Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Ivan IV, the Terrible

(179 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] ( Groznyj, better: the Harsh; Aug 25, 1530, Moscow – Mar 18, 1584, Moscow), was the first grand duke to be crowned tsar of all Russia in 1547. He laid the foundations of Russia's rise to a major power by pursuing a policy of territorial expansion in the east (conquest of Kazan in 1552 and of Astrakhan in 1554, beginning of the subjugation of Siberia in 1582), but also contributed to its ruin by engaging in unsuccessful wars (esp. for Livonia, 1558–1582) and implementing cruel measu…

Ivanov, Vyacheslav Ivanovich

(172 words)

Author(s): Hagemeister, Michael
[German Version] (Feb 16, 1866, Moscow – Jul 16, 1949, Rome), poet, cultural philosopher, and essayist. He studied ancient history and classical philology in Berlin (under T. Mommsen) and elsewhere. As the most prominent theorist of the mystical branch of Russian symbolism, Ivanov assembled a circle of poets, artists, and scholars in St. Petersburg from 1905. From 1924, he lived in Italy and lectured at colleges in Pavia and Rome, also entertaining close contacts to German cultural circles. He con…

Ives, Charles Edward

(170 words)

Author(s): Rathert, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Oct 20, 1874, Danbury, CT – May 19, 1954, NY). After organ and piano lessons from his father at an early age, Ives studied musical composition under Horatio Parker at Yale University from 1894 to 1898. He renounced a musical career in 1902 and set up an insurance agency in New York. In 1908, he married the daughter of the Congregationalist preacher Joseph Twichell. Until 1918, Ives composed several instrumental and vocal works without attracting public attention; in these works, …

Ivo of Chartres

(190 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (1040, Chartres? – Dec 23, 1115/1116, Chartres). Following studies in Le Bec (near Lanfranc) and in Paris, Ivo became canon in Nesle, then provost of the canons regular of St. Quentin in Beauvais, and finally bishop of Chartres in 1090. He contributed to the resolution of the Investiture Controversy by distinguishing between ecclesial and royal, unalterable and alterable, spiritual and wordly law. He supported the canons regular (Regulated clergy), whom he placed above the monks. …

Ivory Carving

(3,777 words)

Author(s): Uehlinger, Christoph | Bühl, Gudrun | Kahsnitz, Rainer | Haag, Sabine
[German Version] I. From the Beginnings to the Hellenistic Period – II. Roman Antiquity, Late Antiquity, Byzantium – III. Western Middle Ages to the Gothic – IV. Baroque to the Modern Era I. From the Beginnings to the Hellenistic Period Ivory carving is attested in Egypt from the 5th millennium bce, whence it reached the Levant by the end of the Chalcolithic. Tusks from African and Asian elephants served as the raw materials, in addition to tusks from hippopotamuses who lived in herds in Nubia, Egypt and Palestine (rarely, tusks of wild pig…

Ivory Coast

(582 words)

Author(s): Shank, David A.
[German Version] (Côte d'Ivoire), a West African trading area on the Gulf of Guinea, was an autonomous French colony from 1893 onward and has been an independent state with a constitutional government since 1960 under the official name République de Côte d'Ivoire. It covers an area of 200,366 km2 and disposes of 550,395 km of coastline at a latitude of roughly 5° N, stretching from the Liberian border on the Cavally River to the Tano River and Ghana. It also borders on Guinea, Mali, and Burkina Faso. The capital is Yamoussoukro, the Baoulé vi…

Iwand, Hans Joachim

(303 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jul 11, 1899, Schreibendorf, Silesia [Pisary, Poland] – May 2, 1960, Bonn), systematic theologian and politically involved churchman. After studying theology at Breslau and Halle, he was appointed superintendent of studies at the Lutherheim in Königsberg. He received his doctorate in 1924 and gained his Habilitation in 1927. In 1934 he became instructor in New Testament at the Herder Institute in Riga. Deprived of his venia legendi for membership in the Confessing Church, he served from 1935 to 1937 as director of illegal seminaries in Bloestau…