gottfried
[German Version] (Jul 31, 1752, Zürich – Sep 14, 1793, Zürich) studied theology in Halle and Leipzig, and from 1786 was professor of natural law and ethics at ¶ Zürich Gymnasium. As a student of J.S. Semler he supported a historical-critical theology, affirming the presence of myths in the Bible. Out of his own research there grew his Kritische Geschichte des Chiliasmus [Critical history of millenarianism] (initially anonymous, 2 vols. 1781; in 4 vols. 1794). Corrodi was the prime representative of Neology (Enlightenment: II, 4.c) in …

Cortés, Hernán

(226 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Jul 1485?, Medellín, Badajoz, Spain – Dec 2, 1547, Castilleja de la Cuesta, Seville), a Spanish conquistador in Mexico. He was from the lesser nobility; he did not finish his studies in Salamanca; in 1504, he was in Santo Domingo, and in 1511 in Cuba. Allied with Tlaxcalteks, he destroyed the Aztec empire (1519–1521). He conquered Tenochtitlán (now Mexico City) on Aug 13, 1521; in 1522, he became general captain and (until 1528) governor of “New…

Corvey Abbey,

(187 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] a Benedictine abbey near Höxter (Paderborn diocese). Founded in 822 by Corbie Abbey, Corvey experienced a rapid rise thanks to its favorable location on the ford of the Weser in Hellweg and its popularity with the Carolingians. The most important literary work written here was Widukind's Saxon history. Under Henry II of Germany, Corvey joined the Gorze Reform (Gorze), and under the influence ¶ of the Hirsau Reform (Hirsau), became a Gregorian center in the Investiture Controversy. In the so-called Osnabrück Tithe Controversy …

Corvinus, Antonius

(308 words)

Author(s): Zschoch, Hellmut
[German Version] (Feb 27 or Apr 11, 1501, Warburg – Apr 5, 1553, Hannover). Dismissed from the Cistercian abbey in Riddagshausen in 1523 because of his sympathies for Luther, Corvinus taught himself Reformation theology. In 1528, he obtained a preaching post in Goslar, in 1529, a pastorate in Witzenhausen, Hessen. On the commission of Landgrave Philip of Hessen, he disputed in 1535/36 with the imprisoned Anabaptists in Münster. In 1537, Corvinus signed the Schmalkaldic Articles ; in 1541, he participated as an auditor in the Regensburg religious …

Cosmas and Damian, Saints

(265 words)

Author(s): Wischmeyer, Wolfgang
[German Version] (feast day: Sep 26). As probably the most beloved of the Anargyroi (“those ¶ who heal without payment”), this uncertain eastern hagiological tradition (Syr., Gk, Arab., Georg., Lat.; three versions of the legend are distinguished: Passio Asiatica, BHG 372, 385–393, feast day: Nov 1; Passio Romana, BHG 376, feast day: Jul 1; Passio Arabica, BHG 378f., feast day: Oct 18), which is important for the history of medicine, knows of three pairs of physician brothers by this name in a large geographical area, including Rome, C…

Cosmas Indicopleustes

(173 words)

Author(s): Moffett, Samuel Hugh
[German Version] (Cosmas, the traveler to India). The book by this 6th-century merchant and explorer about his journeys and the composition of the world, Christian Topography, is presumably the oldest credible document attesting to the existence of a Christian church in South Asia. Cosmas may have been a Nestorian (Nestorianism) from Monophysite Alexandria and may never have reached India, but in his 11th book, he gives information concerning a church of Persian Christians on the islan…

Cosmas of Jerusalem (Saint)

(195 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, Lars M.
[German Version] (also Cosmas of Maiuma, Cosmas Hagiopolites, Cosmas the Melodist, Cosmas the Younger; 2nd half of the 8th cent. – c. 760), ¶ one of the most important hymnographers of the Byzantine church. His Vita displays markedly legendary elements and the typical hagiographical topoi. According to it, he was adopted by the father of John of Damascus, was educated in rhetoric by a Sicilian monk named Cosmas before entering, along with his adoptive brother, into the famed Great Laura of St. Sabas (Bethlehem). Ther…

Cosmas Presbyter

(136 words)

Author(s): Söllner, Konstanze
[German Version] ( Kozma Presviter; 2nd half of the 10th cent.), an Old-Bulgarian presbyter and author known only from his Beseda na novojavivščuju sja eres' Bogumilu (“Homily Concerning the Newly Arisen Heresy of Bogumil”). Most scholars date this extensive antiheretical tractate to the period shortly after the death of the Bulgarian tsar Petâr I (died c. 969/970). The Beseda is a major source of information on the emergence of Bogomilism (Bogomils) in Bulgaria and was included in Serbian and Russian antiheretical compilations until the…

Cosmas the Aetolian, Saint

(179 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (1714, Central Greece – Aug 24, 1779, Epirus), a saint in the Greek Orthodox Church, “teacher of the nation,” “apostle-equal,” and “neo-martyr,” whose feast day is August 24. He studied in Sigditsa and the Athos School, and became a monk in the Athos monastery of Philotheou with the name Cosmas (baptismal name: Constas). He was ordained to priesthood in 1759. With the permission of the monastery, he went to Constantinople, taught at the Patriarch…


(6 words)

[German Version] Creation


(3,917 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Hülser, Karlheinz | Herrmann, Klaus | Mühling-Schlapkohl, Markus | Stoeger, William R.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II.#x2002;Ancient Near East and Old Testament – III.#x2002;Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Judaism – V. Christianity – VI. History of Modern Science I. Terminology Cosmology is a specific culture's orientation in space and time as conceived in words, images, and rituals. The orientation combines signs that can be perceived with signs that are set. Only in the complementarity of the construed other does the “natural” phenomenon acquire the meaning of a significant marke…


(531 words)

Author(s): Peppel, Matthias
[German Version] (“world citizenship”), first attested in the cynic Diogenes of Sinope, who, asked about his origins, described himself as kosmopolitēs: citizen of the cosmos (from the Greek: κόσμος/ kósmos, “world,” and ¶ πολίτης/ polítēs, “citizen”; D. L. VI 63). Borrowed from the French cosmopolite (Ger. Weltbürger), it became a prog rammatic term of the Enlightenment in the 18th century, primarily through the work of C.M. Wieland. As a somewhat diffuse concept that requires a world-state or refers only to worldlines…


(8 words)

[German Version] Chaos, Cosmology, World

Costa, Isaac da

(228 words)

Author(s): Vree, Jasper
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1798, Amsterdam – Apr 28, 1860, Amsterdam) came from a prominent Sephardic-Jewish family and was a lawyer in Amsterdam. In 1822 he was baptized – with his friend A. Capadose – and joined the Dutch Reformed Church. Costa took this step, influenced by Willem Bilderdijk, whom he regarded as a connaisseur of the Ancien Régime, as a rebel against the zeitgeist, as a master in mysteries, but especially as a friend of Jews. Costa who was recognized for his poetry, became renowned in 1823 with his Bezwaren tegen de Geest der Eeuw (“Objections against the Spirit of…

Costa Rica,

(538 words)

Author(s): Picado, Miguel
[German Version] a republic in Central America with a surface area of 51,000 km2 and 3.43 million inhabitants (whites 87%, Asiatics 2%, Mestizos 7%, Mulattos 3%, others 1%), two-thirds of whom live in the region around San José, the capital city of Costa Rica. 97% of the population belongs to a Christian denomination. In addition to a religious minority, the Bahāʾi, segments of the Indian population have preserved traditional religions. Spain conquered the country in the 16…

Côte d'Ivoire

(8 words)

[German Version] Ivory Coast
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