Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Inner Asia

(3,811 words)

Author(s): Kollmar-Paulenz, Karénina | Muminov, Ashirbek | Kügelgen, Anke v.
[German Version] I. Pre-Islamic Period – II. Islam I. Pre-Islamic Period 1. Geopolitical ambiguity, conception, and definition The concept of “Inner Asia” is both historically and geographically unclear. It is usually understood to mean the territories between Iran in the west and the Chinese border in the east (China), while giving way to the Siberian taiga in the north and abutting to the Himalayas in the south. It includes areas in the modern states of Afghanistan, Pakistan, northern India, northeastern Ira…

Inner Emigration

(317 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The origin of the term is disputed. Some point to L. Uhland's Auswanderung in die Ver-¶ gangenheit [Emigration into the past] (1848), some to the author Frank Thiess (1890–1977), who claimed the term, which quickly became prominent after 1933, as his own. Inner emigration and its synonyms such as “emigration inward” or “spiritual exile” refer to the non-political habitus of artists and authors such as J. Klepper, R. Schneider, and W. Bergengruen under the conditions of the National Socialist dict…

Inner Person

(1,567 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph | Burkert, Walter | Betz, Hans Dieter | Heesch, Matthias
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Antiquity – III. New Testament – IV. Early Church – V. Systematic Theology I. Concept The notion of a “real person” residing within the outer human being is widely attested in ancient literature and became part of a comprehensive system of metaphors by the time of Hellenism at the latest. However, this notion is conveyed through very different terms, corresponding also to conceptions of rather differing nature. The single English concept “inner person,” which cannot adequately …

Innitzer, Theodor

(213 words)

Author(s): Liebmann, Maximilian
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1875, Neugeschrei, northern Bohemia [today Nové Zvolání, Czech Republic] – Oct 9, 1955, Vienna), archbishop of Vienna from Oct 30, 1932 onwards and cardinal from Mar 13, 1933. Under his chairmanship (Austrian Bishops' Conference), the clergy were recalled from active politics in November 1933. The bishops whom Innitzer had ordered to Vienna made a declaration of loyalty on Mar 18 which had great propagandistic value for the popular referendum on Apr 10, 1938. Innitzer's e…

Innocent III, Pope

(606 words)

Author(s): Maleczek, Werner
[German Version] (papacy Feb 22, 1198 – Jul 16, 1216) (Lothar of Segi, b. 1160 or 61 at Gavignano, near Segni, in Latium). The papacy of Innocent III marked the high point of pontifical power in the Middle Ages. After studying theology at Paris and canon law at Bologna, in 1190 he was appointed cardinal deacon of St. Sergius and St. Bacchus. His cardinalate attracted little attention; during it he wrote De miseria humanae conditionis, De missarum misteriis, and De quadripartite specie nuptiarum, works of ascetical theology that later came to be widely read. His other works in…

Innocent I, Pope (Saint)

(242 words)

Author(s): Wischmeyer, Wolfgang
[German Version] (papacy Dec 21, 402 – Mar 12, 417; feast day July 28). According to Jerome Ep. 130.60, Innocent became bishop of Rome as the son of his predecessor Anastasius I (399–402); he aspired to a primatial status ( caput et apex episcopatus: Ep. 37.1; right to appoint all bishops: Ep. 25.21) that clearly went beyond canon 3 of the Council of Constantinople (IV, 1) in ¶ 381 and claimed authority for Rome in doctrinal questions. In the West, against the background of contemporary political and military troubles, he partially attained his goal, resolving t…

Innocent IV, Pope

(302 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Tilmann
[German Version] (papacy Jun 25, 1243 – Dec 7, 1254) (Sinibaldo Fieschi, b. 1180/1190 at Lavagna, near Genoa). After studying and teaching law at Bologna, Sinibaldo served as auditor of the Curia, cardinal and vice chancellor of the Roman Church, rector of the March of Ancona, and legate of Gregory IX. During the conflict between empire and papacy, which also divided the College of Cardinals, the see of Rome stood vacant for 18 months (See, Vacant). Finally Sinibaldo was elected at Agnani as a com…

Innocent (Veniaminov), Saint

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Aug 26, 1797, Anginskoye, near Irkutsk – Mar 31, 1879, Moscow). Born Ivan Popov, he was orphaned at an early age. At the seminary in Irkutsk, his patron Bishop Veniamin (Benjamin) of Irkutsk gave him the new patronymic Veniaminov. In 1840, when he was made a monk, his baptismal name was replaced by Innocent. In the same year, Innocent – who had been ordained to the priesthood in 1821 and had been working as a missionary in the Aleutians and Alaska since 1824 – was made bishop of Kamchatka. He took up residence as archbishop in 1852…

Innocent VI, Pope

(294 words)

Author(s): Baum, Wilhelm
[German Version] (papacy 1352 – Sep 12, 1362) (Étienne Aubert; b. 1282 or 1295 in Les-Monts-de-Beyssac, Limousin). He began his career as professor of civil law at Toulouse and as bishop of Noyon and Clermon; in 1342 he was made a cardinal. From the conclave of 1352 there survives the earliest capitulation signed by the cardinal electors stipulating their rights. After his election, Innocent withdrew his signature. He was a frugal administrator who shrank the papal household and promoted reform of…

Innocent V, Pope

(115 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Tilmann
[German Version] (papacy Jan 21 – Jun 22, 1276) (Pierre de Tarentaise, b. c. 1224, Champigny, Savoy). After studying and teaching theology at Paris, the Dominican was appointed archbishop of Lyon by Gregory X in 1272 and made cardinal in 1273. He was focused on initiating a crusade, in support of which he arranged a rapprochement with Byzantium and settled conflicts in Italy by confirming Charles I of Anjou as senator of Rome and imperial vicar of Tuscany while deferring the coronation of Rudolf of Habsburg. Innocent wrote a commentary on the Sentences and several exegetical works. He …

Innocent XI, Pope

(374 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (papacy Sep 21, 1676 – Aug 12, 1689) (Benedetto Odescalchi, b. May 19, 1611, in Como). Odescalchi, made cardinal in 1645, served as legate in Ferrara from 1646 to 1650 and as bishop of Novara from 1650 to 1656. He was renowned for his exemplary lifestyle and concern for the poor. After a two-month conclave, he was unanimously elected pope in 1676, after the resistance of France, who had opposed him in 1670, was overcome. Within the church, he sought a middle way in the controversy…

Innovation, Religious

(347 words)

Author(s): Usarski, Frank
[German Version] In everyday usage, the term innovation, from the Latin verb novare (“renew”), generally has positive connotations. When used in religious studies, it denotes the result of a qualitative change of or within a religious system. Its generality limits its usefulness in theoretical contexts; if it is to have analytic substance, not only must the content of an innovation be examined but also the constitutive factors and forces leading to the change in question. Innovation can take place, for exam…

Innsbruck, University

(338 words)

Author(s): Batlogg, Andreas R.
[German Version] The territorial order of 1526 stipulated the creation of a Hohe Schule (High School) in Tyrol. In 1562, the provincial of the Upper German Jesuit province, P. Canisius, opened a Gymnasium (grammar school) in Innsbruck. In 1669, the year of the university's foundation, Leopold I authorized an additional charge of twelve kreuzer on every sold cartload of Hall salt pro fundo alhiesiger Universitet, which initially consisted of four faculties (philosophy, theology, law, medicine). The university opened its doors in 1673 and was granted an imperi…


(2,005 words)

Author(s): Segl, Peter | Gareis, Iris
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Historical Development and Aspects of Canon Law – III. Latin America, Asia, Africa I. Terminology In the broader sense, “inquisition,” from Lat. inquirere, “to seek out, research, investigate,” refers to the official ( ex officio) investigation of the facts, particularly in relation to criminal circumstances. Both in the ecclesiastical and the civil judiciary, the so-called “trial by inquisition” appeared alongside the customary “trial by accusation,” which had been the sole method, in the cour…


(6 words)

[German Version] Epigraphy Palaeography


(429 words)

Author(s): Ott, Joachim
[German Version] Symbols of rule (following Schramm) or insignia (Lat. signa; insignia) are objects that denote persons of superior status. In a narrower sense, they are the emblems of the supreme civil and spiritual dignitaries. As a rule, symbols of rule or insignia are worn on the body (regalia): crown, helmet, miter, tiara; sword, lance (Liturgical implements), scepter, globe, ring; clothing ¶ (e.g. coronation mantle, liturgical vestments [Vestments, Liturgical]) and jewelry (e.g. Pectoral cross); the throne marks the point from which dominion is exerc…

Inspiration Communities

(256 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] are communities which arose out of radical Pietism and still exist today. As early as around 1690, ecstatic, visionary and prophetic phenomena became manifest in the Pietist movement. After the appearance of ecstatic prophets from the Camisards, who came to Germany via England and the Netherlands, German prophets and prophetesses as well started to appear as “mediums”; in 1714, they sparked an enthusiastic “inspirational awakening,” primarily among the radical Pietists, which was …


(4,151 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Koch, Dietrich-Alex | Brändle, Werner
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. History – IV. Fundamental Theology – V. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies 1. Terminology The terms inspiration (from Lat. inspiratio, “insufflation”) and theopneusty come from the NT. Prophecy comes through the Holy Spirit (2 Pet 1:21); in 2 Tim 3:16, the adjective ϑεόπνευστος/ theópneustos) ¶ describes Scripture as being “inspired by God.” In many religions, we encounter the idea that communications enter the human sphere through the mediation of other entities. Plato ( Phaidr. 265) was already systematizing m…


(1,609 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Berger, Wilhelm | Heintel, Peter | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Social Sciences – III. Theology I. Religious Studies If an institution is understood as a set of norms that regulate action in a precise manner, then, from the perspective of religious studies, a differentiation can be made between institutions that regulate religious action and normative standards that regulate non-religious action but are religiously justified. However, it always needs to be taken into consideration that this distinction is made by the external …

Institutional Chaplaincy

(289 words)

Author(s): Hollerbach, Alexander
[German Version] In church and state church law, the institutional chaplaincy is a classic example of a res mixta, including pastoral care in state and local hospitals, penal institutions, homes for old and disabled people, orphanages and care homes, and in a wider sense pastoral care for the armed forces and police, including border police. In constitutional law, all these institutions are based on the fundamental right of freedom of religion in German law (Basic Law, art 4 §§ 1 and 2) and the institutional guar…
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