Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(249 words)

Author(s): Mosig, Jörg
[German Version] is an Anglican diocese in central England, reestablished in 1918 in response to a massive increase in population. Coventry already had the status of an episcopal city in the Middle Ages in the dual diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, but was placed under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Worcester in 1836 after its cathedral had already been abandoned to decay during the Reformation and precedence in designation had been given to Lichfield during the …

Coverdale, Miles

(261 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (c. 1488, York – Jan 20, 1569, London), OSA in 1514, studied philosophy and theology at Cambridge. In 1528 Coverdale left the order under the impact of Luther's theology, which had been taught him by Robert Barnes. In 1534–1535 Coverdale published the first English complete Bible (Bible translationsβ : II, 1.b.). From 1540 Coverdale lived under the pseudonym of Michael Anglus on the continent, in Tübingen and elsewhere and as pastor in Bergzabern from 1543–1547. Coverdale returned to England …


(6 words)

[German Version] Animals

Cowper, William

(128 words)

Author(s): Erlebach, Peter
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1731, Great Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire – Apr 25, 1800, East Dereham, Norfolk), English pre-Romantic poet of great sensitivity, inclined to melancholy. His poems show a new, subjective and lyrical ability of expression in his representation of nature, its God-given soul and the influence of both on personal human development. In this regard Cowper paved the way for Robert Burns and W. Wordsworth. Tossed about between awareness of …

Cowper, William Macquarie

(186 words)

Author(s): Treloar, Geoffrey R.
[German Version] (Jul 3, 1810, Sydney – Jun 14, 1902, Sydney), the first native-born Anglican clergyman in New South Wales and first dean of Sydney. Educated privately and at Oxford (1828–1832), he was ordained in 1833 and served as a curate in Dartmouth 1833–1835 before returning to New South Wales in 1836 to become chaplain to the Australian Agricultural Company in Stroud. In 1855 he moved to Sydney, where bishop Barker appointed him acting principal of Moore C…

Crafts and Artifacts

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Lambacher, Lothar
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Art History I. Archaeology The term “crafts” refers to the production of objects and implements of all kinds – in other words, what are now usually called the “practical arts.” In the ancient Near East, there was no terminology for crafts, nor were there explicit theories concerning art. Sometimes mythology attributed crafts to culture heroes (Gen 4:22; 6; cf. Philo of Byblos) or some deity or patron like the later figures of Joseph, the …


(866 words)

Author(s): John, Peter
[German Version] I. Production of goods and provision of services (Service sector) by skilled craftsmen is closely associated with the development of humankind and the human economic and social order. In the urban economy of the Middle Ages, it made up the sum total of commercial production in the local economy. As industrial means of production multiplied, there emerged criteria identifying crafts as an autonomous and self-contained economic sector. Crafts are ch…

Cramer, Daniel

(158 words)

Author(s): Gummelt, Volker
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1568, Reetz, Neumark – Oct 5, Stettin), a Lutheran theologian, studied in Rostock, Wittenberg and elsewhere, worked as a teacher in Stettin from 1595, as well as court preacher at St. Marien, Stettin from 1597, and administered the General Superintendency of Pomerania-Stettin from 1613 to 1618. Cramer authored the first complete Lutheran church history of Pomerania ( Das Grosse pomrische Kirchen-Chronicon, 1602, suppl. ed. 1628). Important for Protestant edifying literature (II, 2) are his sometimes polyglot emblematic works ( Emblemata Sacra, 1617/24,…

Cramer, Johann Andreas

(301 words)

Author(s): Jakubowski-Tiessen, Manfred
[German Version] (Jan 27, 1723, Jöhstadt, Saxony – Jun 12, 1788, Kiel), theologian, lyricist, and song-writer. After attending the princes' school in Grimma, Cramer studied theology in Leipzig and became pastor in Kröllwitz, Saxony in 1748, high court preacher and consistorial counselor in Quedlinburg in 1750, and court preacher in Copenhagen in 1754 on the recommendation of F.G. Klopstock; from 1765, furthermore, he was professor of theology there, in 1771 super…

Cramer, Wolfgang

(175 words)

Author(s): Dierken, Jörg
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1901, Hamburg – Apr 2, 1974, Frankfurt am Main), professor of philosophy in Frankfurt from 1951. Cramer's work combined (a) a transcendental ontology of subjectivity classified as category theory with (b) a speculative theory of the absolute. The former (a), starting from the individual subject, answers the “fundamental question” of the ¶ object of knowledge, an object known to be non-posited, with a “monadological” (G.W. Leibniz) and original productivity of consciousness. The latter (b) supplies the q…

Cram, Ralph Adams

(179 words)

Author(s): Howes, Graham
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1863, Hampton Falls, NH – Sep 22, 1942, Boston, MA), the most eminent and influential American ecclesiastical architect of the early 20th century. A passionate medievalist, he worked primarily in the Gothic Revival style for a variety of denominations and educational institutions. His acknowledged masterpieces are St. Thomas, Fifth Avenue (1906–1914), the Cathedral of St. John the Divine (1914–1941), both in New York City, and Princeton …

Cranach, Lucas, the Elder

(514 words)

Author(s): Vinzent, Jutta
[German Version] (1471, Kronach – Oct 16, 1553, Weimar), painter, copper etching and wood engraving artist, has gone down in history as Saxon court artist in Wittenberg, friend, and de facto official portrait-painter of Luther. Before he was called by elector Frederick the Wise to Wittenberg as court painter in 1504, he spent a number of years in Vienna. His first documented painting is the Crucifixion (1503, Munich, Alte Pinakothek), which displays characteristics of the Danube School. In Wittenberg he was quick to open a studio (in 1507 the fi…

Cranmer, Thomas

(375 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Jul 2, 1489, Aslockton, Nottinghamshire – Mar 21, 1556, Oxford), an English reformer who made a significant contribution to the formation of the via media of the Anglican Church. Stemming from the lower landed gentry, Cranmer studied from 1503 in Cambridge. After his M.A., he was elected in 1515 as a fellow in the Jesus College (consecrated to the priesthood c. 1520); he concluded his studies in 1526 as a D.D. (Doctor of Divinity). In these years, Cranmer was concerned…

Crasselius, Bartholomäus

(181 words)

Author(s): Miersemann, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1667, Wernsdorf near Glauchau, Saxony – Nov 10, 1724, Düsseldorf). In 1688 Crasselius entered the University of Leipzig, where he joined the Pietistic movement. In the course of anti-Pietist repression he followed his teacher A.H. Francke to Erfurt in 1690 and to Halle later. After a time in East Prussia working as a collector for the Halle orphanage, he began a clerical ministry in 1702 as deacon in Nidda (Wetterau). From 1708 until his…

Crato von Crafftheim

(201 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Johannes Kraft; Nov 20, 1519, Breslau – Oct 19, 1585, Breslau) came to Wittenberg to study in 1535 and lived with Luther for six years, though he did not participate in the transmission of the table-talks. From 1543 he studied medicine in Leipzig, and in 1546 in Padua and Bologna (1549 In 1550 he became city physician in Breslau and served in the fight against the plague. As a supporter of Melanchthon in his doctrine of the Eucharist (…

Creamer, David

(168 words)

Author(s): Leaver, Robin A.
[German Version] (Nov 20, 1812, Baltimore, MD – Apr 8, 1887, Baltimore, MD), a Methodist and the earliest American hymnologist. Between 1832 and 1857 he was a partner in the family timber merchant business and from 1861 to 1879 he held minor positions in the federal government in Baltimore. He wrote poetry, articles for journals, and was the co-editor (1836–1838) of the weekly newspaper Baltimore Monument. Creamer developed an interest in hymnody, especially the hymns of Methodism. Through contacts with booksellers in England Creamer assembled a…


(367 words)

Author(s): Peters, Ted
[German Version] is the term for the teaching that the human soul is brought to life by means of a direct act of God. This view follows from the assumption of a noncorporeal or spiritual nature of the soul. Creatianism differs from traducianism (Tertullian, An. XVIII), according to which the soul of the parents is passed on physically to their children through reproduction. Since the soul is noncorporeal, however, it cannot be subject to such a physical generation. Creatianism is at odds with metempsychosis or transmi…

Creatio continua

(566 words)

Author(s): Link, Christian
[German Version] (“continuous creation”) aims to express the idea that the created world is dependent at each moment in its temporal existence on the active presence of God for its maintenance and subsistence. ¶ The term interprets the conservatio and at the same time shifts it in the closest conceivable proximity of the concept of initial creation (VI): “For God, creation and maintenance are one and the same thing” (Luther). If creation is not to remain a speculative idea, of no consequenc…

Creatio ex nihilo

(1,915 words)

Author(s): Groß, Walter | Link, Christian
[German Version] I. Bible – II. Dogmatics I. Bible 1. Hebrew Bible Older interpretations (most recently: Copan) of Gen 1:1, 2, that God created the tohuwabohu, etc. from nothing (Creation; Chaos: II) in order subsequently to shape it in the six days of creation have been abandoned. However one assesses the syntax of Gen 1:1–3, the consensus maintains: the framework of Gen 1:1+2:4a speaks of the creation of the ordered world of life, but Gen 1:2 mentions (de-mythologizing Me…


(11,110 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. History of Theology – VI. Creation and Preservation – VII. Religious Education – VIII. Islam – IX. Science – X. Art History I. History of Religion 1. Fundamentals Life, nature, the environment, the passage of time – these are everyday experiences for any society. But reality also includes the danger that this world may be imperiled or perilous. Chaos and death are part …
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