Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

Subscriptions: see

Inner Asia

(3,811 words)

Author(s): Kollmar-Paulenz, Karénina | Muminov, Ashirbek | Kügelgen, Anke v.
[German Version] I. Pre-Islamic Period – II. Islam I. Pre-Islamic Period 1. Geopolitical ambiguity, conception, and definition The concept of “Inner Asia” is both historically and geographically unclear. It is usually understood to mean the territories between Iran in the west and the Chinese border in the east (China), while giving way to the Siberian taiga in the north and abutting to the Himalayas in the south. It includes areas in the modern states of Afghanistan, Pakistan, northern India, northeastern Ira…

Inner Emigration

(317 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The origin of the term is disputed. Some point to L. Uhland's Auswanderung in die Ver-¶ gangenheit [Emigration into the past] (1848), some to the author Frank Thiess (1890–1977), who claimed the term, which quickly became prominent after 1933, as his own. Inner emigration and its synonyms such as “emigration inward” or “spiritual exile” refer to the non-political habitus of artists and authors such as J. Klepper, R. Schneider, and W. Bergengruen under the conditions of the National Socialist dict…

Inner Person

(1,567 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph | Burkert, Walter | Betz, Hans Dieter | Heesch, Matthias
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Antiquity – III. New Testament – IV. Early Church – V. Systematic Theology I. Concept The notion of a “real person” residing within the outer human being is widely attested in ancient literature and became part of a comprehensive system of metaphors by the time of Hellenism at the latest. However, this notion is conveyed through very different terms, corresponding also to conceptions of rather differing nature. The single English concept “inner person,” which cannot adequately …

Innitzer, Theodor

(213 words)

Author(s): Liebmann, Maximilian
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1875, Neugeschrei, northern Bohemia [today Nové Zvolání, Czech Republic] – Oct 9, 1955, Vienna), archbishop of Vienna from Oct 30, 1932 onwards and cardinal from Mar 13, 1933. Under his chairmanship (Austrian Bishops' Conference), the clergy were recalled from active politics in November 1933. The bishops whom Innitzer had ordered to Vienna made a declaration of loyalty on Mar 18 which had great propagandistic value for the popular referendum on Apr 10, 1938. Innitzer's e…

Innocent III, Pope

(606 words)

Author(s): Maleczek, Werner
[German Version] (papacy Feb 22, 1198 – Jul 16, 1216) (Lothar of Segi, b. 1160 or 61 at Gavignano, near Segni, in Latium). The papacy of Innocent III marked the high point of pontifical power in the Middle Ages. After studying theology at Paris and canon law at Bologna, in 1190 he was appointed cardinal deacon of St. Sergius and St. Bacchus. His cardinalate attracted little attention; during it he wrote De miseria humanae conditionis, De missarum misteriis, and De quadripartite specie nuptiarum, works of ascetical theology that later came to be widely read. His other works in…

Innocent I, Pope (Saint)

(242 words)

Author(s): Wischmeyer, Wolfgang
[German Version] (papacy Dec 21, 402 – Mar 12, 417; feast day July 28). According to Jerome Ep. 130.60, Innocent became bishop of Rome as the son of his predecessor Anastasius I (399–402); he aspired to a primatial status ( caput et apex episcopatus: Ep. 37.1; right to appoint all bishops: Ep. 25.21) that clearly went beyond canon 3 of the Council of Constantinople (IV, 1) in ¶ 381 and claimed authority for Rome in doctrinal questions. In the West, against the background of contemporary political and military troubles, he partially attained his goal, resolving t…

Innocent IV, Pope

(302 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Tilmann
[German Version] (papacy Jun 25, 1243 – Dec 7, 1254) (Sinibaldo Fieschi, b. 1180/1190 at Lavagna, near Genoa). After studying and teaching law at Bologna, Sinibaldo served as auditor of the Curia, cardinal and vice chancellor of the Roman Church, rector of the March of Ancona, and legate of Gregory IX. During the conflict between empire and papacy, which also divided the College of Cardinals, the see of Rome stood vacant for 18 months (See, Vacant). Finally Sinibaldo was elected at Agnani as a com…

Innocent (Veniaminov), Saint

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Aug 26, 1797, Anginskoye, near Irkutsk – Mar 31, 1879, Moscow). Born Ivan Popov, he was orphaned at an early age. At the seminary in Irkutsk, his patron Bishop Veniamin (Benjamin) of Irkutsk gave him the new patronymic Veniaminov. In 1840, when he was made a monk, his baptismal name was replaced by Innocent. In the same year, Innocent – who had been ordained to the priesthood in 1821 and had been working as a missionary in the Aleutians and Alaska since 1824 – was made bishop of Kamchatka. He took up residence as archbishop in 1852…

Innocent VI, Pope

(294 words)

Author(s): Baum, Wilhelm
[German Version] (papacy 1352 – Sep 12, 1362) (Étienne Aubert; b. 1282 or 1295 in Les-Monts-de-Beyssac, Limousin). He began his career as professor of civil law at Toulouse and as bishop of Noyon and Clermon; in 1342 he was made a cardinal. From the conclave of 1352 there survives the earliest capitulation signed by the cardinal electors stipulating their rights. After his election, Innocent withdrew his signature. He was a frugal administrator who shrank the papal household and promoted reform of…

Innocent V, Pope

(115 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Tilmann
[German Version] (papacy Jan 21 – Jun 22, 1276) (Pierre de Tarentaise, b. c. 1224, Champigny, Savoy). After studying and teaching theology at Paris, the Dominican was appointed archbishop of Lyon by Gregory X in 1272 and made cardinal in 1273. He was focused on initiating a crusade, in support of which he arranged a rapprochement with Byzantium and settled conflicts in Italy by confirming Charles I of Anjou as senator of Rome and imperial vicar of Tuscany while deferring the coronation of Rudolf of Habsburg. Innocent wrote a commentary on the Sentences and several exegetical works. He …

Innocent XI, Pope

(374 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (papacy Sep 21, 1676 – Aug 12, 1689) (Benedetto Odescalchi, b. May 19, 1611, in Como). Odescalchi, made cardinal in 1645, served as legate in Ferrara from 1646 to 1650 and as bishop of Novara from 1650 to 1656. He was renowned for his exemplary lifestyle and concern for the poor. After a two-month conclave, he was unanimously elected pope in 1676, after the resistance of France, who had opposed him in 1670, was overcome. Within the church, he sought a middle way in the controversy…

Innovation, Religious

(347 words)

Author(s): Usarski, Frank
[German Version] In everyday usage, the term innovation, from the Latin verb novare (“renew”), generally has positive connotations. When used in religious studies, it denotes the result of a qualitative change of or within a religious system. Its generality limits its usefulness in theoretical contexts; if it is to have analytic substance, not only must the content of an innovation be examined but also the constitutive factors and forces leading to the change in question. Innovation can take place, for exam…

Innsbruck, University

(338 words)

Author(s): Batlogg, Andreas R.
[German Version] The territorial order of 1526 stipulated the creation of a Hohe Schule (High School) in Tyrol. In 1562, the provincial of the Upper German Jesuit province, P. Canisius, opened a Gymnasium (grammar school) in Innsbruck. In 1669, the year of the university's foundation, Leopold I authorized an additional charge of twelve kreuzer on every sold cartload of Hall salt pro fundo alhiesiger Universitet, which initially consisted of four faculties (philosophy, theology, law, medicine). The university opened its doors in 1673 and was granted an imperi…


(2,005 words)

Author(s): Segl, Peter | Gareis, Iris
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Historical Development and Aspects of Canon Law – III. Latin America, Asia, Africa I. Terminology In the broader sense, “inquisition,” from Lat. inquirere, “to seek out, research, investigate,” refers to the official ( ex officio) investigation of the facts, particularly in relation to criminal circumstances. Both in the ecclesiastical and the civil judiciary, the so-called “trial by inquisition” appeared alongside the customary “trial by accusation,” which had been the sole method, in the cour…


(6 words)

[German Version] Epigraphy Palaeography


(429 words)

Author(s): Ott, Joachim
[German Version] Symbols of rule (following Schramm) or insignia (Lat. signa; insignia) are objects that denote persons of superior status. In a narrower sense, they are the emblems of the supreme civil and spiritual dignitaries. As a rule, symbols of rule or insignia are worn on the body (regalia): crown, helmet, miter, tiara; sword, lance (Liturgical implements), scepter, globe, ring; clothing ¶ (e.g. coronation mantle, liturgical vestments [Vestments, Liturgical]) and jewelry (e.g. Pectoral cross); the throne marks the point from which dominion is exerc…

Inspiration Communities

(256 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] are communities which arose out of radical Pietism and still exist today. As early as around 1690, ecstatic, visionary and prophetic phenomena became manifest in the Pietist movement. After the appearance of ecstatic prophets from the Camisards, who came to Germany via England and the Netherlands, German prophets and prophetesses as well started to appear as “mediums”; in 1714, they sparked an enthusiastic “inspirational awakening,” primarily among the radical Pietists, which was …


(4,151 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Koch, Dietrich-Alex | Brändle, Werner
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. History – IV. Fundamental Theology – V. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies 1. Terminology The terms inspiration (from Lat. inspiratio, “insufflation”) and theopneusty come from the NT. Prophecy comes through the Holy Spirit (2 Pet 1:21); in 2 Tim 3:16, the adjective ϑεόπνευστος/ theópneustos) ¶ describes Scripture as being “inspired by God.” In many religions, we encounter the idea that communications enter the human sphere through the mediation of other entities. Plato ( Phaidr. 265) was already systematizing m…


(1,609 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Berger, Wilhelm | Heintel, Peter | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Social Sciences – III. Theology I. Religious Studies If an institution is understood as a set of norms that regulate action in a precise manner, then, from the perspective of religious studies, a differentiation can be made between institutions that regulate religious action and normative standards that regulate non-religious action but are religiously justified. However, it always needs to be taken into consideration that this distinction is made by the external …

Institutional Chaplaincy

(289 words)

Author(s): Hollerbach, Alexander
[German Version] In church and state church law, the institutional chaplaincy is a classic example of a res mixta, including pastoral care in state and local hospitals, penal institutions, homes for old and disabled people, orphanages and care homes, and in a wider sense pastoral care for the armed forces and police, including border police. In constitutional law, all these institutions are based on the fundamental right of freedom of religion in German law (Basic Law, art 4 §§ 1 and 2) and the institutional guar…

Institutional Congregation

(182 words)

Author(s): Böttcher, Hartmut
[German Version] The church of Jesus Christ does not take form in the local area only. In addition to the territoriall – defined local church congregation, special forms such as personal and institutional congregations have developed. While in personal congregations members are exempted from the local church organization because of particular personal characteristics, institutional congregations stand in a particular legally regulated relationship to an institution and a circle of persons for whom…

Institution, Church

(226 words)

Author(s): Böttcher, Hartmut
[German Version] On the one hand, the concept of the church institution is employed generally, especially in the 19th and early 20th centuries, to explain the nature of the church and is contrasted to or combined with the collegialistic understanding (the church as ¶ a community of saints and an institution of salvation, F.J. Stahl). In the specific sense, on the other hand, the concept refers to certain organizations and institutions within the responsibility of the church. According to the definition under administrative law, an institu…

Institutum Beatae Mariae Virginis

(339 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Mary Ward Sisters; since 2004: Congregatio Jesu), one of the most important female teaching orders of the Catholic Church. The “Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary” was founded by the Englishwoman Mary Ward (1585–1645) in 1609/10 in the Spanish Netherlands during the persecution of Catholics in England in order to care for and educate English girls living there. It was patterned after the model of the Jesuits. The founder, in favor of her youth work, dispensed with both the stri…

Institutum Judaicum

(368 words)

Author(s): Wiese, Christian
[German Version] With its roots in Protestant Jewish missions, the first Institutum Judaicum, founded in 1728 by J.H. Callenberg in Halle, was devoted to the training of missionaries and the distribution of Christian literature in Yiddish and Hebrew. It existed until 1792. In 1883, H.L. Strack founded the Institutum Judaicum Berolinense in Berlin which placed its emphasis on missions, scholarly engagement with Jewish sources and the battle against Antisemitism. After Strack's death, the Institutum…


(179 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] An instructio in the meaning of CIC/1983 c. 34 serves the interpretation and application of laws for the use of those who are responsible for their execution. Bearers of the potestas executiva (e.g. the Vicar General, but also the diocesan bishop [no separation of powers in Catholic church law!]) are competent to issue an instructio. It is subordinate to the laws. Consequently, its validity ends through derogation or with the expiration of the underlying law. It can neither alter nor invalidate a law. More recent instructions by the Roman dikasteria (e.g. “instruction…

Instruction Courses, Apologetic

(265 words)

Author(s): Dienst, Karl
[German Version] These courses trace back to the initiative of the Apologetische Centrale (Apologetic Center) founded in Berlin-Spandau in 1921 by the Centralausschuß für die Innere Mission (Central Committee for Inland Mission; Carl Gunther Schweitzer, H. Schreiner) with its method of a “new apologetics” influenced primarily by K. Heim. This method proceeds from familiarization with and objective portrayal of the opposing position in order “to understand [it] better than it understands itself” (F…


(428 words)

Author(s): Cansier, Dieter
[German Version] One can protect oneself against the risks of life through personal provision or by acquiring private insurance. Given freedom of choice the individual will decide for the insurance if the costs of covering a certain risk are less than bearing the costs directly. In private insurance, premiums are determined on the basis of risks assessment on the principle of actuarial equivalence. Indemnification payments are based on premium payments, which, in turn, are assessed in terms of the…

Integralism, Brazilian

(127 words)

Author(s): Gertz, René E.
[German Version] Integralism was a fascist movement in Brazil, founded in 1932 by Plinio Salgado “for God, fatherland and family” (one million “greenshirts”). Its doctrine denied religious preferences or aversions. Salgado's deputy, Gustavo Barroso, however, was a radical anti-Semite. Integralism mostly sympathized with Catholicism (H.P. Câmara). Consequently, Lutheran circles (H.G. Dohms) raised objections, also against the nationalism that would render the Lutheran Volkskirche (people's church) impossible. The Estado Novo outlawed integralism (1937), and…


(411 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] refers to the process of constituting or preserving a whole and is employed in the humanities primarily as a sociological and educational-psychological category. Consequently, in the field of theology, integration is a term with primary relevance for practical theology. Conceptually, in particular the third of the meanings of the Latin adjective integer (1. sound, incorrupt, 2. new, 3. whole) has come to dominate the current notion of integration, while the Latin substantive, integratio, primarily connoted “renovation.” The modern concept of integrati…

Integration Theory

(400 words)

Author(s): Krech, Volkhard
[German Version] With reflection on forced social differentiation, the question of the forces of social integration also arose in the course of the 19th century. H. Spencer in his sociology was the first to view differentiation and integration as mutually complementary processes. The search for answers quickly led to religion. Already the French counter-revolutionaries J.M. de Maistre and L.G.A. Bonald considered religion the guarantor of social order. W.R. Smith attributed a socio-integrative fun…


(1,610 words)

Author(s): Steinmann, Michael | Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics I. Philosophy In the traditional doctrine of cognition (Epistemology), the intellect is primarily viewed as an intuitive capacity (Gk νοῦς/ nous, Lat. intellectus), partly in demarcation from reason as a discursive capacity. The intellect enables a person to attain direct insight into last principles or simple facts, so that the process of cognition is brought to a close logically and rationally (Arist. Eth. Nic. 1143af.). This dimension of grasping the truth…

Intellectual Intuition

(6 words)

[German Version] Vision/Intuition


(1,095 words)

Author(s): Meyering, Theo C.
[German Version] I. Definition – II. History of Research – III. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test and Spearman's g-Factor – IV. Critical Assessment I. Definition Ever since its introduction, the concept of intelligence has been the subject of heated controversy. Accordingly intelligence has been defined in a wide variety of ways ranging from Cyril Burt's definition of intelligence as an innate, general, cognitive ability to such positivist but rather unhelpful definitions as “whatever it is that our tests measure.”…

Intelligence, Artifical

(7 words)

[German Version] Artifical Intelligence

Intelligent Design Theory

(498 words)

Author(s): Dembski, William A.
[German Version] The fundamental idea animating intelligent design theory (IDT) is that events, objects, and structures in the world can exhibit features that reliably signal the effects of intelligence. Special sciences as diverse as animal learning and behavior (Behavioral research), forensics, archeology, cryptography, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence thus all fall within IDT. IDT becomes controversial when methods developed in these special sciences for sifting the effects of i…


(5 words)

[German Version] Extension/Intension


(7 words)

[German Version] Ends and Means


(1,594 words)

Author(s): Gander, Hans-Helmuth | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Ethics I. Philosophy In the context of action theory, intention/ intentionality (from Lat. intentio) usually denotes an aim or purpose. Intentionality is understood both in the sense of the will that initiates actions and in the sense of the motive or motivation that guides both volition and action. In other philosophical contexts, the prevailing understanding of intentionality goes back to the turn of the 20th century in the work of E. Husserl, who drew in turn on his teacher F. Brentano. In his major work Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt, vo…

Intention, Pope's

(270 words)

Author(s): Heinz, Hanspeter
[German Version] In conjunction with the church's prayer, especially in the celebration of the Eucharist, particular concerns are brought before God in intercessory remembrance, supported by offerings for the worship service and the poor. It has long been customary to mention the givers and their intentions in the liturgy. The prayer formula “according to the pope's intention” (Indulgence) and the mass stipend, a gift of money given a priest outside the celebration of mass with the request that a …


(1,248 words)

Author(s): Stoellger, Philipp | Heesch, Matthias | Mette, Norbert
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Ethics – III. Practical Theology I. Philosophy of Religion To begin the interpretation of society and religion with the notion of interaction means to assume a basis of action. Fundamental forms of interaction are, for example, cooperation, exchange, conflict and competition, or, according to F.D.E. Schleiermacher, identical and individual symbolization and organization. Problems of interaction occur when the rules of interaction are questionable. A monadic the…


(1,408 words)

Author(s): Wiggermann, Karl-Friedrich | Bayer, Oswald
[German Version] I. Basics – II. History – III. Systematic Theology I. Basics Liturgical or congregational intercession (Prayer) is one of the primary duties of the church and the congregation (Worship). Such intercession lives on even when the powerful forget themselves and the helpless are forgotten. It transcends all (pious) wishes. With short texts of its own, the congregation takes part in ektenia and litany. The topical nature of intercession is augmented by the concretion, which dispenses with the …

Inter-Church Aid

(422 words)

Author(s): Jackson, E.M.
[German Version] Archbishop N. Söderblom of Uppsala's (1866–1931) personal initiatives since 1914 among refugees and victims of war in Europe and the Near East indicated a great need, but it was realized that a proper organization was needed to channel resources more effectively. In 1922, consequently, the European Central Office for Inter-Church Aid under the leadership of A. Keller was created in Geneva. Similarly, the ¶ deficiencies of the existing initiatives in view of the humanitarian crises became apparent in 1942 in the Geneva office of the World Counc…


(1,110 words)

Author(s): Hilberath, Bernd Jochen
[German Version] I. History – II. Ecclesiology I. History Intercommunion refers to forms of fellowship in the Eucharist or the Lord's Supper, to communion between churches or ecclesial communities. In the full sense, it ¶ encompasses pulpit and altar fellowship (that is, also intercelebration); such a fellowship exists since 1973 between the churches affiliated on the basis of the Leuenberg Concord, and already since 1931 between Anglicans and Old Catholics. Limited forms of intercommunion are the general opening of celebration…

Intercultural Theology

(1,083 words)

Author(s): Küster, Volker
[German Version] The term “intercultural theology” does not yet refer to a clearly circumscribed subdiscipline of theology nor to a specific method. Its respective meaning is defined by the research interests of those who employ it. Nonetheless, a paradigm shift is taking place here at the margins of the traditional canon of disciplines that will influence the entire discipline of theology. Important impulses originate in the disciplines of the history of religions or religious studies, missiology…

Interdenominational Foreign Mission Association

(192 words)

Author(s): Bonk, Jonathan James
[German Version] (IFMA). Founded in 1917 for the purpose of “strengthening the effectiveness and outreach of faith missions,” the IFMA is a fellowship of theologically conservative North American mission societies without denominational affiliation. The seven charter members included South Africa General Mission, the China Inland Mission, the Central America Mission, the Africa Inland Mission, the Sudan Interior Mission, the Inland South America Missionary Union, and the Women's Missionary Union o…


(226 words)

Author(s): May, Georg
[German Version] is one of the three ecclesial censures (Censorship) along with excommunication and suspension. It is only imposed on individuals, and no longer on places or regions and groups. The interdict automatically prohibits any service in the mass and other worship services, the administration and reception of the sacraments, and the administration of the sacramentalia. After the imposition or determination of the interdict, the one interdicted must be prohibited from any ministry in worship or else the worship must be suspended ( CIC 1983 c. 1332 in conjunction with c…


(3,846 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Stefan | Bayer, Stefan | Schneider, Helmuth | Kessler, Rainer | Strohm, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Legal Aspects – III. Economics – IV. Non-Christian Antiquity – V. Bible – VI. Christianity – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. Concept Interest is payment in exchange for a right of use or exploitation, typically on a temporary basis and always agreed for a fixed period of time. Money later gained increasing importance as an object of lending and now occupies a dominant position, although other items or rights remain possible as objects of lending, as for example rent. In economics (see III below), this mutual commitment between the conferral…

Interim Ethics

(403 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] If there are objective or subjective reasons to regard a life-orienting certainty concerning the nature (essence), origin and destiny of the world and humanity and the rules of action derived from it as valid for only a limited time, one speaks of an interim ¶ ethics. More properly, it should be referred to as an interim ethos or an interim morality. Examples include (a) the ethos of Jesus and (b) the “provisional morality” of R. Descartes ( Discours de la méthode, 1637; ET: Discourse on Method, 1960). a. A. Schweitzer first described Jesus' ethos as an “interim eth…


(684 words)

Author(s): Schulz, Heiko
[German Version] I The term interiority or inwardness (Ger. Innerlichkeit) was used by F.G. Klopstock and J.W. v. Goethe, but it was only in G.W.F. Hegel that it gained the interpretive configuration that subsequently became definitive: first, and in the widest sense, the term refers to the subjectivity or the immediate being-within-one's self of the spirit (III). Wherever there is spirit, there is interiority, and vice versa, for interiority is nothing other than the spirit's “returning into itself” ( Philosophie der Geschichte, 340). Second, thus defined the term serves as…


(5 words)

[German Version] Marriage
▲   Back to top   ▲