Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

Subscriptions: see

Evagrius Ponticus

(371 words)

Author(s): Rubenson, Samuel
[German Version] (c. 345–399), Greek monk and theological author. Born in Pontus, Evagrius was a student of Basil the Great and Gregory of Nazianzus and deacon in Constantinople around 381. After a short stay in the monastery of Melanie the Elder he settled in Nitria in the Egyptian desert. There he became a disciple of Macarius of Egypt and joined a small group of …

Evagrius Scholasticus

(382 words)

Author(s): Christian Hansen, Günther
[German Version] (c. 535, Epiphaneia at Orontes, Syria – after 595; “Scholasticus” as a general term for a highly educated person, not of a particular profession) was the last late classical church historian in the succession of Eusebius of Caesarea. Awarded high positions of state (as quaestor and eparch) by emperors Tiberius (578–582) and Maurice (582–602), …


(354 words)

Author(s): de Wall, Heinrich
[German Version] In its broadest sense, evangelical means “according or pertaining to the gospel.” Beyond that meaning, by the Middle Ages it had already been used in ¶ criticism of the church to describe a way of life thought to be particularly close to the teaching of the gospel. This meaning was preserved in the expression evangelical counsels (Counsels of perfection). In the Reformation period, evangelical was used to characterize the teaching of the Reformers, implying that this teaching, unlike that of the (Roman) …

Evangelical Alliance

(832 words)

Author(s): Ruhbach, Gerhard
[German Version] (EA). The inaugural meeting of the Evangelical Alliance took place in London in 1846. The 920 participants from 50 different groupings worldwide passed the following four resolutions, formulated in advance by the Scottish Presbyterian Robert S. Candish: 1. The unity of Christians enjoined by Christ is to become visible. 2. Nine doctrinal statements are to be acknowledged by all members of the EA (such as the inspiration of Scripture, the doctrine of the Fall and the individual's need of salvation, justification by faith alone, the work of the Holy Spirit in conversion ¶ a…

Evangelical and Reformed Church

(166 words)

Author(s): Hambrick-Stowe, Charles E.
[German Version] (pre-UCC merger). The Evangelical and Reformed Church was created in 1934 by the union of the Reformed Church in the United States and the Evangelical Synod of North America. Rooted in the 18th- and 19th-century German migration to America, the new church combined Reformed and Lutheran-Reformed pietist and unionist traditions. Reverence for the Heidelberg Catechism and the high ecclesio…

Evangelical Association

(394 words)

Author(s): Marquardt, Manfred
[German Version] Around 1800, a number of German-speaking congregations came into existence in America on the Methodist model. Known as “Albrechtsleute” [Albrecht's people], they had come into being through the evangelistic activity of the farmer and kilner Jakob Albrecht (1759–1808), who was of German provenience. The first formal “Annual Conference” of the associates – five iti…

Evangelical Church in Germany

(4,198 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Schloz, Rüdiger
[German Version] I. History, Constitution, and Structure – II. Works and Institutions (EKD; Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland) I. History, Constitution, and Structure To an increasing degree, the federalistically determined history of German Protestantism in the 20th century has been stamped by the growing responsibility of the general membership of the unified agency of the EKD and its predecessor institutions. 1. Founding, 1945–1948 Since the 19th century, from the Eisenach Conference of 1852 to the Union of German …

Evangelical Conference

(7 words)

[German Version] Conferences, Church

Evangelical Covenant Church

(191 words)

Author(s): Sweeney, Douglas A.
[German Version] is rooted in the pietistic revival movements of 18th and 19th century Sweden and was founded as the Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant of America on Feb 20, 1885. It was the product of a merger between the Swedish Lutheran Mission Synod (1873) and the Swedish Lutheran Ansgarius Synod (1884), both pietistic Lutheran bodies. In 1957 its me…

Evangelical Fellowship of Canada

(133 words)

Author(s): Burkinshaw, Robert K.
[German Version] The founding meeting of the EFC in Toronto in 1964 brought together leaders from a number of smaller, conservative evangelical denominations as well as many evangelicals from mainline Protestantism. Fostering unity among evangelicals and influencing the wider Canadian society were among the founders' key concerns. Rapid growth began in the early 1980s with the ap…

Evangelical Foreign Missions Association

(119 words)

Author(s): Shenk, Wilbert R.
[German Version] (EFMA). Founded in 1945 as the Missions Commission of the National Association of Evangelicals to encourage fellowship and spiritual unity among conservative evangelical missions, it promotes consultation and cooperation among evangelicals worldwide. Conservative missions affiliated with the Foreign Missions Conference (FMC) of North America distrusted the Federa…

Evangelical Free Church Congregations, Union of

(356 words)

Author(s): Fleischmann-Bisten, Walter
[German Version] The Bund Evangelisch-Freikirchlicher Gemeinden in Deutschland (BEFG) is the product of the 1941/1942 merger of the union of Baptist churches, which arose in 1849 from the first congregations of Baptists in Germany and bordering nations and included the Pentecostally-oriented Elim churches in 1938, with the Bund Freikirchlicher Christen (Union of Free-Church Christians) founded in 1937, …

Evangelical Free Church of America

(203 words)

Author(s): Sweeney, Douglas A.
[German Version] The Evangelical Free Church of America traces its roots back to the revivalist Scandinavian pietism of the 18th and 19th centuries, and particularly to the 19th-century free church movements in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. It was founded in 1950 and was the product of a merger between two immigrant churches, the Swedish Evangelical Free Church (1884) and the Dani…


(2,190 words)

Author(s): Johnson, Todd M. | Fiedler, Klaus
[German Version] I. North America – II. Europe – III. Missions in the Evangelical Movement – IV. Missions Declarations I. North America The genesis of evangelicalism in North America was tied to personal renewal in the context of the Great Awakening of the 18th century (Revival/Revival movements: II), particularly under the influence of the preaching of G. Whitefield and the …

Evangelical Methodist Church

(7 words)

[German Version] Methodists

Evangelical Missionary Alliance

(136 words)

Author(s): Hylson-Smith, Kennet
[German Version] (EMA). The EMA was founded in 1958. Its development was a manifestation of the post- World War II resurgence of evangelicalism in England, in which evangelicals were concerned to be less parochial in their outlook and actions. Its precursor was the Fellowship of Interdenominational Missionary Societies, which was established in 1941 and discontinued in 1957. The Evangelical Alliance (18…

Evangelical Theology

(932 words)

Author(s): Johnston, Robert K.
[German Version] The term “evangelical” refers as much to a movement as it does to a set of fundamental doctrines, to an ethos as a creed. It was first popularized in American and England during the 18th-century Methodist (J. Wesley) and Puritan (G. Whitefield and W. Tennent) revivals and spread abroad by the worldwide missionary movement. The term …

Evangelical Union, The

(143 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] The Evangelical Union was formed in Scotland in May 1843 by James Morison and several other theological Arminians who had been excluded from the United Secession Church for promoting a theology of universal atonement, human free will, Congregational polity, and the Bible alone without ¶ creeds. The Union was influenced in many of its views by the American revivalist Charles G. Finney. It enjoyed particular success in urban ministry, where it was known for a firm stand against t…

Evangelii Nuntiandi

(6 words)

[German Version] Catholicism

Evangelische Kirche der Union (EKU)

(1,391 words)

Author(s): Rogge, Joachim | Thiele, Christoph
[German Version] I. History – II. Legal Status I. History 1. Establishment The Evangelische Kirche der Union (EKU) was founded as the “Evangelische Kirche in den Königlich Preussischen Landen” by a cabinets-ordre of Fredrick William III dated Sep 27, 1817 (on the change of name, see 3 below). The king, who belonged to the Reformed Church, took an interest in theological and ecclesiastical matters. His policy of toleration matched the trend of the times; under the influence of Pietism and the Enlightenment, concern for confessional ques-¶ tions wa…
▲   Back to top   ▲