Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Creation, Christ as Agent of

(684 words)

Author(s): Plasger, Georg
[German Version] The doctrine of Christ as the agent of creation relates God's actions in the con¶ texts of creation and redemption to one another and opposes an understanding of creation that is not associated with Jesus Christ as well as a conception of redemption that bears no relationship to creation. The concept of the agent of creation is defined in reference to 1 Cor 8:6: all things are through Jesus Christ. The notion that the second person of the Trinity created the world is also attested in Col 1:15–17; Heb 1:3; John 1:3, 10; Rev 3:14. In…


(274 words)

Author(s): Maddox, Marty Miller
[German Version] refers broadly to the view that the origin of life corresponds to a literal understanding of the Bible, especially of Genesis 1 and 2. Creationists represent the opinion that God, in accordance with the infallible, authoritative Scripture, directly and supernaturally created the natural world and the various biological species in it by means of special procedures that are no longer operative. They often refer to the flood as the universal, catast…

Creation, Order of

(1,032 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics I. Dogmatics The revelation (V) of Christ discloses to faith that the meaning and truth of Jesus' life for human life in the present is creation in the process of realizing its goal, the consummation of God's kingdom. At the same time, it discloses the mystery of Jesus' person as the incarnate Logos of the Creator and thus the true nature of his work, grounded in the Creator's eternal will for ¶ communion, reconciliation, and consummation (Dogmatics: II): the work of creation that provides human life in the present. Its purpose …


(1,697 words)

Author(s): Stoellger, Philipp | Martin, Gerhard Marcel | Lukas, Josef
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Psychology I. Philosophy of Religion Creativity became an issue in the Judeo-Christian context with regard to the Creator. In contrast to the Platonic demiurge or to the Aristotelian unmoved mover, the triune God is creative. The (re-)assigning of creativity to the human being should be understood against this background. It applies to the human only in a limited way. From the perspective of the philosophy of religion, creativity exhibits different accentuat…


(6 words)

[German Version] Creation

Creator Spiritus

(356 words)

Author(s): Wainwright, Geoffrey
[German Version] designates the third person of the Holy Trinity in his capacity as “Creator Spirit.” In the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit) is confessed as “sovereign, life- giving.” Traditional Christian theology sees an OT witness to the presence and operation of the Spirit at the beginning of creation (Gen 1:2; cf. Ps 33:6, “by the breath of his mouth”), and in the renewal of “the face of the earth” (Ps 104:29–30) and of “the house of Israel” (Ezek 37:1–14). In the NT the Holy Spirit is the …


(757 words)

Author(s): Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] Insight into the createdness of the world and human beings is rooted in the Christian belief in the triune God as Creator of the world (Creation). The confession of God as Creator must thus be formulated as a statement about one's own creatureliness: “I would believe that God has created me together with all creatures” (Luther, Short Catechism, art. 1, BSLK 510). Human experience of oneself and of the world is interpreted entirely in the horizon of one's relationship to God. Thus the structures of the experience of life ar…


(391 words)

Author(s): Bayer, Stefan
[German Version] A credit establishes an in personam relationship between a credit-giver (creditor) and a credit-receiver (debtor). The creditor lends the debtor an amount of money fixed by contract. In return, the debtor takes on the obligation to repay the entire amount to the creditor at the end of the term of the credit. As a fee for the credit, a specified interest rate (Interest) is agreed upon which the debtor must pay the creditor within a defined period for t…


(932 words)

Author(s): Marthaler, Berard L. | Flynn, William
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy The Creed (Confession [of faith]) has always had a prominent part in the liturgy. It had its beginnings in the liturgy in the three-part interrogations that asked those to be baptized: “Do you believe in God the Father… Do you believe in Jesus Christ… Do you believe in the Holy Spirit…?” By the end of the 2nd century, the declaratory form that is common today had begun to develop. By the 4th century it was customary i…

Creed of Union 433 CE

(14 words)

[German Version] Ephesus, Council of, Nestorian Controversy


(281 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst | de Groot, Aart
[German Version] 1. Johann (Crellius; Jul 26, 1590, Hellmitzheim, Franconia – Jun 11, 1633, Rákow, Poland) attended school in Nuremberg from 1600 to 1603, then until 1605 in Stolberg in the Harz mountains; in Nov 1607 he began his studies at Altdorf, where he served as alumni superintendent. There he came in contact with the crypto-Socinians around the physician E. Soner. In Dec 1612 he fled to Rákow, where he became professor of Greek and served as rector from 1616 to 16…

Crell, Nikolaus

(227 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Krell; 1552, Leipzig – Oct 9, 1601, Dresden) attended school in Grimma 1568–1571, studied in Leipzig 1571–1576, received the M.A. on Jan 25, 1576, the Baccalaureus iurium on Jun 17, 1576, traveled to France in 1577, and may have received the Dr.iur. in Valence. He established contact with François Hotman in Geneva, married Margarete Grieben from Leipzig on Aug 4, 1577, lectured in Leipzig (?), and became counselor to the court in Dresden on Feb …

Crell, Paul

(145 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Krell; Feb 2, 1531, Eisleben – May 24/27, 1579, Meißen) began studies in Wittenberg in November 1548, received the M.A. on Feb 22, 1552, ordained on Sep 29, 1556, was preacher in the palace chapel in Wittenberg, received the Dr.Theol. on Dec 7, 1559, ¶ became professor of theology in Wittenberg in January 1560 and rector of the University in the summer of 1563, transferred to the consistory of Meißen on Jun 20, 1569, professor at Wittenberg once again from June 1574 to spring 1577, and transferred back …


(934 words)

Author(s): Rutherford, Richard | de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] I. History and Law – II. Practical Theology I. History and Law In antiquity, cremation was widespread. Christianity, however, following a Jewish model, preferred interment (Burial: V). By the middle of the third century ce, cremation disappeared almost entirely across the Roman Empire, and Charlemagne prohibited it in 785. For the next millennium cremation remained the exception, surfacing in circumstances of mass deaths. Only under the influence of the Enlightenment was it reintroduced. …

Cremer, August Hermann

(773 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1834, Unna – Oct 4, 1903, Greifswald), Protestant theologian. A graduate of the Gütersloh Protestant Gymnasium, from simple origins and shaped by the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements), he studied in Halle from 1853 with F.A.G. Tholuck and Julius Müller and in Tübingen from 1856 with J.T. Beck. Here he established a close friendship with M. Kähler. After a brief stay at the Wittenberg Seminary for Preachers, Cremer received the Lic.Theol. on the basis of his Die eschatologische Rede Jesu Christi Matthäi 24.25 (“The Eschatological Discou…


(108 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] term for the descendants of European migrants who settled in Latin America during the colonial period, or for the descendants of African slaves in the Caribbean. White Creoles played a crucial role in the independence movements that led to the establishment of the Latin American states. In addition, they formed the first indigenous clergy of the Catholic Church. The term “Creole languages” denotes local dialects that emerged within the slave comm…

Crescas, Hasdai ben Abraham

(141 words)

Author(s): Leicht, Reimund
[German Version] (1367, Barcelona – 1412, Zaragoza), as the leading personality among the Spanish Jews (Sephardim), Crescas devoted himself to the material and intellectual rebuilding of communities after the persecutions of 1391. His polemical work Bittul 'Iqqare ha-Nozrim also served this purpose. In his chief philosophical work, Or Adonai (also known as Or ha-Shem), he proposed, against the Aristotelianism of M. Maimonides the possibility of the infinity of space, time, and causes, thus eliminating the foundations for Maimonides's…


(167 words)

Author(s): Kriegbaum, Bernhard
[German Version] was a Donatist layman and grammarian who defended Petilianus, the Donatist bishop of Constantina (Numidia), against Augustine in a fragmentarily preserved letter dating from c. 401. His work can only be inferred from Augustine's response (c. 405/406). Following personal attacks on Augustine, Cresconius proceeds to elaborate a justification of the customary rebaptism of converted Catholics in Donatism on the basis of Cyprian of Carthage's understanding of sacrament and church. He then insists on the necessity of separa¶ tion from the traditores (Persecu…

Crete, Church of

(442 words)

Author(s): Papaderos, Alexandros
[German Version] Cretans were present at Pentecost (Acts 2:11) and they evidently made the island the first gateway for the reception of the gospel on European soil. Scholarship has not yet given a consensus answer to the question of origins. The Epistle to Titus, the first apostle and bishop of Crete, imparts early information. Although the Cretans did not have a good name (probably because of the claim that Zeus died on Crete – his grave was even venerat…

Creuzer, Georg Friedrich

(217 words)

Author(s): Berner, Hans-Ulrich
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1771, Marburg – Feb 10, 1858, Heidelberg) began studying theology and philosophy in Marburg in 1789, but changed to philology and the history of literature in Jena. After returning to Marburg, he habilitated in ancient history and classical literature in 1799 and became assistant professor (1800) and then professor (1802) of Greek language and eloquence. In 1804, Creuzer went to Heidelberg to teach until he retired in 1845. He held membe…
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