Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Crossley, Hugh T.

(111 words)

Author(s): Kee, Kevin B.
[German Version] (1850, King City, Ontario – May 2, 1934, Toronto, Ontario), Canadian Methodist minister. Crossley formed one half of what was probably – in terms of converts made – the most successful Canadian evangelistic team ever. Together with J. Hunter, Crossley conducted meetings in smaller communities throughout the USA and Canada. Altogether, Crossley ¶ led 400 revival campaigns over the course of his 26-year career. As a result of his preaching, over 200,000 people, including Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, professed a conversion to Christ. Kevin B.Ke…

Cross, Orders and Congregations of the Holy

(1,136 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Orders of Men – II. Orders of Women I. Orders of Men 1. Generally speaking, the terms Cruciferi, Crocigeri, and Cruciati refer to members of hospital orders (Hospitallers) and various other orders of knights (Knights, Orders of) whose clothing is adorned with the sign of the cross. More specifically, they are applied to the members of numerous congregations of canons regular that originated in the period of the Crusades, such as the Canons Regular of the…


(414 words)

Author(s): Hermsen, Edmund
[German Version] The construction, extension, and maintenance of roadway networks correlate with the emergence of settlements, towns, and cities (Town and city) and are among the early achievements of advanced civilizations. In ancient Greece, a dense and easily usable network of roads linked city states separated by impassable mountains. Crossroads were often marked by herms intended both to protect against the risks of travel and to serve as landmarks. The …

Crotus Rubeanus

(210 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Johann Jäger; 1480, Dornheim near Arnstadt, Thüringen – c. 1545, Halberstadt), German humanist. He enrolled at the University of Erfurt in 1498, where he joined the circle of humanists around Mutianus Rufus, and lived in the same students' hostel as Luther. He became the mentor of U. v. Hutten around 1503, and earned his M.A. in 1507. He was the principal author of the first section of the Epistolae obscurorum virorum , which was written in Fulda in 1515. In 1517, he completed his Dr. theol. in Bologna, where he became a…


(7 words)

[German Version] Insignia, Coronation

Crowther, Samuel Ajayi

(565 words)

Author(s): Ajayi, J.F. Ade.
[German Version] (c. 1806, Osogun, Nigeria – Dec 31, 1891, Lagos, Nigeria), the first black African bishop in modern times. Enslaved in 1821 at the age of about 15, he was on board a Brazilian brig for export when it was captured by the British anti-slavery squadron off the coast of Lagos. He arrived in Freetown in 1822, where he was educated by Church Missionary Society (CMS) missionaries. In 1841 he accompanied the British Niger Expedition and became known thro…


(6 words)

[German Version] Cross/Crucifixion


(268 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. Caspar (the Elder; Jan 1, 1504, Leipzig – Nov 16, 1548, Wittenberg) studied in Leipzig (1513–1523) and Wittenberg, and became preacher and schoolmaster in Magdeburg in 1525. Returning to Wittenberg in 1528, he earned his doctorate in 1533. As professor of theology and collaborator of Luther (Bible revision, printing of sermons, edition of Luther's works) and Melanchthon (Disputations, Religious; Augsburg Interim), he ¶ sparked off a dispute over justification in 1536, when he called for repentance and good deeds. He played a part in the reformation of L…

Crüger, Johann

(414 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1598, Groß Breesen near Guben – Feb 23, 1662, Berlin) was the most important Protestant creator of song melodies. The history of the hymnal is also indebted to him for essential impulses. After studying theology and music in Wittenberg, he was cantor at the Nikolai Church in Berlin from 1622 until his death. In addition to writings on music theory ( Synopsis musica 1630, 21654), there are a considerable number of compositions (including settings of the Magnificat for two choirs and soloist parts accompanied by general bass: Meditationum musicarum Paradisus sec…


(4,060 words)

Author(s): Hehl, Ernst-Dieter | Düchting, Reinhard | Möhring, Hannes | Mentgen, Gerd
[German Version] I. History – II. Literature – III. From the Muslim Perspective – IV. Effects on the Jews I. History 1. Concept The Middle Ages did not develop a clear term for the crusades. The word itself is only documented at a late point. What research calls the crusades in the narrower sense of the word are the crusades which were begun at the end of the 11th century by Latin Christendom to reconquer or defend Jerusalem and the Holy Land. The conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 by the Christ…

Crusius, Christian August

(183 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Jan 10, 1715, Leuna – Oct 18, 1775, Leipzig) was appointed adjunct professor of philosophy in Leipzig in 1744 and professor of theology at the same university in 1750. As a philosopher, Crusius gave anti-Wolffianism (C. Wolff) its definitive form. By distinguishing between epistemic or ideal causes and real causes, he was able to contest the ontological proof of the existence of God, as well as Leibniz-Wolffian determinism and the notion of a preestablished harmony (G.W. Leibniz). As a theologian, ¶ Crusius was inspired by J. Cocceius and J.A. Bengel …

Cruz, Juana Inés de la

(179 words)

Author(s): Langenhorst, Annegret
[German Version] (Sor Juana; Dec 2, 1648/1651?, San Miguel Nepantla, Mexico – Apr 17, 1695, Mexico City), OSH. The Creole Juana Ramírez de Asbaje, born out of wedlock, rose, thanks to her outstanding intelligence, to become a lady at court. She had a close friendship with the viceroy Maria Luisa Manrique de Lara, who had Cruz's works published in Spain beginning in 1689. From 1669, the encyclopedically educated autodidact was able to give life to her extraordinar…


(352 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Thomas
[German Version] is the name that was once given to those persons who originated from or were active in the areas dominated by the Lutheran confession and who, according to the judgment of confessionally Lutheran theologians of the late 16th century, advocated doctrinal views or practical approaches that were intented to undermine the status of the Lutheran denomination by secretly bringing it closer to Reformed or Calvinist positions. In scholarly publications, …


(1,016 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Armando
[German Version] is the largest, most westerly and most thickly populated island in the Caribbean. Cuba's location between the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean gives the island strategic advantages. The republic encompasses 114,524 km2 with a population of 1,051,000. 70% of the total population are white, 17% are of mixed race, 12% black, and 1% Asiatic. Religious affiliation is difficult to ascertain: 39.6% are Catholics, 1.4% are Protestants (Anglicans, Methodists, Presbyterians, and Pentecostals), 48.7% b…

Cuius regio, eius religio

(231 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] (“whose region, his religion”) is the slogan-like abbreviation of the state-church system in the old Empire characterized by the ius reformandi for territorial princes created in the Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555). According to this, rulers are justified in determining the confession in their territories, although they were restricted to the Roman Catholic or the Augsburg Confession. In addition, there were a number of special regulations, for imperial cit¶ ies, for example. Those not of the regional confession were granted the right to emigrate ( Ius emigrand…

Cullmann, Oscar

(341 words)

Author(s): Prigent, Pierre
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1902, Strasbourg – Jan 16, 1999, Chamonix) was professor of New Testament studies and Early Church history and an ecumenicist. After studying and teaching in Strasbourg, Cullmann became professor of New Testament studies there in 1930. From 1938 to 1972, he held the chair of NT studies and Early Church history at Basel. In addition, he held professorships in Strasbourg (1945–1948) and Paris (1948–1968). In 1972, he was elected a member of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques. After beginning as a literary critic with works on the pse…

Cult Authors

(489 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert
[German Version] I. The term cult authors refers to a group of authors who collected and explicated the primary documents of the cults of the Greeks and Romans (rituals, calendars, cultic laws, priestly regulations, protocols, etc.). The group, which cannot be easily differentiated from local historians, periegetes, antiquarians, and theologians, includes about 100 authors (5th cent. bce to the end of the 4th cent. ce). Their themes and titles are: a. On Days (Gk perí hēmerón), On Months, On Feasts; b. On Sacrifices (Gk perí thysión), On Mysteries, On Dedications, On Purification…

Cult-Historical Method

(7 words)

[German Version] Cult/Worship

Cult-Historical School

(561 words)

Author(s): Hjelde, Sigurd
[German Version] It is not really appropriate to speak of the cult-historical school as a single historical entity; at best, one can refer to various research milieus or working groups, which have translated leading motifs of the cult-historical method into practice on a broad basis and which have, thus, stamped scholarship in general. The closest to a clearly defined “school” are – apart from the Cambridge Ritualists of the early 20th century – those initiative…

Cultic Objects

(7 words)

[German Version] Temple
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