Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(448 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Manfred G.
[German Version] The lobby is the entrance hall of parliament beyond which non-parliamentarians may not proceed, and the designation of the place, the interest groups, and the activities of stakeholders (lobbyists) that aim to influence the deeds and non-deeds of officeholders (esp. of the legislative and of the executive authority [Power]) in order to further specific interests. As a rule, the process of exerting influence occurs in a formal or informal manner, especially through the conveying of…

Lobwasser, Ambrosius

(175 words)

Author(s): Pfeiffer, Harald
[German Version] (Apr 4, 1515, Schneeberg, Saxony – Nov 27, 1585, Königsberg), professor of ethics and rhetoric in Leipzig from 1542 and professor of jurisprudence in Königsberg from 1563. Lobwasser was a prolific writer of poetry. His main achievement was the translation of the Geneva or Huguenot Psalter (Huguenots: II), which he “pressed into German in like verses” in 1565 “out of love for the melodious language” (dedication to Duke Albert of Prussia). These psalms, which were sung by the French…

Local Church

(1,563 words)

Author(s): Roosen, Rudolf | zu Schlochtern, Josef Meyer | Ohme, Heinz | Küster, Volker
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Meaning – III. Missiology I. Terminology The term local church owes its theological rediscovery to Vatican II and must be understood against the background of the Roman Catholic understanding of the church (VIII, 2.b). There it denotes the church in a specific region, usually a diocese. From a systematic perspective, it refers to the middle level of ecclesiastical organization, between the Roman Catholic universal church and the Catholic parish. In German Protestantism deaneries (Dean/Deanery) or church districts (Church polity:…

Local Cults

(381 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] commonly refers to those cults and corresponding personifications (Local Deities) that are tied to a specific location. Such local cults are anchored in the social community of people who live together in one place and who also function and understand themselves as a community in their non-religious relations. As a local unit, and as the community with the highest rate of interaction after the family, the local cult may be largely identical with the political community; yet at the…

Local Deities

(540 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph
[German Version] Local adherents of a religion are identified by the representation of “their” god, be it (as in polytheism; Monotheism and Polytheism) in the form of various local deities with individual names, or (as in universal religions) in the guise of secondary local deities, saints (Saints/Veneration of the Saints) or heroes, or in local divine images of the “one” god. This local dimension of a god is manifested in the construction of his house, of his local domain. The fixing of a deity w…

Loccum Abbey

(218 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] Loccum Abbey, a Cistercian monastery lying 50 km northwest of Hanover, founded in 1163 as a filiation of Volkenroda, Thuringia. It was granted papal exemption in 1183 and an imperial charter in 1152. Its imperial immediacy was confirmed in 1530. The monastery gradually made the transition to the Reformation in the late 16th century, although it retained its autonomy. In 1677, G.W. Molanus organized the hospice according to the principles of Protestant monasticism ( Leges Hospitii). From 1792 onward, J.C. Salfeld transformed it into a “Prediger-Seminarium…

Loci Method

(393 words)

Author(s): Nüssel, Friederike
[German Version] The “loci method” refers to the summarizing description of a specific subject area by means of the general or basic concepts (Gk topoi, Lat. loci) that have become traditionally associated with the respective topic. It is rooted in the classical theory of topics elaborated by dialectics and rhetoric. Drawing on the ancient rhetoricians and the writings of R. Agricola and Erasmus of Rotterdam, Melanchthon, in his Rhetoric (1519), advised students to use the loci method for the clear structuring of the subject matter. In his Loci communes rerum theologicarum (1521), he…

Locke, John

(743 words)

Author(s): Puster, Rolf W.
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1632, Wrington, Somerset – Oct 28, 1704, Oates, Essex). The son of an English lawyer and imbued with Puritan values, John Locke attended Westminster School and matriculated at Oxford in 1652, where his studies extended not only to ¶ scholastic philosophy (Scholasticism) but also to areas of the natural sciences, and especially to the field of medicine. Following various academic and diplomatic activities, in 1667 he became a follower of Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the first Lord of Shaftesbury. A journey to Fra…

Lodenstein, Jodocus van

(198 words)

Author(s): van den Berg, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 6, 1620, Delft, the Netherlands – Aug 6, 1677, Utrecht), came from a patrician family. He studied in Utrecht under G. Voetius, whose spiritual and theological orientation he shared, as well as in Franeker under J. Cocceius, whose theology he did not follow in spite of a personal friendship. He was pastor in Zoetermeer, Sluis, and (from 1653) in Utrecht, where he belonged to the Voetian circle. Lodenstein is a typical representative of the Nadere Reformatie. He fought for a st…

Lods, Adolphe

(215 words)

Author(s): Smend, Rudolf
[German Version] (Aug 17, 1867, Courbevoie/Seine – Mar 10, 1948, Paris), a Protestant Old Testament scholar. Lods studied in Paris, Berlin, and Marburg, and taught in Paris at the Protestant theological faculty (1893–1906) and at the Sorbonne (1906–1937). He critically and independently assessed the issues and conclusions of research in literary and form history in the German-speaking countries and drew on contemporary archaeology, sociology, and the developing comparative religious studies to aut…

Loeffler, Josias Friedrich Christian

(184 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Jan 18, 1752, Saalfeld – Feb 4, 1816, Gamstädt near Gotha), studied in Halle an der Saale from 1769 onward (esp. under J.S. Semler and J.A. Nösselt), served as a preacher in Berlin, was appointed professor of theology in Frankfurt an der Oder in 1782, and general superintendent as well as senior councilor of the consistory in Gotha in 1788. As the ecclesial and theological popularizer of an enlightened rationalism (1803–1816: editor of the Magazin für Prediger [Journal for preachers]), Loeffler's translation (1781, 21792) of Souverain's Le Platonisme dévoilé (1700) …

Loener, Kaspar

(186 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1493, Markt Erlbach – Jan 4, 1546, Nördlingen), attended the monastery school in Heilsbronn, studied in Erfurt from 1508 and perhaps in Wittenberg from 1518. He became pastoral administrator in Unternesselbach and celebrant of the early mass in the Cistercian monastery in Birkenfeld (Neustadt/Aisch) in 1520 and preacher in Hof in 1524. Expelled in 1526, he became preacher in Oelsnitz, enrolled at the University of Wittenberg in 1526, but was a court preacher again already in 1529…

Loening, Edgar

(282 words)

Author(s): Landau, Peter
[German Version] (Jun 14, 1843, Frankfurt am Main – Feb 19, 1919, Halle an der Saale). Born as the son of Zacharias Löwenthal, a Jewish publisher from Frankfurt, Loening gained his habilitation after studying law (in Berlin and elsewhere) in Heidelberg in 1868. As professor of state, church, and administrative law, from 1872 Loening worked first in Strasbourg, then in Dorpat and Rostock, and finally from 1888 in Halle, where he was rector of the university from 1899 to 1900. From 1901, he represented the University of Halle in the Prussian first chamber. His major work in public law was the Leh…

Loën, Johann Michael von

(193 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Volker
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1694, Frankfurt am Main – Jul 24, 1776, Lingen). After studying jurisprudence in Marburg and Halle (C. Thomasius) and undertaking educational journeys, especially to the courts of European rulers, Loën lived in Frankfurt am Main from an inherited fortune from 1724. Drawing on the form of the courtly Baroque novel, he developed an ¶ enlightened conception of state politics in Der redliche Mann am Hofe (The candid man at court; 1740). In the essay Die einzig wahre Religion (The only true religion; 1750f.), he elaborated an irenic program on the basis …

Loerke, Oskar

(532 words)

Author(s): Michel, Christoph
[German Version] (Mar 13, 1884, Jungen, Western Prussia – Feb 24, 1941, Berlin-Frohnau) studied German language and literature as well as history in Berlin (1903–1907). His first publication, Vineta, appeared in 1907. He undertook a number of journeys that were fruitful for his lyrical and prose writing: Harz 1908; Riesengebirge 1909; Paris 1910; the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest 1911; North Sea 1912; Algeria and Italy 1914. He published Wanderschaft, a collection of poems, in 1911. From 1909, he became acquainted with M. Buber, Emil Strauss, Alfred Momber…

Logia/Sayings Source/Q

(1,286 words)

Author(s): Schröter, Jens
[German Version] Logia/Sayings Source/Q, terms for a second source (abbreviated with the siglum “Q” [for Ger. Quelle = source] since J. Weiß) that is believed to have existed alongside Mark and from which Matthew and Luke drew in the writing of their own Gospels. The postulated existence of such a document, which is neither attested by manuscripts nor mentioned in other sources, thus rests on the premise that the synoptic question can be resolved by the Two-Source Hypothesis. Within this hypothesis, the assumpt…


(4,125 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Theology I. Philosophy 1. Formal logic While signs are determined within the context of a signifying act (semiosis) by their relationship to the sign-users (pragmatic dimension), to the signified (semantic dimension), and to other signs (syntactic dimension) (Semiotics), logic in the broader sense concerns itself with this syntactic relationship of ¶ the signs and sign sequences to one another as well as with the semantic relationship of signs and sign sequences to the structures of subject areas, so that logic m…


(4,012 words)

Author(s): Peppel, Matthias | Slenczka, Notger | Figal, Günter
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Philosophy I. History of Religion The Greek noun logos (λόγος/ lógos), which is derived from the verb λέγειν/ légein, “to say, to speak,” designates the human faculty of speech and ability to reason, usually in combination, as well as numerous individual aspects such as: sentence, topic, oration, prose, teaching, judgment, cause, conclusion, and reason. In its earliest attestations logos refers to an “oration,” whose deceptive effects are frequently emphasized (Hom. Od. I 56) – thus in the personific…


(317 words)

Author(s): Röhlin, Karl-Heinz
[German Version] is a meaning-oriented form of psychotherapy developed by V. Frankl. Its central concept emphasizes the close connection between psychological health and the finding of meaning in life. Frankl considers “will to meaning” the primary human motivation (cf. S. Freud's “will to pleasure” and A. Adler's “will to power”); if it is frustrated, inappropriate neurotic attitudes (Neurosis) can proliferate to fill the vacuum. One task of therapy is therefore to include the mental dimension in…

Løgstrup, Knud Ejler

(427 words)

Author(s): Andersen, Svend
[German Version] (Sep 2, 1905, Copenhagen – Nov 20, 1981, Hyllested) was probably Denmark's most important systematic theologian in the 20th century, especially in the areas of ethics and philosophy of religion. After studying with Hans Lipps and M. Heidegger and a period as pastor, Løgstrup attained the chair in his discipline at the University of Aarhus in 1943. Løgstrup was influenced theologically by Luther and S. Kierkegaard and philosophically by existential phenomenology (Existentialism [ph…

Löhe, Wilhelm

(339 words)

Author(s): Schoenauer, Gerhard
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1808, Fürth – Jan 2, 1872, Neuendettelsau), studied in Erlangen and Berlin and, after a few pastorates in Upper and Central Franconia, was village pastor of Neuendettelsau for almost 35 years. He was strongly influenced by the Awakening movement (Revival/Revival Movements: I, 7), especially by K. v. Raumer and C. Krafft. The transition from the Awakening to confessional Lutheranism is linked to his name in particular. He is numbered one of the most important proponents of…

Lohmann, Theodor Christian

(217 words)

Author(s): Zitt, Renate
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1831, Winsen an der Aller – Aug 31, 1905, Tabarz, Thuringia) was a lawyer, an administrative civil servant, the holder of an honorary doctorate in theology (1901), and an important Protestant social reformer in state social policy and the Inland Mission in Germany. From 1871, Lohmann was a consultant on industrial labor for the Prussian ministry of commerce and proposed the concept of a “labor policy of reconciliation.” In ¶ 1880, Lohmann became O. v. Bismarck's most important collaborator in the imperial interior ministry in the development …

Lohmeyer, Ernst

(307 words)

Author(s): Hutter-Wolandt, Ulrich
[German Version] (Jul 8, 1890, Dorsten, Kreis Recklinghausen – Sep 19, 1946, Fünfeichen, near Neubrandenburg). After studying Protestant theology and philosophy at Tübingen, Leipzig, and Berlin, Lohmeyer became a lecturer in NT at Heidelberg in 1918; from 1920 to 1935 he was professor of NT at Breslau (Wrocław). There he cultivated scholarly interchange with Jewish professors (including Richard Koebner and Richard Hönigswald), which he maintained after 1933. In 1935 these contacts and his ties to …

Loisy, Alfred

(328 words)

Author(s): Arnold, Claus
[German Version] (Feb 28, 1857, Ambrières, Marne – Jun 1, 1940, Ceffonds, Haute-Marne), biblical scholar and philosopher of religion. Following seminary studies at Châlons-sur-Marne from 1874 to 1879, he was ordained to the priesthood; at the urging of L. Duchesne he went to the Institut Catholique in Paris in 1881 as instructor in Hebrew, Assyriology, and exegesis. He also pursued further studies, including work with E. Renan at the Collège de France. After 1899 Loisy devoted himself to the great project of a critical history of the Bible. After the encyclical Providentissimus Deus (1…


(399 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Wyclif[f]ites), adherents of the teachings of J. Wycliffe, were persecuted as heretics in England by both the church and the state until 1559. Spread beyond Oxford, initially by Wycliffe himself and later by his students, Wycliffite ideas were evident from 1382 in London, Leicester, Bristol, and elsewhere. This led to a tightening of the heresy laws (esp. stricter controlling of teachers of theology and priests who preached out-¶ side their parishes; a penalty for possessing the English Bible and religious literature in the vernacular) and to ini…

Lo (Loo, Lohe, vom Lohe), Peter

(177 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (Petrus; 1530, Elberfeld – Sep 13, 1581, Elberfeld). The son of the teacher Johannes Lo, he was chaplain and a Reformation preacher in Elberfeld after 1552, was banished in 1555, and from 1556 to 1558 served as curate in Mengeringhausen, Waldeck, where he authored a Lutheran essay on the Eucharist. Lo then assumed a wide variety of tasks as adviser to the counts of Waldeck (from Beyenburg and Elberfeld). In 1565, after temporary ¶ arrest, he was commissioned by the duke of Kleve to effect the conversion of imprisoned Anabaptists in the district of Blank…


(417 words)

Author(s): Scardigli, Piergiuseppe
[German Version] The Lombards, a Germanic people, are first mentioned in 5 ce in connection with the advance of Tiberius along the lower Elbe (Velleius Paterculus II 106.2). Long untouched by Christianity, in the 2nd century they began repeated forays into the central Danube region. A series of victories under King Audoin (c. 546–560) brought them to Pannnonia and in 568 under Audoin's son Alboin (c. 560–572) to Italy (II, 3.a) – after a coalition of Lombards and Avars had crushed the Gepidae in 567. Within…

London Missionary Society

(369 words)

Author(s): Stanley, Brian
[German Version] (LMS) was founded in London in September 1795 under the simple title “The Missionary Society.” Though inspired by the example of the Baptist Missionary Society (1792), the Missionary Society was to unite all Evangelical Christians in the missionary cause. The Society's early supporters and missionaries included Presbyterians, Anglicans (Anglican Church), as well as Congregationalists (Congregationalism). The Society's “Fundamental Principle” (1796) defined its purpose as the propa…

London, University of

(268 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] In 1826 the Scottish poet Thomas Campbell, the progressive politicians Henry Brougham and Joseph Hume, as well as philosopher James Mill founded University College, London, to provide a university education for men who were excluded, on religious grounds, from studying at Oxford and Cambridge universities. Dismissed by its critics as “the godless college in Gower Street,” it was joined two years later by an Anglican rival, King's College. In 1836, the government established the Un…

Lonergan, Bernard

(361 words)

Author(s): Sala, Giovanni B.
[German Version] (Dec 17, 1904, Buckingham, Québec – Nov 26, 1984, Pickering, Ontario), SJ, Canadian theologian. Lonergan studied philosophy in Heythrop (England) and theology in Rome. He taught dogmatic theology in Montreal and Toronto (1940–1953), at the Gregoriana in Rome (1953–1965), at Harvard University (1971/1972), and at Boston College (1975–1983). His thought, which was oriented toward Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas and marked by knowledge of the natural sciences, was devoted to the specula…

Loofs, Friedrich Armin

(473 words)

Author(s): Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] (Jun 19, 1858, Hildesheim – Jan 13, 1928, Halle an der Saale), Protestant church historian, historian of dogma, and patrologist. He was the son of a conservative Lutheran pastor. As a student (1877–1882 in Leipzig, Tübingen, and Göttingen), he belonged to the Leipzig circle of students around A. v. Harnack, and in Göttingen he was heavily influenced by A. Ritschl. He gained his Habilitation in Leipzig in 1882, became assistant professor there in 1886, and went to Halle as professor extraordinarius in 1887. Already professor of church history …

López, Gregor

(164 words)

Author(s): Fernando Domínguez Reboiras
[German Version] (Jul 4, 1542, Madrid, Spain – Jul 20, 1596, Santa Fe, Mexico), a hermit. After studying as an autodidact and becoming engrossed by the mystical trends of the time, López, who was apparently from the Spanish nobility, left the court in Madrid and lived as a hermit in various places in Spain. After a vision in the monastery of Guadalupe, he traveled to Mexico where he lived as a strict hermit, first in Zacatecas, then in Huasteca, Taxco, Mexico City, and Santa Fe, and wrote many (mostly unedited) treatises on mysticism and folk medicine. Fernando Domínguez Reboiras Bibliography…

Lorber Society

(321 words)

Author(s): Obst, Helmut
[German Version] The Lorber Society (Lorber- Gesellschaft) was established in Bietigheim (Württemberg) in 1949. It succeeded the Neusalem Gesellschaft, which was founded in 1924 and banned in 1937. Its objective is to preserve the original text of the revelations received by the musician Jakob Lorber (1800–1864) from Graz, Austria, and to publish them worldwide (known by the name Neuoffenbarung [new revelation]). From 1840, Lorber, the “messenger of God,” received extensive messages (some 10,000 printed pages) dictated verbatim by an “inner voice”; they largely claim to…

Lord/Lady of the Animals

(380 words)

Author(s): Rydving, Håkan
[German Version] This technical expression (also: Master/Mistress of the Animals; borrowed from Hom. Il. 21.470 πóτνια ϑηρων/ pótnia thēr ο n, “Mistress of the Animals,” as an epithet for Artemis); in the discussion in classics, it primarily denotes an iconographic type: a deity (flanked by two animals) was employed in older theories of religion as a general term for quite varied types of spirits, gods, and other superhuman beings who were related in some fashion to animals (esp. prey). It denotes both (male, femal…

Lord's Supper

(6 words)

[German Version] Eucharist/Communion


(355 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] is a significant Marian pilgrimage site near Ancona (central Italy). According to legend, the sanctuary there (“Santa Casa”), a simple rectangular wall with no foundation surrounded by a magnificent hall church (1468–1587) and clad with marble (1513–1538), probably following plans by D. Bramante, is Mary's place of birth in Nazareth, the house in which the annunciation of the immaculate conception took place, and in which Jesus grew up. After the Muslim conquest of Akko in 1291, a…

Loreto, Sisters of

(284 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] 1. Sisters of Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, founded in 1812 in Hardin's Creek near Louisville (KY, USA) by Charles Nerinckx (1761–1824) for the education of the youth. It was the first female congregation in the United States that originated without the assistance of a European community. The sisters were active in the China mission from 1923 to 1951. Today, there are about 600 sisters (as of 1995) in the United States and Latin America (motherhouse: Nerinx, KY). 2. Loreto Sisters (Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary), one of the five branches of the Ins…

Lorichius, Jodocus

(185 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] (Lurkäs; 1540, Trarbach/Mosel – Sep 29, 1612, Freiburg im Breisgau), began his studies in Freiburg in 1562 and received his master's degree in 1566. From 1568, he studied theology, earned his doctorate in 1574, and became professor in 1575. Lorichius participated in the revision of the statutes of the faculty of theology and of the university of Freiburg (1578/1586, 1581/1583). He was dean of the faculty of theology and rector of the university several times. His lectures, Lectiones de casibus conscientiae (1595–1598), and his principal work, Thesaurus novus utrius…

Lorrain, Claude

(194 words)

Author(s): Renftle, Barbara Regina
[German Version] (actually Claude Gellée; 1600, Champagne near Mirecourt, France – Nov 23, 1682, Rome, Italy), a French painter, illustrator, and engraver, was a student of Agostino Tassi (1565–1644) in Rome in 1619. In 1627, he settled there permanently and worked for Pope Urban VIII and the Roman aristocracy, among others. Together with Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665), he founded the French classical style and devoted himself to “ideal landscape painting.” His classically strict composition was acco…


(860 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Gerhard Philipp
[German Version] (eastern France). Three territorial designations – Austrasia, Lotharingia, and Lorraine (Ger. Lothringen) – characterize the historical development of this border region between France and the German Empire. At the beginning of the 6th century, a new kingdom (Austrasia) arose from the Roman province of Belgica I that extended, over the course of three centuries, from Reims to Thuringia. The later Lorraine was surrounded by three political powers: Burgundy, Alemania, and Champagne.…

Lortz, Josef

(199 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Hubert
[German Version] (Dec 13, 1887, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg – Feb 21, 1975, Luxembourg), Catholic church historian. After studying in Rome, Fribourg (Switzerland), and Bonn, he earned his Habilitation with Sebastian Merkle in Würzburg (1923), and was professor in Braunsberg (1929) and in Münster (1933). In his “history of ideas” turn to the objective, to authority, and community, Lortz saw intersections between National Socialism (I) and Catholicism. Lortz was removed from his chair in 1945 mainly because of his writing Katholischer Zugang zum Nationalsozialismus (A Catholic ap…

Löscher, Valentin Ernst

(412 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 29, 1673, Sondershausen – Feb 12, 1749, Dresden). As the son of the Wittenberg professor of theology Caspar Löscher (1636–1718), Valentin Löscher also studied in Wittenberg. After a study tour (extending as far as Holland and Denmark), he received a master's degree and became an adjunct to the faculty of philosophy in 1692. He was appointed pastor and superintendent in Jüterbog (1699), superintendent in Delitzsch (1702), professor of theology in Wittenberg (1707), pastor of t…


(441 words)

Author(s): Kotiranta, Matti
[German Version] 1. Nikolay Onufriyevich (Dec 6, 1870, Kreslavka, Belarus [today Latvia] – Jan 24, 1965, Sainte-Genviève-des-Bois, France), one of the most important Russian philosophers at the turn of the 20th century. He identified with the Intuitivists, and his thought was influenced by the monadology of G.W. Leibniz and the intuitivism of H. Bergson. After studies in St. Petersburg, Lossky earned a doctorate in Germany with W. Wundt. Because of his religious convictions, Lossky felt compelled to …

Losungen (Watchwords)

(605 words)

Author(s): Neijenhuis, Jörg
[German Version] The first Losung was given orally on May 3, 1728, by N. v. Zinzendorf of the Moravian Church (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: II) in the context of evening worship as a watchword for the next day. Every day from then on, the Brethren took the daily watchword given by Zinzendorf to the 32 houses of the Herrnhut community in Saxony, so that it could shape the community's common spiritual life. Zinzendorf chose a verse from the Bible or a line from a hymn. From this initial phase, a written fragment from the year 1729 has survived. The Losungen entered a second phase when they w…

Los-von-Rom-Bewegung (Free-from-Rome Movement)

(522 words)

Author(s): Landersdorfer, Anton
[German Version] The Los-von-Rom-Bewegung was a movement within the Habsburg territories between 1897 and 1918 that encouraged people to leave the Catholic Church and to join the Protestant and Old Catholic Churches (Old Catholics). Its primary goals were to Protestantize Austrian Catholics and incorporate the German-speaking regions of Austria into the German Empire. It was triggered by a decree of Prime Minister Kasimir Felix Badeni recognizing Czech as an administrative language in Bohemia and M…


(385 words)

Author(s): Pye, Michael
[German Version] (Skt. Saddharmapuṇḍarīkasūtra, i.e. “ Sūtra on the lotus blossom of the true dharma ”), a fundamental text of early Mahāyāna Buddhism and a work of prime importance in the Chinese Tiantai school (Jap. Tendai) as well as in Japanese Nichiren Buddhism. The most important Chinese translation by Kumārajīva (406) bears the title Miaofa Lianhua Jing (“ Sūtra on the lotus blossom of the sublime dharma”), which gave rise, in Japan, to the frequently used prayer formula Namu myōhō renge kyō. Sanskrit manuscripts are of later date. In terms of content, the concept of “(skill…

Lotzer, Sebastian

(163 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Weygelin, Wergelin; Basty, Beste; c. 1490, Horb am Neckar – after 1525, Switzerland?). Between 1523 and 1525, Lotzer, a craftsman (furrier?) ¶ and lay theologian, published five pieces supporting the rights of the laity and the Reformation. Together with C. Schappeler he led the Protestant movement in the imperial city of Memmingen, where early in January of 1525 he participated in a disputation with Catholic traditionalists and helped introduce the Reformation. Writing in support of the rebellious peasants, the Baltringer Haufen, he composed the most import…

Lotze, Rudolf Hermann

(389 words)

Author(s): Steinmann, Michael
[German Version] (May 21, 1817, Bautzen – Jul 1, 1881, Berlin). After receiving degrees in medicine and philosophy, Lotze was appointed professor in Göttingen in 1844. His significance in the history of philosophy is twofold. He released philosophy from speculative Idealism by contrasting the realism of the natural sciences. He was also the author of an epistemology that was not naturalistically reducible, such as would be developed by Neo-Kantianism in the person of Lotze's student W. Windelband …

Lotz, Johannes Baptist

(278 words)

Author(s): Haeffner, Gerd
[German Version] (Aug 2, 1903, Darmstadt – Mar 3, 1992, Munich), a Jesuit since 1921, was appointed professor of metaphysics at Pullach in 1936; after 1952 he also taught in Rome. His thought moved between Thomas Aquinas, German Idealism, and M. Heidegger. He espoused a philosophy of being and subject that takes its starting point in the positional nature of judgment, expressed by its vehicle “is,” possible only by advancing toward the supercategorial extension and absoluteness of “Being.” With G.…

Louis IX (Saint)

(672 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Gerhard Philipp
[German Version] (Apr 25, 1214, Poissy – Aug 25, 1270, Carthage), king of France; eldest son of Louis VIII (reigned 1223–1226) and Blanche of Castile (1188–1252). Louis became king of France at the age of twelve, initially under the guardianship of his mother, who remained coregent even after 1234. Louis's foreign policy was determined by three great spheres of influence: Byzantium (Constantinople/Byzantium), Islam, and the Mongol Empire. The alliance of the French king with the Mongols against Is…
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