Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

Subscriptions: see

Ehrenberg, Philipp Hans

(237 words)

Author(s): Thierfelder, Jörg
[German Version] (Jun 4, 1883, Altona – Mar 31,1958, Heidelberg) came from a liberal, enlightened Jewish family. From 1902 to 1920 he studied jurisprudence, national economics, and philosophy. In 1909 he converted to Christianity. He received his doctorate in 1910 and in 1918 became extraordinary professor of philosophy in Heidelberg. His philosophical thought was characterized b…

Ehrenfeuchter, Friedrich August Eduard

(178 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Christoffer H.
[German Version] (Dec 15, 1814, Leopoldshafen – Mar 20, 1878, Göttingen) studied theology in Heidelberg and then worked first as a religion teacher in Mannheim, as a curate in Weinheim and Karlsruhe, and from 1845 as extraordinary professor of practical theology and university preacher in Göttingen. After becoming full professor in 1849, he remained in Göttingen until his death following a lengthy illne…

Ehrhard, Albert Joseph Maria

(279 words)

Author(s): Landersdorfer, Anton
[German Version] (Mar 14, 1862, Herbitzheim, Alsace – Sep 23, 1940, Bonn), significant Catholic church historian, Byzantine scholar, and hagiographer. After studying in Strasbourg and Münster, he was ordained a priest in 1885 and in 1888 attained his theological doctorate in Würzburg. In 1889 became professor in Strasbourg (seminary), in 1892 professor of church history in Würzbu…

Ehrlich, Johannes Nepomuk

(143 words)

Author(s): Niemann, Franz-Josef
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1810, Vienna – Oct 23, 1864, Prague), Catholic theologian and philosopher and a Piarist father. He taught philosophy in Krems (1836), was professor of moral theology at the Universities of Graz (1850) and Prague (1852), held the first chair with the designation fundamental theology (Prague 1856), and authored the first German-language work with that term in the title ( Leitfaden für Vorlesungen… der Fundamentaltheologie, 1859–1862). He was initially influenced by the philosopher F.H. Jacobi, and later by his fri…

Eichendorff, Joseph Baron von

(623 words)

Author(s): Schultz, Hartwig
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1788, Lubowitz – Nov 26, 1857, Neisse) grew up in Lubowitz (Upper Silesia) and belonged to the minor nobility. He owes his popularity as a lyric poet of Romanticism to his folksong-like texts (“In einem kühlen Grunde…”; “Wem Gott will rechte Gunst erweisen”), which were welcomed particularly in men's choirs and in the Jugendbewegung up until World War II. The basis for this artistic, folksong-type lyricism was the romanticized compilation of Achim v. Arnim and Clemens Brentano ( Des Knaben Wunderhorn, 1806–1808). A first collected edition of …

Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried

(267 words)

Author(s): Frevel, Christian
[German Version] (Dec 16, 1752, Dörrenzimmern, Württemberg – Jun 25, 1827, Göttingen), Protestant theologian. After a brief period as rector in Ohrdruf in 1774, he earned his doctorate in Jena in 1775 and soon after became professor of oriental languages there. In 1788, he became professor of philosophy in Göttingen. He attempted to combine a historical approach following J.D. …

Eichhorn, Karl Albert August Ludwig

(212 words)

Author(s): Frevel, Christian
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1856, Garlstorf near Lüneburg – Aug 3, 1926, Braunschweig), Protestant theologian. He studied in Leipzig, Erlangen and Gottingen, from 1875 to 1878, served as pastor from 1881 to 1884, gained his Habilitation in Halle in 1886, becoming professor of church history there in 1888. He moved to Kiel for health reasons in 1901, received an honorary doctorate fr…

Eichmann, Eduard

(105 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] (Feb 14, 1870, Hagenbach, Palatinate – Apr 26, 1946, Munich), Roman Catholic canonist and legal historian; in 1905 he became professor in Prague, in 1913 in Vienna, from 1918 to 1937 in Munich; he was rector of the university there in 1929/30. Eichmann founded the leading textbook in the German-speaking realm, Kanonisches Recht, continued initially by his student K. Mörsdorf, and now in the 13th edition by Winfried Aymans. Among his writings in legal history, Die Kaiserkrönung im Abendland (2 vols., 1942) merits special mention. Heinrich de Wall Bibliography K. Mörsdo…

Eichrodt, Walther

(222 words)

Author(s): Jenni, Ernst
[German Version] (Aug 1, 1890, Gernsbach, Baden [Switzerland] – May 20, 1978, Basel), Protestant theologian. He studied in Bethel, Greifswald, Heidelberg (Lic.theol. 1914); assistant lecturer in Erlangen (Habilitation 1918), from 1922 (assistant professor; 1934 professor; 1953 rector) until 1961 lecturer in OT and the history of religions at the University of Basel (honorary ¶ doctorate in 1927, Erlangen, 1951 Glasgow; collaborator in the Basel Mission). His chief work, a three- volume, widely res…


(570 words)

Author(s): Flachenecker, Helmut | Müller, Rainer A.
[German Version] I. City and Diocese – II. Catholic University I. City and Diocese In 740 Suidger, a Bavarian nobleman, founded a monastery at Eichstätt, an early medieval village, for Boniface, who appointed Willibald as its abbot. Through Willibald's initiative, in the course of the 9th century a diocese suffragan to Mainz emerged (without being set up canonically) on…

Eidem, Erling

(190 words)

Author(s): Schjørring, Jens Holger
[German Version] (Apr 23, 1880, Gothenburg, Sweden – Apr 14, 1972, Vänersborg) became lecturer in NT in 1913, and was pastor in Gårdstånga near Lund from 1923 to 1928; in 1928, he became professor of NT in Lund and in 1931 archbishop of Uppsala, succeeding N. Söderblom. Eidem followed his predecessor in a commitment to ecumene on a broad front, but encountered various kinds of …

Eighteen Benedictions, The

(8 words)

[German Version] Shemoneh Esreh

Eighth and Ninth, The (NHC VI.6; OgdEnn)

(11 words)

[German Version] Hermeticism/Hermetism


(5 words)

[German Version] Ezion-Geber


(87 words)

Author(s): Petzolt, Martin
[German Version] (Gk) is a cloth on the altar on which plate and chalice are placed in the Orthodox liturgy for consecration. It is understood as a symbol of Christ's burial. The antimension was also originally an eileton with relics and a portrayal of the burial sewn in for use in celebrations of the Eucharist on unconsecrated altars. Today the eileton is used as a cover for the antimension. Martin Petzolt Bibliography S. Heitz, Mysterium der Anbetung, 1986, 359 A. Kallis, Liturgie, 1989, 88, 90, 251.


(205 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (c. 770, Maingau – Mar 14, 840, Seligenstadt), from a noble family, reared in the Fulda monastery (but not a monk), where he was a scribe. From early 796, he was at the court of Charlemagne, where he received the name Beseleel (Bezalel; cf. Exod 35:30ff.). The name refers to his role as court architect. Louis I, the Pious, tried to keep him at court, and, in 815, transferred seven monas…


(169 words)

Author(s): Holzherr, Georg
[German Version] (Switzerland). Near the hermitage of Meinrad (died 861), a Benedictine monastery was founded in 934 with the assistance of the Swabian ducal family. It soon became a royal monastery and center of reform. In ¶ the late Middle Ages, the aristocratic institution almost died out, while Marian pilgrimages flourished. From 1516 to 1518, Zwingli was among the circle of humanists who were monastic chaplains and pastors. After the Reformation the now ci…

Einstein, Albert

(1,198 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip
[German Version] I. Life – II. Work – III. Philosophical, Religious, and Social Approaches (Mar 14, 1879, Ulm – Apr 18, 1955, Princeton, NJ) I. Life Einstein grew up in Munich as the son of an electrical machinery manufacturer. At age 15, when the family moved to Milan, Einstein emigrated to Switzerland and finished his schooling in Aarau. After he graduated from the Swiss Federal Polytechnic Institute, he taught at a school briefly before receiving an appointment in the Swiss patent office in Bern. Einstein was professor in Zürich, Prague, and Berlin ( inter alia, Director of the Kai…

Eipper, Christopher

(164 words)

Author(s): Gill, Stewart
[German Version] (Aug 20, 1813, Eßlingen, Württemberg – Sep 3, 1874, Charleyong, Braidwood, New South Wales, Australia), missionary to the Aboriginals and Presbyterian minister. Eipper received training as a missionary at the Basel Missionary Institute supported by the Church Missionary Society. Having refused to accept Anglican ordination he was recruited by John Dunmore Lang in…


(175 words)

Author(s): Astley, Ian
[German Version] (alternative reading: Yōsai; 1141–1215; also known as Myōan, Yōjōbō or Senkō Soshi; clan name Kaya), introduced the Rinzai form of Chan-Buddhism (Zen Buddhism) into Japan in 1191, after having been trained in China in 1168 and from 1187 to 1191. On his second visit, his attempt to reach India failed. Instead, he chose to dwell on Mt. Tiant…
▲   Back to top   ▲