Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

Subscriptions: see


(448 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Manfred G.
[German Version] The lobby is the entrance hall of parliament beyond which non-parliamentarians may not proceed, and the designation of the place, the interest groups, and the activities of stakeholders (lobbyists) that aim to influence the deeds and non-deeds of officeholders (esp. of the legislative and of the executive authority [Power]) in order to further specific interests. As a rule, the process of exerting influence occurs in a formal or informal manner, especially through the conveying of…

Lobwasser, Ambrosius

(175 words)

Author(s): Pfeiffer, Harald
[German Version] (Apr 4, 1515, Schneeberg, Saxony – Nov 27, 1585, Königsberg), professor of ethics and rhetoric in Leipzig from 1542 and professor of jurisprudence in Königsberg from 1563. Lobwasser was a prolific writer of poetry. His main achievement was the translation of the Geneva or Huguenot Psalter (Huguenots: II), which he “pressed into German in like verses” in 1565 “out of love for the melodious language” (dedication to Duke Albert of Prussia). These psalms, which were sung by the French…

Local Church

(1,563 words)

Author(s): Roosen, Rudolf | zu Schlochtern, Josef Meyer | Ohme, Heinz | Küster, Volker
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Meaning – III. Missiology I. Terminology The term local church owes its theological rediscovery to Vatican II and must be understood against the background of the Roman Catholic understanding of the church (VIII, 2.b). There it denotes the church in a specific region, usually a diocese. From a systematic perspective, it refers to the middle level of ecclesiastical organization, between the Roman Catholic universal church and the Catholic parish. In German Protestantism deaneries (Dean/Deanery) or church districts (Church polity:…

Local Cults

(381 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] commonly refers to those cults and corresponding personifications (Local Deities) that are tied to a specific location. Such local cults are anchored in the social community of people who live together in one place and who also function and understand themselves as a community in their non-religious relations. As a local unit, and as the community with the highest rate of interaction after the family, the local cult may be largely identical with the political community; yet at the…

Local Deities

(540 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Local adherents of a religion are identified by the representation of “their” god, be it (as in polytheism; Monotheism and Polytheism) in the form of various local deities with individual names, or (as in universal religions) in the guise of secondary local deities, saints (Saints/Veneration of the Saints) or heroes, or in local divine images of the “one” god. This local dimension of a god is manifested in the construction of his house, of his local domain. The fixing of a deity w…

Loccum Abbey

(218 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] Loccum Abbey, a Cistercian monastery lying 50 km northwest of Hanover, founded in 1163 as a filiation of Volkenroda, Thuringia. It was granted papal exemption in 1183 and an imperial charter in 1152. Its imperial immediacy was confirmed in 1530. The monastery gradually made the transition to the Reformation in the late 16th century, although it retained its autonomy. In 1677, G.W. Molanus organized the hospice according to the principles of Protestant monasticism ( Leges Hospitii). From 1792 onward, J.C. Salfeld transformed it into a “Prediger-Seminarium…

Loci Method

(393 words)

Author(s): Nüssel, Friederike
[German Version] The “loci method” refers to the summarizing description of a specific subject area by means of the general or basic concepts (Gk topoi, Lat. loci) that have become traditionally associated with the respective topic. It is rooted in the classical theory of topics elaborated by dialectics and rhetoric. Drawing on the ancient rhetoricians and the writings of R. Agricola and Erasmus of Rotterdam, Melanchthon, in his Rhetoric (1519), advised students to use the loci method for the clear structuring of the subject matter. In his Loci communes rerum theologicarum (1521), he…

Locke, John

(743 words)

Author(s): Puster, Rolf W.
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1632, Wrington, Somerset – Oct 28, 1704, Oates, Essex). The son of an English lawyer and imbued with Puritan values, John Locke attended Westminster School and matriculated at Oxford in 1652, where his studies extended not only to ¶ scholastic philosophy (Scholasticism) but also to areas of the natural sciences, and especially to the field of medicine. Following various academic and diplomatic activities, in 1667 he became a follower of Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the first Lord of Shaftesbury. A journey to Fra…

Lodenstein, Jodocus van

(198 words)

Author(s): van den Berg, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 6, 1620, Delft, the Netherlands – Aug 6, 1677, Utrecht), came from a patrician family. He studied in Utrecht under G. Voetius, whose spiritual and theological orientation he shared, as well as in Franeker under J. Cocceius, whose theology he did not follow in spite of a personal friendship. He was pastor in Zoetermeer, Sluis, and (from 1653) in Utrecht, where he belonged to the Voetian circle. Lodenstein is a typical representative of the Nadere Reformatie. He fought for a st…

Lods, Adolphe

(215 words)

Author(s): Smend, Rudolf
[German Version] (Aug 17, 1867, Courbevoie/Seine – Mar 10, 1948, Paris), a Protestant Old Testament scholar. Lods studied in Paris, Berlin, and Marburg, and taught in Paris at the Protestant theological faculty (1893–1906) and at the Sorbonne (1906–1937). He critically and independently assessed the issues and conclusions of research in literary and form history in the German-speaking countries and drew on contemporary archaeology, sociology, and the developing comparative religious studies to aut…

Loeffler, Josias Friedrich Christian

(184 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Jan 18, 1752, Saalfeld – Feb 4, 1816, Gamstädt near Gotha), studied in Halle an der Saale from 1769 onward (esp. under J.S. Semler and J.A. Nösselt), served as a preacher in Berlin, was appointed professor of theology in Frankfurt an der Oder in 1782, and general superintendent as well as senior councilor of the consistory in Gotha in 1788. As the ecclesial and theological popularizer of an enlightened rationalism (1803–1816: editor of the Magazin für Prediger [Journal for preachers]), Loeffler's translation (1781, 21792) of Souverain's Le Platonisme dévoilé (1700) …

Loener, Kaspar

(186 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1493, Markt Erlbach – Jan 4, 1546, Nördlingen), attended the monastery school in Heilsbronn, studied in Erfurt from 1508 and perhaps in Wittenberg from 1518. He became pastoral administrator in Unternesselbach and celebrant of the early mass in the Cistercian monastery in Birkenfeld (Neustadt/Aisch) in 1520 and preacher in Hof in 1524. Expelled in 1526, he became preacher in Oelsnitz, enrolled at the University of Wittenberg in 1526, but was a court preacher again already in 1529…

Loening, Edgar

(282 words)

Author(s): Landau, Peter
[German Version] (Jun 14, 1843, Frankfurt am Main – Feb 19, 1919, Halle an der Saale). Born as the son of Zacharias Löwenthal, a Jewish publisher from Frankfurt, Loening gained his habilitation after studying law (in Berlin and elsewhere) in Heidelberg in 1868. As professor of state, church, and administrative law, from 1872 Loening worked first in Strasbourg, then in Dorpat and Rostock, and finally from 1888 in Halle, where he was rector of the university from 1899 to 1900. From 1901, he represented the University of Halle in the Prussian first chamber. His major work in public law was the Leh…

Loën, Johann Michael von

(193 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1694, Frankfurt am Main – Jul 24, 1776, Lingen). After studying jurisprudence in Marburg and Halle (C. Thomasius) and undertaking educational journeys, especially to the courts of European rulers, Loën lived in Frankfurt am Main from an inherited fortune from 1724. Drawing on the form of the courtly Baroque novel, he developed an ¶ enlightened conception of state politics in Der redliche Mann am Hofe (The candid man at court; 1740). In the essay Die einzig wahre Religion (The only true religion; 1750f.), he elaborated an irenic program on the basis …

Loerke, Oskar

(532 words)

Author(s): Michel, Christoph
[German Version] (Mar 13, 1884, Jungen, Western Prussia – Feb 24, 1941, Berlin-Frohnau) studied German language and literature as well as history in Berlin (1903–1907). His first publication, Vineta, appeared in 1907. He undertook a number of journeys that were fruitful for his lyrical and prose writing: Harz 1908; Riesengebirge 1909; Paris 1910; the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest 1911; North Sea 1912; Algeria and Italy 1914. He published Wanderschaft, a collection of poems, in 1911. From 1909, he became acquainted with M. Buber, Emil Strauss, Alfred Momber…

Logia/Sayings Source/Q

(1,286 words)

Author(s): Schröter, Jens
[German Version] Logia/Sayings Source/Q, terms for a second source (abbreviated with the siglum “Q” [for Ger. Quelle = source] since J. Weiß) that is believed to have existed alongside Mark and from which Matthew and Luke drew in the writing of their own Gospels. The postulated existence of such a document, which is neither attested by manuscripts nor mentioned in other sources, thus rests on the premise that the synoptic question can be resolved by the Two-Source Hypothesis. Within this hypothesis, the assumpt…


(4,125 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Theology I. Philosophy 1. Formal logic While signs are determined within the context of a signifying act (semiosis) by their relationship to the sign-users (pragmatic dimension), to the signified (semantic dimension), and to other signs (syntactic dimension) (Semiotics), logic in the broader sense concerns itself with this syntactic relationship of ¶ the signs and sign sequences to one another as well as with the semantic relationship of signs and sign sequences to the structures of subject areas, so that logic m…


(4,012 words)

Author(s): Peppel, Matthias | Slenczka, Notger | Figal, Günter
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Philosophy I. History of Religion The Greek noun logos (λόγος/ lógos), which is derived from the verb λέγειν/ légein, “to say, to speak,” designates the human faculty of speech and ability to reason, usually in combination, as well as numerous individual aspects such as: sentence, topic, oration, prose, teaching, judgment, cause, conclusion, and reason. In its earliest attestations logos refers to an “oration,” whose deceptive effects are frequently emphasized (Hom. Od. I 56) – thus in the personific…


(317 words)

Author(s): Röhlin, Karl-Heinz
[German Version] is a meaning-oriented form of psychotherapy developed by V. Frankl. Its central concept emphasizes the close connection between psychological health and the finding of meaning in life. Frankl considers “will to meaning” the primary human motivation (cf. S. Freud's “will to pleasure” and A. Adler's “will to power”); if it is frustrated, inappropriate neurotic attitudes (Neurosis) can proliferate to fill the vacuum. One task of therapy is therefore to include the mental dimension in…

Løgstrup, Knud Ejler

(427 words)

Author(s): Andersen, Svend
[German Version] (Sep 2, 1905, Copenhagen – Nov 20, 1981, Hyllested) was probably Denmark's most important systematic theologian in the 20th century, especially in the areas of ethics and philosophy of religion. After studying with Hans Lipps and M. Heidegger and a period as pastor, Løgstrup attained the chair in his discipline at the University of Aarhus in 1943. Løgstrup was influenced theologically by Luther and S. Kierkegaard and philosophically by existential phenomenology (Existentialism [ph…

Löhe, Wilhelm

(339 words)

Author(s): Schoenauer, Gerhard
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1808, Fürth – Jan 2, 1872, Neuendettelsau), studied in Erlangen and Berlin and, after a few pastorates in Upper and Central Franconia, was village pastor of Neuendettelsau for almost 35 years. He was strongly influenced by the Awakening movement (Revival/Revival Movements: I, 7), especially by K. v. Raumer and C. Krafft. The transition from the Awakening to confessional Lutheranism is linked to his name in particular. He is numbered one of the most important proponents of…

Lohmann, Theodor Christian

(217 words)

Author(s): Zitt, Renate
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1831, Winsen an der Aller – Aug 31, 1905, Tabarz, Thuringia) was a lawyer, an administrative civil servant, the holder of an honorary doctorate in theology (1901), and an important Protestant social reformer in state social policy and the Inland Mission in Germany. From 1871, Lohmann was a consultant on industrial labor for the Prussian ministry of commerce and proposed the concept of a “labor policy of reconciliation.” In ¶ 1880, Lohmann became O. v. Bismarck's most important collaborator in the imperial interior ministry in the development …

Lohmeyer, Ernst

(307 words)

Author(s): Hutter-Wolandt, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jul 8, 1890, Dorsten, Kreis Recklinghausen – Sep 19, 1946, Fünfeichen, near Neubrandenburg). After studying Protestant theology and philosophy at Tübingen, Leipzig, and Berlin, Lohmeyer became a lecturer in NT at Heidelberg in 1918; from 1920 to 1935 he was professor of NT at Breslau (Wrocław). There he cultivated scholarly interchange with Jewish professors (including Richard Koebner and Richard Hönigswald), which he maintained after 1933. In 1935 these contacts and his ties to …

Loisy, Alfred

(328 words)

Author(s): Arnold, Claus
[German Version] (Feb 28, 1857, Ambrières, Marne – Jun 1, 1940, Ceffonds, Haute-Marne), biblical scholar and philosopher of religion. Following seminary studies at Châlons-sur-Marne from 1874 to 1879, he was ordained to the priesthood; at the urging of L. Duchesne he went to the Institut Catholique in Paris in 1881 as instructor in Hebrew, Assyriology, and exegesis. He also pursued further studies, including work with E. Renan at the Collège de France. After 1899 Loisy devoted himself to the great project of a critical history of the Bible. After the encyclical Providentissimus Deus (1…


(399 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Wyclif[f]ites), adherents of the teachings of J. Wycliffe, were persecuted as heretics in England by both the church and the state until 1559. Spread beyond Oxford, initially by Wycliffe himself and later by his students, Wycliffite ideas were evident from 1382 in London, Leicester, Bristol, and elsewhere. This led to a tightening of the heresy laws (esp. stricter controlling of teachers of theology and priests who preached out-¶ side their parishes; a penalty for possessing the English Bible and religious literature in the vernacular) and to ini…

Lo (Loo, Lohe, vom Lohe), Peter

(177 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (Petrus; 1530, Elberfeld – Sep 13, 1581, Elberfeld). The son of the teacher Johannes Lo, he was chaplain and a Reformation preacher in Elberfeld after 1552, was banished in 1555, and from 1556 to 1558 served as curate in Mengeringhausen, Waldeck, where he authored a Lutheran essay on the Eucharist. Lo then assumed a wide variety of tasks as adviser to the counts of Waldeck (from Beyenburg and Elberfeld). In 1565, after temporary ¶ arrest, he was commissioned by the duke of Kleve to effect the conversion of imprisoned Anabaptists in the district of Blank…


(417 words)

Author(s): Scardigli, Piergiuseppe
[German Version] The Lombards, a Germanic people, are first mentioned in 5 ce in connection with the advance of Tiberius along the lower Elbe (Velleius Paterculus II 106.2). Long untouched by Christianity, in the 2nd century they began repeated forays into the central Danube region. A series of victories under King Audoin (c. 546–560) brought them to Pannnonia and in 568 under Audoin's son Alboin (c. 560–572) to Italy (II, 3.a) – after a coalition of Lombards and Avars had crushed the Gepidae in 567. Within…

London Missionary Society

(369 words)

Author(s): Stanley, Brian
[German Version] (LMS) was founded in London in September 1795 under the simple title “The Missionary Society.” Though inspired by the example of the Baptist Missionary Society (1792), the Missionary Society was to unite all Evangelical Christians in the missionary cause. The Society's early supporters and missionaries included Presbyterians, Anglicans (Anglican Church), as well as Congregationalists (Congregationalism). The Society's “Fundamental Principle” (1796) defined its purpose as the propa…

London, University of

(268 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] In 1826 the Scottish poet Thomas Campbell, the progressive politicians Henry Brougham and Joseph Hume, as well as philosopher James Mill founded University College, London, to provide a university education for men who were excluded, on religious grounds, from studying at Oxford and Cambridge universities. Dismissed by its critics as “the godless college in Gower Street,” it was joined two years later by an Anglican rival, King's College. In 1836, the government established the Un…

Lonergan, Bernard

(361 words)

Author(s): Sala, Giovanni B.
[German Version] (Dec 17, 1904, Buckingham, Québec – Nov 26, 1984, Pickering, Ontario), SJ, Canadian theologian. Lonergan studied philosophy in Heythrop (England) and theology in Rome. He taught dogmatic theology in Montreal and Toronto (1940–1953), at the Gregoriana in Rome (1953–1965), at Harvard University (1971/1972), and at Boston College (1975–1983). His thought, which was oriented toward Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas and marked by knowledge of the natural sciences, was devoted to the specula…

Loofs, Friedrich Armin

(473 words)

Author(s): Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] (Jun 19, 1858, Hildesheim – Jan 13, 1928, Halle an der Saale), Protestant church historian, historian of dogma, and patrologist. He was the son of a conservative Lutheran pastor. As a student (1877–1882 in Leipzig, Tübingen, and Göttingen), he belonged to the Leipzig circle of students around A. v. Harnack, and in Göttingen he was heavily influenced by A. Ritschl. He gained his Habilitation in Leipzig in 1882, became assistant professor there in 1886, and went to Halle as professor extraordinarius in 1887. Already professor of church history …

López, Gregor

(164 words)

Author(s): Fernando Domínguez Reboiras
[German Version] (Jul 4, 1542, Madrid, Spain – Jul 20, 1596, Santa Fe, Mexico), a hermit. After studying as an autodidact and becoming engrossed by the mystical trends of the time, López, who was apparently from the Spanish nobility, left the court in Madrid and lived as a hermit in various places in Spain. After a vision in the monastery of Guadalupe, he traveled to Mexico where he lived as a strict hermit, first in Zacatecas, then in Huasteca, Taxco, Mexico City, and Santa Fe, and wrote many (mostly unedited) treatises on mysticism and folk medicine. Fernando Domínguez Reboiras Bibliography…

Lorber Society

(321 words)

Author(s): Obst, Helmut
[German Version] The Lorber Society (Lorber- Gesellschaft) was established in Bietigheim (Württemberg) in 1949. It succeeded the Neusalem Gesellschaft, which was founded in 1924 and banned in 1937. Its objective is to preserve the original text of the revelations received by the musician Jakob Lorber (1800–1864) from Graz, Austria, and to publish them worldwide (known by the name Neuoffenbarung [new revelation]). From 1840, Lorber, the “messenger of God,” received extensive messages (some 10,000 printed pages) dictated verbatim by an “inner voice”; they largely claim to…

Lord/Lady of the Animals

(380 words)

Author(s): Rydving, Håkan
[German Version] This technical expression (also: Master/Mistress of the Animals; borrowed from Hom. Il. 21.470 πóτνια ϑηρων/ pótnia thēr ο n, “Mistress of the Animals,” as an epithet for Artemis); in the discussion in classics, it primarily denotes an iconographic type: a deity (flanked by two animals) was employed in older theories of religion as a general term for quite varied types of spirits, gods, and other superhuman beings who were related in some fashion to animals (esp. prey). It denotes both (male, femal…

Lord's Supper

(6 words)

[German Version] Eucharist/Communion


(355 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] is a significant Marian pilgrimage site near Ancona (central Italy). According to legend, the sanctuary there (“Santa Casa”), a simple rectangular wall with no foundation surrounded by a magnificent hall church (1468–1587) and clad with marble (1513–1538), probably following plans by D. Bramante, is Mary's place of birth in Nazareth, the house in which the annunciation of the immaculate conception took place, and in which Jesus grew up. After the Muslim conquest of Akko in 1291, a…

Loreto, Sisters of

(284 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] 1. Sisters of Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, founded in 1812 in Hardin's Creek near Louisville (KY, USA) by Charles Nerinckx (1761–1824) for the education of the youth. It was the first female congregation in the United States that originated without the assistance of a European community. The sisters were active in the China mission from 1923 to 1951. Today, there are about 600 sisters (as of 1995) in the United States and Latin America (motherhouse: Nerinx, KY). 2. Loreto Sisters (Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary), one of the five branches of the Ins…

Lorichius, Jodocus

(185 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Lurkäs; 1540, Trarbach/Mosel – Sep 29, 1612, Freiburg im Breisgau), began his studies in Freiburg in 1562 and received his master's degree in 1566. From 1568, he studied theology, earned his doctorate in 1574, and became professor in 1575. Lorichius participated in the revision of the statutes of the faculty of theology and of the university of Freiburg (1578/1586, 1581/1583). He was dean of the faculty of theology and rector of the university several times. His lectures, Lectiones de casibus conscientiae (1595–1598), and his principal work, Thesaurus novus utrius…

Lorrain, Claude

(194 words)

Author(s): Renftle, Barbara Regina
[German Version] (actually Claude Gellée; 1600, Champagne near Mirecourt, France – Nov 23, 1682, Rome, Italy), a French painter, illustrator, and engraver, was a student of Agostino Tassi (1565–1644) in Rome in 1619. In 1627, he settled there permanently and worked for Pope Urban VIII and the Roman aristocracy, among others. Together with Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665), he founded the French classical style and devoted himself to “ideal landscape painting.” His classically strict composition was acco…


(860 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Gerhard Philipp
[German Version] (eastern France). Three territorial designations – Austrasia, Lotharingia, and Lorraine (Ger. Lothringen) – characterize the historical development of this border region between France and the German Empire. At the beginning of the 6th century, a new kingdom (Austrasia) arose from the Roman province of Belgica I that extended, over the course of three centuries, from Reims to Thuringia. The later Lorraine was surrounded by three political powers: Burgundy, Alemania, and Champagne.…

Lortz, Josef

(199 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Dec 13, 1887, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg – Feb 21, 1975, Luxembourg), Catholic church historian. After studying in Rome, Fribourg (Switzerland), and Bonn, he earned his Habilitation with Sebastian Merkle in Würzburg (1923), and was professor in Braunsberg (1929) and in Münster (1933). In his “history of ideas” turn to the objective, to authority, and community, Lortz saw intersections between National Socialism (I) and Catholicism. Lortz was removed from his chair in 1945 mainly because of his writing Katholischer Zugang zum Nationalsozialismus (A Catholic ap…

Löscher, Valentin Ernst

(412 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 29, 1673, Sondershausen – Feb 12, 1749, Dresden). As the son of the Wittenberg professor of theology Caspar Löscher (1636–1718), Valentin Löscher also studied in Wittenberg. After a study tour (extending as far as Holland and Denmark), he received a master's degree and became an adjunct to the faculty of philosophy in 1692. He was appointed pastor and superintendent in Jüterbog (1699), superintendent in Delitzsch (1702), professor of theology in Wittenberg (1707), pastor of t…


(441 words)

Author(s): Kotiranta, Matti
[German Version] 1. Nikolay Onufriyevich (Dec 6, 1870, Kreslavka, Belarus [today Latvia] – Jan 24, 1965, Sainte-Genviève-des-Bois, France), one of the most important Russian philosophers at the turn of the 20th century. He identified with the Intuitivists, and his thought was influenced by the monadology of G.W. Leibniz and the intuitivism of H. Bergson. After studies in St. Petersburg, Lossky earned a doctorate in Germany with W. Wundt. Because of his religious convictions, Lossky felt compelled to …

Losungen (Watchwords)

(605 words)

Author(s): Neijenhuis, Jörg
[German Version] The first Losung was given orally on May 3, 1728, by N. v. Zinzendorf of the Moravian Church (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: II) in the context of evening worship as a watchword for the next day. Every day from then on, the Brethren took the daily watchword given by Zinzendorf to the 32 houses of the Herrnhut community in Saxony, so that it could shape the community's common spiritual life. Zinzendorf chose a verse from the Bible or a line from a hymn. From this initial phase, a written fragment from the year 1729 has survived. The Losungen entered a second phase when they w…

Los-von-Rom-Bewegung (Free-from-Rome Movement)

(522 words)

Author(s): Landersdorfer, Anton
[German Version] The Los-von-Rom-Bewegung was a movement within the Habsburg territories between 1897 and 1918 that encouraged people to leave the Catholic Church and to join the Protestant and Old Catholic Churches (Old Catholics). Its primary goals were to Protestantize Austrian Catholics and incorporate the German-speaking regions of Austria into the German Empire. It was triggered by a decree of Prime Minister Kasimir Felix Badeni recognizing Czech as an administrative language in Bohemia and M…


(385 words)

Author(s): Pye, Michael
[German Version] (Skt. Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra, i.e. “ Sūtra on the lotus blossom of the true dharma ”), a fundamental text of early Mahāyāna Buddhism and a work of prime importance in the Chinese Tiantai school (Jap. Tendai) as well as in Japanese Nichiren Buddhism. The most important Chinese translation by Kumārajīva (406) bears the title Miaofa Lianhua Jing (“ Sūtra on the lotus blossom of the sublime dharma”), which gave rise, in Japan, to the frequently used prayer formula Namu myōhō renge kyō. Sanskrit manuscripts are of later date. In terms of content, the concept of “(skill…

Lotzer, Sebastian

(163 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Weygelin, Wergelin; Basty, Beste; c. 1490, Horb am Neckar – after 1525, Switzerland?). Between 1523 and 1525, Lotzer, a craftsman (furrier?) ¶ and lay theologian, published five pieces supporting the rights of the laity and the Reformation. Together with C. Schappeler he led the Protestant movement in the imperial city of Memmingen, where early in January of 1525 he participated in a disputation with Catholic traditionalists and helped introduce the Reformation. Writing in support of the rebellious peasants, the Baltringer Haufen, he composed the most import…

Lotze, Rudolf Hermann

(389 words)

Author(s): Steinmann, Michael
[German Version] (May 21, 1817, Bautzen – Jul 1, 1881, Berlin). After receiving degrees in medicine and philosophy, Lotze was appointed professor in Göttingen in 1844. His significance in the history of philosophy is twofold. He released philosophy from speculative Idealism by contrasting the realism of the natural sciences. He was also the author of an epistemology that was not naturalistically reducible, such as would be developed by Neo-Kantianism in the person of Lotze's student W. Windelband …

Lotz, Johannes Baptist

(278 words)

Author(s): Haeffner, Gerd
[German Version] (Aug 2, 1903, Darmstadt – Mar 3, 1992, Munich), a Jesuit since 1921, was appointed professor of metaphysics at Pullach in 1936; after 1952 he also taught in Rome. His thought moved between Thomas Aquinas, German Idealism, and M. Heidegger. He espoused a philosophy of being and subject that takes its starting point in the positional nature of judgment, expressed by its vehicle “is,” possible only by advancing toward the supercategorial extension and absoluteness of “Being.” With G.…

Louis IX (Saint)

(672 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Gerhard Philipp
[German Version] (Apr 25, 1214, Poissy – Aug 25, 1270, Carthage), king of France; eldest son of Louis VIII (reigned 1223–1226) and Blanche of Castile (1188–1252). Louis became king of France at the age of twelve, initially under the guardianship of his mother, who remained coregent even after 1234. Louis's foreign policy was determined by three great spheres of influence: Byzantium (Constantinople/Byzantium), Islam, and the Mongol Empire. The alliance of the French king with the Mongols against Is…

Louis of Toulouse (Saint)

(167 words)

Author(s): Schmucki, Oktavian
[German Version] (of Anjou, of Marseille; Feb 1274, probably in Brignoles, Provence – Aug 19, 1297, Brignoles), son of Charles II of Anjou. From 1288 to 1295 he was held hostage for his father in Catalonia, where two Franciscans saw to his education; they also brought him into contact with Peter Olivi. After the death of his elder brother, Louis renounced the throne in favor of his younger brother Robert and joined the Franciscan order. In 1296 he was appointed and consecrated archbishop of Toulou…

Louis the Bavarian

(264 words)

Author(s): Müller, Rainer A.
[German Version] (1282? – Oct 11, 1347, Puch, near Fürstenfeldbruck), German king and Holy Roman emperor, son of Duke Louis II of Bavaria (d. 1294). Duke of Upper Bavaria from 1302, Louis was elected as the German king in 1314 against the Habsburg candidate, Frederick III. After his victory over the anti-king at the Battle of Mühldorf in 1322, Louis vigorously pursued a policy of territorial expansion, with Wittelsbach acquisitions including Mark Brandenburg (1323), Tirol (1342), and Holland (1346). Because of his Italian policy and the conciliarist position taken by members of his ¶ cou…

Louis the Pious

(186 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (714, Chasseneuil-du-Poitou near Poitiers – Jun 20, 840, near Ingelheim am Rhein). The third son of Charlemagne, Louis was appointed king of Aquitaine in 781 and coemperor in 813; he became sole emperor in 814. Initially he ruled energetically and decisively (Capitularies, reform of the rules for canons and monks with Benedict of Aniane). The ordinatio of 817 governing succession was intended to assure the unity of the empire: the younger sons were made subordinate to Lothar, the eldest. In 829, when Louis awarded a separate kingdom w…

Louis XIV

(240 words)

Author(s): Geiss, Peter
[German Version] (Sep 5, 1638, Saint-Germain-en-Laye – Sep 1, 1715, Versailles), king of France from 1643. Louis's youth was marked by a revolt of the nobility and the Paris Parlement against Cardinal J. Mazarin, who reigned until 1661 on behalf of the king, who was still in his minority. Victory over this “Fronde” in 1653 laid the groundwork for French high absolutism, of ¶ which Louis, the “Sun King,” was virtually the ideal embodiment. Besides the continued expansion of a centralized administration, persecution of Protestants and Jansenists (Jansenism), c…


(494 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] Lourdes, Marian pilgrimage site in southern France. The roots of the pilgrimage are in alleged apparitions of Mary, beginning on Feb 11, 1858, to a poor 14-year-old miller's daughter, Bernadette Soubirous. In the first apparition, in the grotto of Massabielle she saw a girl wearing a white dress and veil, with a blue belt and yellow roses on her feet. The apparitions were repeated during the following three weeks; the silent apparitions ¶ were followed by a second phase, in which she was told to do penance on behalf of sinners. On Feb 25, at the direct…


(8,725 words)

Author(s): Prohl, Inken | Morgen, Michèle | Stock, Konrad | Steinmann, Michael | Herms, Eilert | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Bible – III. Dogmatics – IV. Philosophy – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Ethics – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Judaism I. History of Religion The concept of love describes a relationship of affection, tenderness, or devotion between human beings and between humans and God (Love of/for God) or the gods. The Old Testament speaks of the love of God for humanity; in Judaism, the commandment of obedience to God is followed by the commandment to love God (Deut 6:5) and one's fe…

Love/Charity Orders, Religious

(641 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Many religious communities have the word love or caritas ( carità, charité, charity, etc.) in their name, referring to love of ¶ God and neighbor and usually further qualified as love of Christ, love of Mary, and so on (Merciful Brothers and Sisters of, Borromeans, Grey Brothers and Sisters, Good Shepherd Sisters, Rosminians, Vincentian Sisters). Frères de la Charité (Brothers of Charity; Congregatio Fratrum a Caritate, FC), founded as a lay congregation in 1807 in Ghent (Belgium) by the priest Pierre- Joseph Triest (1760–1836); today…


(261 words)

Author(s): Ward, Kevin
[German Version] Situated among the Xhosa people, Lovedale Mission, founded in 1826 near the town of Alice in South Africa's Eastern Cape, was named after John Love, secretary of the Glasgow Missionary Society. In 1844 the newly formed Free Church of Scotland took control and developed Lovedale, under William Govan, as one of the foremost educational institutions in Africa for black and white students. In 1866, its new principal, James Stewart, argued for an education more adapted to the social an…

Love Feast (Agape)

(482 words)

Author(s): Söding, Thomas | Tripp, David H.
[German Version] I. Early Christianity – II. Modern Times I. Early Christianity The Agape or love feast is a liturgically structured congregational feast. The first use of the term ἀγάπη ( agápē, “love”) is found in Jude 12 and Ign. Smyrn. 8.2. The phenomenon is widely documented from as early as the 2nd century. Comparable to this are symposia, which are known also to Judaism, not least as a charitable institution ( T. Job 10.1–3). H. Lietzmann assumed that, besides the Eucharist, which derives from Jesus' Last Supper (I), there existed non-sacramental but liturgi…

Love Gifts, Church

(302 words)

Author(s): Götzelmann, Arnd
[German Version] Love gifts have been given since earliest Christian times as donations, collections, bequests, and contributions for Christian welfare within and beyond the congregation and for the leaders or the employees of the congregation. In contrast to fixed levies such as the tithe (Tithing), contributions, or taxes, love gifts are understood to be voluntary and supplementary. Essentially, two types of love gift can be differentiated. 1. Well into the 20th century, not only pastors, but also sextons, clerks, deacons, and others, received gifts of money…

Love of/for God

(5,381 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Hans-Christoph | Morgen, Michèle | Stock, Konrad | Avemarie, Friedrich | Necker, Gerold | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Christianity – IV. Judaism – V. Islam I. Old Testament 1. God's love The notion of YHWH's love (in Heb. primarily derivatives of the root אהב/ ʾhb) for his people first appears in the book of the prophet Hosea, where God's love is cited as the “ground of divine election” (Jenni) in response to challenges to the election (I) of Israel by God (Hos 1:9). Hosea uses the image of a father's love (11:1; cf. also 11:4); despite his son's disobedience, he cannot give him up …

Love of One's Neighbor

(2,576 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus | Mathys, Hanspeter | Avemarie, Friedrich | Lindemann, Andreas | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Meaning – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Ethics I. Meaning Love of one's neighbor is the love of creaturely persons, for other concrete creaturely persons (“neighbors”) as being in the image of God; it includes love of enemies (Matt 5:44 = Luke 6:27; Enemy,). The Reformers believed that the twofold law of love (Mark 12:29–31 parr.), expressive of a well-ordered creation, embodies all the demands of the law (cf. Luther, BSLK 586). The love…

Low Church

(387 words)

Author(s): Bray, Gerald Lewis
[German Version] Low Church is the name given to a party within the Church of England, which, after he Reformation, accepted the right of the state to control its worship and its doctrine. This position was almost universal in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, and after the revolution of 1688 it became closely identified with the legal establishment of the church. In the 19th century, the term “low church” became associated with the movement to resist Anglo-Catholicism and its ritualistic te…

Löwenich, Walther von

(194 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1903, Nuremberg – Jan 3, 1992, Erlangen), was professor of church history, history of dogma, confessional studies, and Christian art in Erlangen (1946–1971), rector of the university there (1956/1957), and president of the Lutheran Society (1964/1965). Löwenich rejected the absolutization of dogmatic statements and their equation with divine truth. He became known primarily as an important Luther scholar who combined his pioneering historical studies of Luther's theology w…

Löwith, Karl

(232 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter
[German Version] (Jan 9, 1897, Munich – May 24, 1973, Heidelberg), German philosopher. Löwith studied in Munich and Freiburg, earned his doctorate in Munich and his habilitation under M. Heidegger, in Marburg with his thesis “Das Individuum in der Rolle des Mitmenschen. Ein Beitrag zur anthropologischen Grundlegung der ethischen Probleme” [The individual in the role of fellow human being: a contribution to the anthropological foundation of the ethical problem]. In 1933, Löwith emigrated to Italy, …

Löw, Leopold

(170 words)

Author(s): Wiese, Christian
[German Version] (May 22, 1811, Čzerná Hora, Moravia [today Poland] – Oct 13, 1875, Szeged, Hungary). As a scholar and rabbi – 1840 in Nagykanizsa, 1846 in Papa, and from 1850 in Szeged – Löw was one of the leading figures of the Hungarian Jewish Reform movement (Reform Judaism). He energetically promoted the emancipation of the Hungarian Jews and, against Orthodox opposition, a cautious reinterpretation of Judaism in the context of the rabbinic tradition. As a military chaplain during the Hungari…

Lowth, Robert

(212 words)

Author(s): Bultmann, Christoph
[German Version] (Nov 27, 1710, Winchester, England – Nov 3, 1787, London), Anglican theologian and the bishop of Oxford (from 1766) and London (from 1777). As professor of literature in Oxford (1741–1750), Lowth gave lectures in which he introduced the Old Testament into the contemporary debate concerning poetic language and the sublime. Through this hermeneutical decision, he was able to take a biblically based position in the controversy concerning Deism, and open up a new literary-critical approach to the OT. His lectures De Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum (1753; Eng. 1787), a pamphl…


(1,691 words)

Author(s): Thiel, Josef F.
[German Version] The name “Luba” (pl. baluba, sing. muluba in the spoken language) denotes a group of Bantu-speaking peoples, numbering well over 5,000,000, in the southern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo,. Roughly speaking, they fall into a northern and a southern group. The northern group comprises the Kasai Luba in the west, the Songye Luba and Hemba Luba in the east; the southern group comprises the Katanga Luba, associated with the early Luba empire, and sometimes the Hemba Luba in the e…

Lubac, Henri de

(652 words)

Author(s): Voderholzer, Rudolf
[German Version] Lubac, Henri de, (Feb 20, 1896, Cambrai, France – Sep 4, 1991, Paris), a French Jesuit theologian, became cardinal in 1983. Lubac was one of the principal renewers of Catholic theology in the light of biblical and patristic sources and exerted decisive influence on Vatican II. After taking part in World War I and finishing his studies, according to the Jesuit curriculum, in Jersey, Ore Place (intensive preoccupation with M. Blondel,'s philosophy), and Lyon, he was appointed lectur…

Lubavich, Hasidic Movement

(285 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] Lubavich is a small town in Russia, near Smolensk, which became the common designation of the Hasidic movement (Hasidism), ¶ Habad, founded at the end of the 18th century. Seven generations of the Schneursohn family were the spiritual leaders of the people of Lubavich. Rabbi Shneur Salman von Liadi is still today revered as the founder and leader of Habad Hasidism. After his death his disciples elected his son, Rabbi Dov Baer (1773–1827) to lead them. Baer's son, M.M. Schneerson, became known by his …

Lubbertus, Sibrandus

(160 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1555 Langwarden, Butjadingen, Lower Saxony – Jan 10, 1625, Franeker, The Netherlands). After studying at Wittenberg, Geneva, Marburg, and Neustadt an der Haardt and a brief ministry in Emden from 1582 to 1584, Lubbertus was appointed the first professor of theology at the newly founded university of Franeker. After receiving his Dr.theol. from Heidelberg in 1587, he wrote numerous works to secure the heritage of the Reformation against the Socinians ( De Jesu Christo servatore, 1611), the Remonstrants (Arminians), and especially Catholic theologians …

Lübeck, Bishopric

(857 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] Lübeck's origins go back to the German colonization and Christianization of Slavic Vagria/East Holstein under Henry the Lion, after the failed establishment of the bishopric of Oldenburg c. 972–983 and the destruction of the seat of the Slavic principality at Liubice (Old Lübeck). The German commercial town was founded in 1159 and the bishopric was moved there in 1160; a cathedral, several monasteries, and four parish churches were erected between 1163 and 1229. The small episcopa…

Lübeck, Vincent

(153 words)

Author(s): Delcamp, Robert
[German Version] (c. 1654, Padingbüttel, Cuxhaven, Germany – Feb 9, 1740, Hamburg, Germany), German composer, organist, and teacher. Lübeck studied with Caspar Förckelrath and perhaps Andreas Kneller. He was organist of St. Cosmae and Damiani, Stade, from 1674 until 1702. His brilliant reputation won him the post of organist at the Nikolaikirche, Hamburg, which he held until his death. His nine extant organ works are characterized by brilliant virtuosity and thematic unity, and demonstrate the com…

Lucaris, Cyril

(372 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (baptismal name, Constantinos; Nov 13, 1570, Herakleion, Crete – Jun 29, 1638, near Constantinople) was patriarch of Constantinople for five terms in office (brought about by depositions and reinstallations) between 1620 and 1638. He was a theologian open to Calvinism and controversial in Orthodoxy, and a martyr (strangled by a band of Janissaries). As the scion of a respected family of priests, he first worked, after studying in Venice and Padua, with his uncle Meletius Pegas, wh…

Lucas of Prague

(80 words)

Author(s): Hilsch, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1460, Prague – Dec 11, 1528, Jungbunzlau, Bohemia) was the most important theologian and leader of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren. After 1494, he contributed definitively to the reconfiguration and consolidation of their theology and polity (“Grand Party”). In the last years of his life, he made initial (critical) contacts with Luther and Melanchthon. Peter Hilsch Bibliography A. Molnár, Bratr Lukáš, 1948 E. Peschke, Kirche und Welt in der Theologie der Böhmischen Brüder, 1981.

Lucian of Antioch (Saint)

(318 words)

Author(s): Aland, Barbara
[German Version] Lucian of Antioch (Saint), an Antiochene presbyter and a controversial figure in church history research. The only reliable data concerning his life are that he suffered martyrdom on Jan 7(?), 312 in Nicomedia and authored a number of Libelli de fide and letters. Considering this paucity of information, it seems quite remarkable that history has linked Lucian to very different theological movements and trends. He is thus regarded, for instance, – via Paul of Samosata – as the father of Arianism (Arius/Arianism; A. v. Har-¶ nack), as the founder of the Antiochene s…

Lucian of Samosata

(372 words)

Author(s): Betz, Hans Dieter
[German Version] (c. 120 ce, Samosata on the Euphrates – after 180, Egypt [?]) was a prominent author of the Second Sophistic School. Not a Greek by birth, he acquired an extensive knowledge of the Greek language and of Greek rhetoric, literature, and art through his studies and travels. Journeys as a rhetorician and longer sojourns in Ionia, Greece, Italy, Gaul, and Egypt allowed him to gather a wide variety of impressions relating to social life. He drew the topics and genres of his rich literary …

Lucia, Saint

(142 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] According to the legendary Passio (c. 500), as a virgin consecrated to Christ she was put to death by the sword, after much torture, in Syracuse during the Diocletian persecution (Persecutions of Christians: I). Her supposed relics came to Metz in 970, whence her cult expanded (feast day Dec 13). The Lucia catacomb and the grave inscription of Euskia, signs of early cultic veneration, were discovered in Syracuse at the end of the 19th century. The figure of Lucia found its way into poetry, popular song, and popular piety. Klaus Unterburger Bibliography Sources: Martyrolog…


(5 words)

[German Version] Devil

Lucifer of Cagliari

(281 words)

Author(s): Ulrich, Jörg
[German Version] (died 370), who became bishop of Calaris (Cagliari) on Sardinia c. 350, was exiled under Emperor Constantius II at the 355 Synod of Milan because he refused to agree to the deposition of Athanasius. Amnestied in 362 under Julian the Apostate, Lucifer contributed substantially during his return journey to Calaris to the prolongation of the Antiochene Schism by independently consecrating the presbyterPaulinus as Eustathian bishop of Antioch (Eustathius of Antioch). Back in his episc…

Lücke, Gottfried Christian Friedrich

(310 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1791, Egeln near Magdeburg – Feb 14, 1855, Göttingen). After periods of undergraduate and graduate study in Halle an der Saale and Göttingen, Lücke became assistant professor in Berlin (1818), professor of New Testament and church history in Bonn (1819), and of New Testament and systematic theology in Göttingen (1827). In 1839, he joined the Consistorial Council and in 1843 became abbot of Bursfelde Abbey. Lücke may be considered the most important student of F.D.E. Schleiermacher; he published his teacher's Hermeneutik posthumously in 1838. In his Grundriß …


(254 words)

Author(s): Krasser, Helmut
[German Version] (T. Lucretius Carus; c. 98–55 bce) authored a didactic philosophical poem entitled De rerum natura in which he outlined the core issues of Epicurean teachings (Epicurus) in the fields of physics, anthropology, and cosmology. The individual books are devoted to the following topics: 1. principles of atomism, 2. theory of motion, 3. the soul, 4. theory of perception, 5. natural history, 6. natural phenomena. His principal source is Epicurus's work Peri physeos; his main concern is to deliver the human being from his fear of the gods and of death, and t…

Luder, Peter

(161 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1415, Kislau [Bad Schönborn] – 1472, Vienna). After basic studies in Heidelberg from 1430/1431, Luder lived from 1434 to 1456 in Italy and also visited Greece. He was a student of Guarino da Verona (1374–1460) in Ferrara, received a notary's certificate from the Republic of Venice in 1444 and studied medicine in Padua. From 1456 to 1460, he held an electoral commission to teach the studia humanitatis in Heidelberg. In his programmatic inaugural address, he commended the study of history, rhetoric, and poetry. In 1460, he resumed his travels. …

Lüderwald, Johann Balthasar

(171 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1722, Fahrland near Potsdam – Aug 25, 1796, Vorsfelde near Wolfsburg), studied in Helmstedt where he attended lectures by J.L. v. Mosheim. In 1747, he became a Lutheran pastor in Glentorf near Königslutter, and in 1762 superintendent and pastor primarius in Vorsfelde. Sympathetic in his early years with the theology of Wolffianism (C. Wolff), he ultimately adhered to late orthodoxy (Orthodoxy: II, 2) and opposed G.E. Lessing in the Fragments Controversy. In addition, Lüderwald became known especially for his comprehensive treatise on the Berufung und Seli…

Ludger, Saint

(203 words)

Author(s): von Padberg, Lutz E.
[German Version] (c. 742, Zwesen – Mar 26, 809, Billerbeck) was from a West Frisian noble family who supported Willibrord. As a student of Gregory of Utrecht, whose Vita he wrote in 790/791, and after an apprenticeship with Alcuin in York (767–772), Ludger became one of the most important Anglo-Saxon missionaries. After his activities in Frisia and a pilgrimage to Rome and Monte Cassino (784–787), Charlemagne entrusted him with the West Saxon mission. In Münster, Ludger established a monasterium in 793 which, along with his own monastery Werden, was under his rectorate. C…

Lüdke, Friedrich Germanus

(356 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Apr 10, 1730, Stendal – Mar 8, 1792, Berlin) studied theology in Halle an der Saal, initially with S.J. Baumgarten, then, after participating in the Seven Years War as a chaplain, under the definitive influence of J.A. Nösselt. In 1765, he became deacon, then archdeacon at St. Nicholas (Berlin). Through his writings and, even more, through his many contributions to F. Nicolai's Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek ( Comprehensive German Library, nearly 1000 reviews), Lüdke became an important proponent of neology (Enlightenment, The: II, 4, c). His ess…

Ludlow, John Malcolm Forbes

(154 words)

Author(s): Larsen, Timothy
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1821, Nimach, India – Oct 17, 1911, London, England) was a Christian socialist, born to English parents, but raised in Paris, where he studied at the Collège Bourbon. From 1838 he was entered at Lincoln's Inn, becoming a barrister in 1843. He became a devoted disciple of F.D. Maurice, facilitating the gathering of a group of like-minded men around Maurice. Ludlow was the architect and builder of the resulting Christian socialist movement (Socialism), which began in 1848. In 1850 he founded the Christian Socialist journal. He deserves most of the credit for…

Ludolf, Heinrich Wilhelm

(150 words)

Author(s): Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika
[German Version] (Dec 20, 1655, Erfurt – Jan 25, 1712, London) became secretary to Prince George of Denmark in 1686, took a diplomatic journey to Russia in 1693 followed by stays in England, Holland and Germany (in Halle an der Saale and elsewhere). He traveled to the Orient (1698/99), returning to London in 1700 as a corresponding member of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Ludolf's Reformation objective of an ecclesia universalis, which ¶ was closely linked to diplomatic and economic concerns and met or attracted the interest of A.H. Francke, related in…

Ludolf, Hiob

(186 words)

Author(s): Butterweck, Christel
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1624, Erfurt – Apr 8, 1704, Frankfurt). Ludolf went to school in Erfurt, then studied medicine and law there from 1639 to 1645. Advanced study of the major European and Middle Eastern languages qualified him as a private tutor and interpreter for noble families. During study trips, he came to know such figures as G. Voetius and A.M. van Schurman. In 1651 he entered the service of Duke Ernest the Pious, whose enthusiasm for Ethiopia (Acts 8:26–40) led him to support Ludolf's work on an Ethiopic dictionary (21699), a grammar (21703), and a geography (1681). Ernest…

Ludolf of Saxony

(180 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (c. 1300, northern Germany – Apr 10, 1378, Straßburg). Initially a Dominican, he was a Carthusian after c. 1340 (Straßburg, Coblenz [Prior], Mainz, Straßburg). His major work is the Vita Jesu Christi, a work based on the gospel harmony of Zacharias of Besançon (Chrysopolitanus, first half of the 12th cent.), early church authors and medieval, meditative and historicizing Jesus literature. It does not simply recount Jesus' life, but seeks, in individual sections (structured according to the scheme of lectio, meditatio and oratio and enriched by introductions an…

Lugano, Bishopric

(147 words)

Author(s): Krahwinkler, Harald
[German Version] The see of Lugano was established in 1888 as the apostolic administrature of the canton of Ticino, encompassing former diocesan territories of Milan and Como. Until 1968 it was linked with the see of Basel aeque principaliter. The year 1971 saw the nominal transformation of the apostolic administrature into a diocese directly responsible to the Holy See. A theological academy was founded in 1992 and a theological faculty in 1993, when the seminary in Lugano that had been closed in 1968 was reopened under Bishop Euge…

Lugo, John de

(167 words)

Author(s): Reboiras, Fernando Domínguez
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1583, Madrid – Aug 10, 1660, Rome), theologian, Jesuit (1603), and cardinal (1643). After 1616 Lugo taught philosophy at various Spanish colleges; from 1621 to 1642, he was professor of theology at the Jesuit College in Rome. After 1642 he served as adviser to several Roman congregations and oversaw the publication of his extensive writings, which dealt more with resolving internal Scholastic controversies, especially in moral theology (but also analysis fidei, the history of dogma, and doctrine of the eucharistic sacrifice), than with fundam…

Luhmann, Niklas

(376 words)

Author(s): Hesse, Heidrun
[German Version] (Dec 8, 1927, Lüneburg, near Hamburg – Nov 6, 1998, Oerlinghausen, near Bielefeld, Westphalia), one of the most important social theorists of the 20th century. Luhmann viewed sociology as the most important academic discipline of modernity and developed a conceptually highly ambitious version of sociological systems theory. After taking a degree in law, ¶ he began a career in Lüneburg's public administration followed by service in the ministry of education and cultural affairs of Lower Saxony. After studying sociology with T. Parsons…

Luís de Granada

(183 words)

Author(s): Reboiras, Fernando Domínguez
[German Version] (Louis of Granada, Luís de Sarria; 1504, Granada – Dec 31, 1588, Lisbon), Spanish Dominican, renowned preacher and writer. After studying at Valladolid, he served 11 years as a preacher at the cathedral in Córdoba. In 1550 he was transferred to Portugal, where he remained until his death. Equipped with an excellent Humanistic and theological education, Luís left an extensive body of works, which found a worldwide audience. His writings – especially his imaginative, emotional descr…


(114 words)

Author(s): Toepsch, Alexandra
[German Version] Luján, pilgrimage (III, 2.b) site in Argentina northwest of Buenos Aires, symbol of the national and religious identity of the Argentinian people. A miraculous statue was brought to Luján by ship from Brazil in 1630 at the request of a Portuguese immigrant, a small terracotta figurine representing Mary Immaculate. Early in the 20th century, the statue was silvered. Initially the statue was venerated at a farm on the Rio Luján. In 1762, with the support of the faithful, a chapel was built in the modern city of Luján. The neo-Gothic pilgrimage church dates from 1874. Alexandr…

Lukács, György

(435 words)

Author(s): Vajda, Mihály
[German Version] (George; Apr 13, 1885, Budapest – Jun 4, 1971, Budapest). Lukács was born into a prosperous, assimilated Jewish family. His interest turned early to philosophy. Personal contact with G. Simmel, through whom he came to know E. Bloch as well as Emil Lask and Max Weber, shaped his views in the years leading up to World War I and the early years of the war. During the last years of the war, he spent most of his time in Hungary, where he was the leading figure of the so-called Sunday C…

Luke, Gospel of

(2,195 words)

Author(s): Radl, Walter
[German Version] I. Composition – II. Theology – III. History The Gospel of Luke, the third canonical Gospel, is attested in full in the Greek manuscripts Sinaiticus and Vaticanus dating from the 4th century, but large portions are already attested in Papyri nos. 4, 45, and especially 75 dating from the 3rd century (Biblical manuscripts: II, 1 and 2). I. Composition 1. Content and structure The Gospel of Luke begins with a preamble (1:1–4) and narratives similar to a prologue, the birth and infancy narratives (1:5–2:52), in which Luke relates the origins o…

Lull, Raymond

(559 words)

Author(s): Lohr, Charles
[German Version] (1232/1233, Majorca, Spain – 1316, Tunis, Morocco), Catalonian philosopher, theologian, mystic, and poet. At about the age of 30 (around 1263), while he was court official of the later King James II of Majorca, Lull decided to dedicate his life to the conversion of the infidels. He studied Latin and Arabic, Christian and Islamic theology, authored several works in the most varied literary genres, outlined an Ars compendiosa inveniendi veritatem (1274), and founded a monastery of languages for future missionaries in Majorca (1276). A new version of the Ars ( Ars demonst…

Lullus of Mainz (Saint)

(147 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Lul; c. 710, Wessex – Oct 16, 786, Hersfeld). In Rome in 738 Lullus joined his fellow-countryman Boniface, whom he helped (after 752 as auxiliary bishop) expand the organization of the church east of the Rhine. After the death of Boniface in 754, Lullus was appointed to the see of Mainz (I), although Pope Hadrian I did not make him archbishop until 780/782. Lullus commissioned the Vita Bonifatii, served as an adviser to Charlemagne in evangelizing the Saxons, and expanded the bishopric of Mainz by absorbing the sees of Büraburg and Erfurt (I). S…


(287 words)

Author(s): Simuchimba, Melvin
[German Version] Lumpa was an African Independent Church founded in 1955 by Alice Lenshina Mulenga Lubusha in Sione (“Zion”), in the Chinsali district of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). Lenshina, a lapsed catechumen of the Free Church of Scotland at Lubwa mission, began after receiving visions to preach, baptize and eradicate local sorcery. Her exclusion from the mission church led to the founding of Lumpa church (Lumpa means “surpassing all others”). At the ¶ top of the church hierarchy was “Mama” (grandmother) Lenshina herself, supported by deacons in charge of out…
▲   Back to top   ▲