Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Institutional Congregation

(182 words)

Author(s): Böttcher, Hartmut
[German Version] The church of Jesus Christ does not take form in the local area only. In addition to the territoriall – defined local church congregation, special forms such as personal and institutional congregations have developed. While in personal congregations members are exempted from the local church organization because of particular personal characteristics, institutional congregations stand in a particular legally regulated relationship to an institution and a circle of persons for whom…

Institution, Church

(226 words)

Author(s): Böttcher, Hartmut
[German Version] On the one hand, the concept of the church institution is employed generally, especially in the 19th and early 20th centuries, to explain the nature of the church and is contrasted to or combined with the collegialistic understanding (the church as ¶ a community of saints and an institution of salvation, F.J. Stahl). In the specific sense, on the other hand, the concept refers to certain organizations and institutions within the responsibility of the church. According to the definition under administrative law, an institu…

Institutum Beatae Mariae Virginis

(339 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Mary Ward Sisters; since 2004: Congregatio Jesu), one of the most important female teaching orders of the Catholic Church. The “Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary” was founded by the Englishwoman Mary Ward (1585–1645) in 1609/10 in the Spanish Netherlands during the persecution of Catholics in England in order to care for and educate English girls living there. It was patterned after the model of the Jesuits. The founder, in favor of her youth work, dispensed with both the stri…

Institutum Judaicum

(368 words)

Author(s): Wiese, Christian
[German Version] With its roots in Protestant Jewish missions, the first Institutum Judaicum, founded in 1728 by J.H. Callenberg in Halle, was devoted to the training of missionaries and the distribution of Christian literature in Yiddish and Hebrew. It existed until 1792. In 1883, H.L. Strack founded the Institutum Judaicum Berolinense in Berlin which placed its emphasis on missions, scholarly engagement with Jewish sources and the battle against Antisemitism. After Strack's death, the Institutum…


(179 words)

Author(s): Puza, Richard
[German Version] An instructio in the meaning of CIC/1983 c. 34 serves the interpretation and application of laws for the use of those who are responsible for their execution. Bearers of the potestas executiva (e.g. the Vicar General, but also the diocesan bishop [no separation of powers in Catholic church law!]) are competent to issue an instructio. It is subordinate to the laws. Consequently, its validity ends through derogation or with the expiration of the underlying law. It can neither alter nor invalidate a law. More recent instructions by the Roman dikasteria (e.g. “instruction…

Instruction Courses, Apologetic

(265 words)

Author(s): Dienst, Karl
[German Version] These courses trace back to the initiative of the Apologetische Centrale (Apologetic Center) founded in Berlin-Spandau in 1921 by the Centralausschuß für die Innere Mission (Central Committee for Inland Mission; Carl Gunther Schweitzer, H. Schreiner) with its method of a “new apologetics” influenced primarily by K. Heim. This method proceeds from familiarization with and objective portrayal of the opposing position in order “to understand [it] better than it understands itself” (F…


(428 words)

Author(s): Cansier, Dieter
[German Version] One can protect oneself against the risks of life through personal provision or by acquiring private insurance. Given freedom of choice the individual will decide for the insurance if the costs of covering a certain risk are less than bearing the costs directly. In private insurance, premiums are determined on the basis of risks assessment on the principle of actuarial equivalence. Indemnification payments are based on premium payments, which, in turn, are assessed in terms of the…

Integralism, Brazilian

(127 words)

Author(s): Gertz, René E.
[German Version] Integralism was a fascist movement in Brazil, founded in 1932 by Plinio Salgado “for God, fatherland and family” (one million “greenshirts”). Its doctrine denied religious preferences or aversions. Salgado's deputy, Gustavo Barroso, however, was a radical anti-Semite. Integralism mostly sympathized with Catholicism (H.P. Câmara). Consequently, Lutheran circles (H.G. Dohms) raised objections, also against the nationalism that would render the Lutheran Volkskirche (people's church) impossible. The Estado Novo outlawed integralism (1937), and…


(411 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Blanck, Michael
[German Version] refers to the process of constituting or preserving a whole and is employed in the humanities primarily as a sociological and educational-psychological category. Consequently, in the field of theology, integration is a term with primary relevance for practical theology. Conceptually, in particular the third of the meanings of the Latin adjective integer (1. sound, incorrupt, 2. new, 3. whole) has come to dominate the current notion of integration, while the Latin substantive, integratio, primarily connoted “renovation.” The modern concept of integrati…

Integration Theory

(400 words)

Author(s): Krech, Volkhard
[German Version] With reflection on forced social differentiation, the question of the forces of social integration also arose in the course of the 19th century. H. Spencer in his sociology was the first to view differentiation and integration as mutually complementary processes. The search for answers quickly led to religion. Already the French counter-revolutionaries J.M. de Maistre and L.G.A. Bonald considered religion the guarantor of social order. W.R. Smith attributed a socio-integrative fun…


(1,610 words)

Author(s): Steinmann, Michael | Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics I. Philosophy In the traditional doctrine of cognition (Epistemology), the intellect is primarily viewed as an intuitive capacity (Gk νοῦς/ nous, Lat. intellectus), partly in demarcation from reason as a discursive capacity. The intellect enables a person to attain direct insight into last principles or simple facts, so that the process of cognition is brought to a close logically and rationally (Arist. Eth. Nic. 1143af.). This dimension of grasping the truth…

Intellectual Intuition

(6 words)

[German Version] Vision/Intuition


(1,095 words)

Author(s): Meyering, Theo C.
[German Version] I. Definition – II. History of Research – III. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test and Spearman's g-Factor – IV. Critical Assessment I. Definition Ever since its introduction, the concept of intelligence has been the subject of heated controversy. Accordingly intelligence has been defined in a wide variety of ways ranging from Cyril Burt's definition of intelligence as an innate, general, cognitive ability to such positivist but rather unhelpful definitions as “whatever it is that our tests measure.”…

Intelligence, Artifical

(7 words)

[German Version] Artifical Intelligence

Intelligent Design Theory

(498 words)

Author(s): Dembski, William A.
[German Version] The fundamental idea animating intelligent design theory (IDT) is that events, objects, and structures in the world can exhibit features that reliably signal the effects of intelligence. Special sciences as diverse as animal learning and behavior (Behavioral research), forensics, archeology, cryptography, and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence thus all fall within IDT. IDT becomes controversial when methods developed in these special sciences for sifting the effects of i…


(5 words)

[German Version] Extension/Intension


(7 words)

[German Version] Ends and Means


(1,594 words)

Author(s): Gander, Hans-Helmuth | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Ethics I. Philosophy In the context of action theory, intention/ intentionality (from Lat. intentio) usually denotes an aim or purpose. Intentionality is understood both in the sense of the will that initiates actions and in the sense of the motive or motivation that guides both volition and action. In other philosophical contexts, the prevailing understanding of intentionality goes back to the turn of the 20th century in the work of E. Husserl, who drew in turn on his teacher F. Brentano. In his major work Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt, vo…

Intention, Pope's

(270 words)

Author(s): Heinz, Hanspeter
[German Version] In conjunction with the church's prayer, especially in the celebration of the Eucharist, particular concerns are brought before God in intercessory remembrance, supported by offerings for the worship service and the poor. It has long been customary to mention the givers and their intentions in the liturgy. The prayer formula “according to the pope's intention” (Indulgence) and the mass stipend, a gift of money given a priest outside the celebration of mass with the request that a …


(1,248 words)

Author(s): Stoellger, Philipp | Heesch, Matthias | Mette, Norbert
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Ethics – III. Practical Theology I. Philosophy of Religion To begin the interpretation of society and religion with the notion of interaction means to assume a basis of action. Fundamental forms of interaction are, for example, cooperation, exchange, conflict and competition, or, according to F.D.E. Schleiermacher, identical and individual symbolization and organization. Problems of interaction occur when the rules of interaction are questionable. A monadic the…
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