Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Love of/for God

(5,381 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Hans-Christoph | Morgen, Michèle | Stock, Konrad | Avemarie, Friedrich | Necker, Gerold | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Christianity – IV. Judaism – V. Islam I. Old Testament 1. God's love The notion of YHWH's love (in Heb. primarily derivatives of the root אהב/ ʾhb) for his people first appears in the book of the prophet Hosea, where God's love is cited as the “ground of divine election” (Jenni) in response to challenges to the election (I) of Israel by God (Hos 1:9). Hosea uses the image of a father's love (11:1; cf. also 11:4); despite his son's disobedience, he cannot give him up …

Love of One's Neighbor

(2,576 words)

Author(s): Mühling, Markus | Mathys, Hanspeter | Avemarie, Friedrich | Lindemann, Andreas | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Meaning – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Ethics I. Meaning Love of one's neighbor is the love of creaturely persons, for other concrete creaturely persons (“neighbors”) as being in the image of God; it includes love of enemies (Matt 5:44 = Luke 6:27; Enemy,). The Reformers believed that the twofold law of love (Mark 12:29–31 parr.), expressive of a well-ordered creation, embodies all the demands of the law (cf. Luther, BSLK 586). The love…

Low Church

(387 words)

Author(s): Bray, Gerald Lewis
[German Version] Low Church is the name given to a party within the Church of England, which, after he Reformation, accepted the right of the state to control its worship and its doctrine. This position was almost universal in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, and after the revolution of 1688 it became closely identified with the legal establishment of the church. In the 19th century, the term “low church” became associated with the movement to resist Anglo-Catholicism and its ritualistic te…

Löwenich, Walther von

(194 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1903, Nuremberg – Jan 3, 1992, Erlangen), was professor of church history, history of dogma, confessional studies, and Christian art in Erlangen (1946–1971), rector of the university there (1956/1957), and president of the Lutheran Society (1964/1965). Löwenich rejected the absolutization of dogmatic statements and their equation with divine truth. He became known primarily as an important Luther scholar who combined his pioneering historical studies of Luther's theology w…

Löwith, Karl

(232 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter
[German Version] (Jan 9, 1897, Munich – May 24, 1973, Heidelberg), German philosopher. Löwith studied in Munich and Freiburg, earned his doctorate in Munich and his habilitation under M. Heidegger, in Marburg with his thesis “Das Individuum in der Rolle des Mitmenschen. Ein Beitrag zur anthropologischen Grundlegung der ethischen Probleme” [The individual in the role of fellow human being: a contribution to the anthropological foundation of the ethical problem]. In 1933, Löwith emigrated to Italy, …

Löw, Leopold

(170 words)

Author(s): Wiese, Christian
[German Version] (May 22, 1811, Čzerná Hora, Moravia [today Poland] – Oct 13, 1875, Szeged, Hungary). As a scholar and rabbi – 1840 in Nagykanizsa, 1846 in Papa, and from 1850 in Szeged – Löw was one of the leading figures of the Hungarian Jewish Reform movement (Reform Judaism). He energetically promoted the emancipation of the Hungarian Jews and, against Orthodox opposition, a cautious reinterpretation of Judaism in the context of the rabbinic tradition. As a military chaplain during the Hungari…

Lowth, Robert

(212 words)

Author(s): Bultmann, Christoph
[German Version] (Nov 27, 1710, Winchester, England – Nov 3, 1787, London), Anglican theologian and the bishop of Oxford (from 1766) and London (from 1777). As professor of literature in Oxford (1741–1750), Lowth gave lectures in which he introduced the Old Testament into the contemporary debate concerning poetic language and the sublime. Through this hermeneutical decision, he was able to take a biblically based position in the controversy concerning Deism, and open up a new literary-critical approach to the OT. His lectures De Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum (1753; Eng. 1787), a pamphl…


(1,691 words)

Author(s): Thiel, Josef F.
[German Version] The name “Luba” (pl. baluba, sing. muluba in the spoken language) denotes a group of Bantu-speaking peoples, numbering well over 5,000,000, in the southern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo,. Roughly speaking, they fall into a northern and a southern group. The northern group comprises the Kasai Luba in the west, the Songye Luba and Hemba Luba in the east; the southern group comprises the Katanga Luba, associated with the early Luba empire, and sometimes the Hemba Luba in the e…

Lubac, Henri de

(652 words)

Author(s): Voderholzer, Rudolf
[German Version] Lubac, Henri de, (Feb 20, 1896, Cambrai, France – Sep 4, 1991, Paris), a French Jesuit theologian, became cardinal in 1983. Lubac was one of the principal renewers of Catholic theology in the light of biblical and patristic sources and exerted decisive influence on Vatican II. After taking part in World War I and finishing his studies, according to the Jesuit curriculum, in Jersey, Ore Place (intensive preoccupation with M. Blondel,'s philosophy), and Lyon, he was appointed lectur…

Lubavich, Hasidic Movement

(285 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] Lubavich is a small town in Russia, near Smolensk, which became the common designation of the Hasidic movement (Hasidism), ¶ Habad, founded at the end of the 18th century. Seven generations of the Schneursohn family were the spiritual leaders of the people of Lubavich. Rabbi Shneur Salman von Liadi is still today revered as the founder and leader of Habad Hasidism. After his death his disciples elected his son, Rabbi Dov Baer (1773–1827) to lead them. Baer's son, M.M. Schneerson, became known by his …

Lubbertus, Sibrandus

(160 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1555 Langwarden, Butjadingen, Lower Saxony – Jan 10, 1625, Franeker, The Netherlands). After studying at Wittenberg, Geneva, Marburg, and Neustadt an der Haardt and a brief ministry in Emden from 1582 to 1584, Lubbertus was appointed the first professor of theology at the newly founded university of Franeker. After receiving his Dr.theol. from Heidelberg in 1587, he wrote numerous works to secure the heritage of the Reformation against the Socinians ( De Jesu Christo servatore, 1611), the Remonstrants (Arminians), and especially Catholic theologians …

Lübeck, Bishopric

(857 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] Lübeck's origins go back to the German colonization and Christianization of Slavic Vagria/East Holstein under Henry the Lion, after the failed establishment of the bishopric of Oldenburg c. 972–983 and the destruction of the seat of the Slavic principality at Liubice (Old Lübeck). The German commercial town was founded in 1159 and the bishopric was moved there in 1160; a cathedral, several monasteries, and four parish churches were erected between 1163 and 1229. The small episcopa…

Lübeck, Vincent

(153 words)

Author(s): Delcamp, Robert
[German Version] (c. 1654, Padingbüttel, Cuxhaven, Germany – Feb 9, 1740, Hamburg, Germany), German composer, organist, and teacher. Lübeck studied with Caspar Förckelrath and perhaps Andreas Kneller. He was organist of St. Cosmae and Damiani, Stade, from 1674 until 1702. His brilliant reputation won him the post of organist at the Nikolaikirche, Hamburg, which he held until his death. His nine extant organ works are characterized by brilliant virtuosity and thematic unity, and demonstrate the com…

Lucaris, Cyril

(372 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (baptismal name, Constantinos; Nov 13, 1570, Herakleion, Crete – Jun 29, 1638, near Constantinople) was patriarch of Constantinople for five terms in office (brought about by depositions and reinstallations) between 1620 and 1638. He was a theologian open to Calvinism and controversial in Orthodoxy, and a martyr (strangled by a band of Janissaries). As the scion of a respected family of priests, he first worked, after studying in Venice and Padua, with his uncle Meletius Pegas, wh…

Lucas of Prague

(80 words)

Author(s): Hilsch, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1460, Prague – Dec 11, 1528, Jungbunzlau, Bohemia) was the most important theologian and leader of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren. After 1494, he contributed definitively to the reconfiguration and consolidation of their theology and polity (“Grand Party”). In the last years of his life, he made initial (critical) contacts with Luther and Melanchthon. Peter Hilsch Bibliography A. Molnár, Bratr Lukáš, 1948 E. Peschke, Kirche und Welt in der Theologie der Böhmischen Brüder, 1981.

Lucian of Antioch (Saint)

(318 words)

Author(s): Aland, Barbara
[German Version] Lucian of Antioch (Saint), an Antiochene presbyter and a controversial figure in church history research. The only reliable data concerning his life are that he suffered martyrdom on Jan 7(?), 312 in Nicomedia and authored a number of Libelli de fide and letters. Considering this paucity of information, it seems quite remarkable that history has linked Lucian to very different theological movements and trends. He is thus regarded, for instance, – via Paul of Samosata – as the father of Arianism (Arius/Arianism; A. v. Har-¶ nack), as the founder of the Antiochene s…

Lucian of Samosata

(372 words)

Author(s): Betz, Hans Dieter
[German Version] (c. 120 ce, Samosata on the Euphrates – after 180, Egypt [?]) was a prominent author of the Second Sophistic School. Not a Greek by birth, he acquired an extensive knowledge of the Greek language and of Greek rhetoric, literature, and art through his studies and travels. Journeys as a rhetorician and longer sojourns in Ionia, Greece, Italy, Gaul, and Egypt allowed him to gather a wide variety of impressions relating to social life. He drew the topics and genres of his rich literary …

Lucia, Saint

(142 words)

Author(s): Unterburger, Klaus
[German Version] According to the legendary Passio (c. 500), as a virgin consecrated to Christ she was put to death by the sword, after much torture, in Syracuse during the Diocletian persecution (Persecutions of Christians: I). Her supposed relics came to Metz in 970, whence her cult expanded (feast day Dec 13). The Lucia catacomb and the grave inscription of Euskia, signs of early cultic veneration, were discovered in Syracuse at the end of the 19th century. The figure of Lucia found its way into poetry, popular song, and popular piety. Klaus Unterburger Bibliography Sources: Martyrolog…


(5 words)

[German Version] Devil

Lucifer of Cagliari

(281 words)

Author(s): Ulrich, Jörg
[German Version] (died 370), who became bishop of Calaris (Cagliari) on Sardinia c. 350, was exiled under Emperor Constantius II at the 355 Synod of Milan because he refused to agree to the deposition of Athanasius. Amnestied in 362 under Julian the Apostate, Lucifer contributed substantially during his return journey to Calaris to the prolongation of the Antiochene Schism by independently consecrating the presbyterPaulinus as Eustathian bishop of Antioch (Eustathius of Antioch). Back in his episc…

Lücke, Gottfried Christian Friedrich

(310 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1791, Egeln near Magdeburg – Feb 14, 1855, Göttingen). After periods of undergraduate and graduate study in Halle an der Saale and Göttingen, Lücke became assistant professor in Berlin (1818), professor of New Testament and church history in Bonn (1819), and of New Testament and systematic theology in Göttingen (1827). In 1839, he joined the Consistorial Council and in 1843 became abbot of Bursfelde Abbey. Lücke may be considered the most important student of F.D.E. Schleiermacher; he published his teacher's Hermeneutik posthumously in 1838. In his Grundriß …


(254 words)

Author(s): Krasser, Helmut
[German Version] (T. Lucretius Carus; c. 98–55 bce) authored a didactic philosophical poem entitled De rerum natura in which he outlined the core issues of Epicurean teachings (Epicurus) in the fields of physics, anthropology, and cosmology. The individual books are devoted to the following topics: 1. principles of atomism, 2. theory of motion, 3. the soul, 4. theory of perception, 5. natural history, 6. natural phenomena. His principal source is Epicurus's work Peri physeos; his main concern is to deliver the human being from his fear of the gods and of death, and t…

Luder, Peter

(161 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1415, Kislau [Bad Schönborn] – 1472, Vienna). After basic studies in Heidelberg from 1430/1431, Luder lived from 1434 to 1456 in Italy and also visited Greece. He was a student of Guarino da Verona (1374–1460) in Ferrara, received a notary's certificate from the Republic of Venice in 1444 and studied medicine in Padua. From 1456 to 1460, he held an electoral commission to teach the studia humanitatis in Heidelberg. In his programmatic inaugural address, he commended the study of history, rhetoric, and poetry. In 1460, he resumed his travels. …

Lüderwald, Johann Balthasar

(171 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1722, Fahrland near Potsdam – Aug 25, 1796, Vorsfelde near Wolfsburg), studied in Helmstedt where he attended lectures by J.L. v. Mosheim. In 1747, he became a Lutheran pastor in Glentorf near Königslutter, and in 1762 superintendent and pastor primarius in Vorsfelde. Sympathetic in his early years with the theology of Wolffianism (C. Wolff), he ultimately adhered to late orthodoxy (Orthodoxy: II, 2) and opposed G.E. Lessing in the Fragments Controversy. In addition, Lüderwald became known especially for his comprehensive treatise on the Berufung und Seli…

Ludger, Saint

(203 words)

Author(s): von Padberg, Lutz E.
[German Version] (c. 742, Zwesen – Mar 26, 809, Billerbeck) was from a West Frisian noble family who supported Willibrord. As a student of Gregory of Utrecht, whose Vita he wrote in 790/791, and after an apprenticeship with Alcuin in York (767–772), Ludger became one of the most important Anglo-Saxon missionaries. After his activities in Frisia and a pilgrimage to Rome and Monte Cassino (784–787), Charlemagne entrusted him with the West Saxon mission. In Münster, Ludger established a monasterium in 793 which, along with his own monastery Werden, was under his rectorate. C…

Lüdke, Friedrich Germanus

(356 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Apr 10, 1730, Stendal – Mar 8, 1792, Berlin) studied theology in Halle an der Saal, initially with S.J. Baumgarten, then, after participating in the Seven Years War as a chaplain, under the definitive influence of J.A. Nösselt. In 1765, he became deacon, then archdeacon at St. Nicholas (Berlin). Through his writings and, even more, through his many contributions to F. Nicolai's Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek ( Comprehensive German Library, nearly 1000 reviews), Lüdke became an important proponent of neology (Enlightenment, The: II, 4, c). His ess…

Ludlow, John Malcolm Forbes

(154 words)

Author(s): Larsen, Timothy
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1821, Nimach, India – Oct 17, 1911, London, England) was a Christian socialist, born to English parents, but raised in Paris, where he studied at the Collège Bourbon. From 1838 he was entered at Lincoln's Inn, becoming a barrister in 1843. He became a devoted disciple of F.D. Maurice, facilitating the gathering of a group of like-minded men around Maurice. Ludlow was the architect and builder of the resulting Christian socialist movement (Socialism), which began in 1848. In 1850 he founded the Christian Socialist journal. He deserves most of the credit for…

Ludolf, Heinrich Wilhelm

(150 words)

Author(s): Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika
[German Version] (Dec 20, 1655, Erfurt – Jan 25, 1712, London) became secretary to Prince George of Denmark in 1686, took a diplomatic journey to Russia in 1693 followed by stays in England, Holland and Germany (in Halle an der Saale and elsewhere). He traveled to the Orient (1698/99), returning to London in 1700 as a corresponding member of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Ludolf's Reformation objective of an ecclesia universalis, which ¶ was closely linked to diplomatic and economic concerns and met or attracted the interest of A.H. Francke, related in…

Ludolf, Hiob

(186 words)

Author(s): Butterweck, Christel
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1624, Erfurt – Apr 8, 1704, Frankfurt). Ludolf went to school in Erfurt, then studied medicine and law there from 1639 to 1645. Advanced study of the major European and Middle Eastern languages qualified him as a private tutor and interpreter for noble families. During study trips, he came to know such figures as G. Voetius and A.M. van Schurman. In 1651 he entered the service of Duke Ernest the Pious, whose enthusiasm for Ethiopia (Acts 8:26–40) led him to support Ludolf's work on an Ethiopic dictionary (21699), a grammar (21703), and a geography (1681). Ernest…

Ludolf of Saxony

(180 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (c. 1300, northern Germany – Apr 10, 1378, Straßburg). Initially a Dominican, he was a Carthusian after c. 1340 (Straßburg, Coblenz [Prior], Mainz, Straßburg). His major work is the Vita Jesu Christi, a work based on the gospel harmony of Zacharias of Besançon (Chrysopolitanus, first half of the 12th cent.), early church authors and medieval, meditative and historicizing Jesus literature. It does not simply recount Jesus' life, but seeks, in individual sections (structured according to the scheme of lectio, meditatio and oratio and enriched by introductions an…

Lugano, Bishopric

(147 words)

Author(s): Krahwinkler, Harald
[German Version] The see of Lugano was established in 1888 as the apostolic administrature of the canton of Ticino, encompassing former diocesan territories of Milan and Como. Until 1968 it was linked with the see of Basel aeque principaliter. The year 1971 saw the nominal transformation of the apostolic administrature into a diocese directly responsible to the Holy See. A theological academy was founded in 1992 and a theological faculty in 1993, when the seminary in Lugano that had been closed in 1968 was reopened under Bishop Euge…

Lugo, John de

(167 words)

Author(s): Reboiras, Fernando Domínguez
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1583, Madrid – Aug 10, 1660, Rome), theologian, Jesuit (1603), and cardinal (1643). After 1616 Lugo taught philosophy at various Spanish colleges; from 1621 to 1642, he was professor of theology at the Jesuit College in Rome. After 1642 he served as adviser to several Roman congregations and oversaw the publication of his extensive writings, which dealt more with resolving internal Scholastic controversies, especially in moral theology (but also analysis fidei, the history of dogma, and doctrine of the eucharistic sacrifice), than with fundam…

Luhmann, Niklas

(376 words)

Author(s): Hesse, Heidrun
[German Version] (Dec 8, 1927, Lüneburg, near Hamburg – Nov 6, 1998, Oerlinghausen, near Bielefeld, Westphalia), one of the most important social theorists of the 20th century. Luhmann viewed sociology as the most important academic discipline of modernity and developed a conceptually highly ambitious version of sociological systems theory. After taking a degree in law, ¶ he began a career in Lüneburg's public administration followed by service in the ministry of education and cultural affairs of Lower Saxony. After studying sociology with T. Parsons…

Luís de Granada

(183 words)

Author(s): Reboiras, Fernando Domínguez
[German Version] (Louis of Granada, Luís de Sarria; 1504, Granada – Dec 31, 1588, Lisbon), Spanish Dominican, renowned preacher and writer. After studying at Valladolid, he served 11 years as a preacher at the cathedral in Córdoba. In 1550 he was transferred to Portugal, where he remained until his death. Equipped with an excellent Humanistic and theological education, Luís left an extensive body of works, which found a worldwide audience. His writings – especially his imaginative, emotional descr…


(114 words)

Author(s): Toepsch, Alexandra
[German Version] Luján, pilgrimage (III, 2.b) site in Argentina northwest of Buenos Aires, symbol of the national and religious identity of the Argentinian people. A miraculous statue was brought to Luján by ship from Brazil in 1630 at the request of a Portuguese immigrant, a small terracotta figurine representing Mary Immaculate. Early in the 20th century, the statue was silvered. Initially the statue was venerated at a farm on the Rio Luján. In 1762, with the support of the faithful, a chapel was built in the modern city of Luján. The neo-Gothic pilgrimage church dates from 1874. Alexandr…

Lukács, György

(435 words)

Author(s): Vajda, Mihály
[German Version] (George; Apr 13, 1885, Budapest – Jun 4, 1971, Budapest). Lukács was born into a prosperous, assimilated Jewish family. His interest turned early to philosophy. Personal contact with G. Simmel, through whom he came to know E. Bloch as well as Emil Lask and Max Weber, shaped his views in the years leading up to World War I and the early years of the war. During the last years of the war, he spent most of his time in Hungary, where he was the leading figure of the so-called Sunday C…

Luke, Gospel of

(2,195 words)

Author(s): Radl, Walter
[German Version] I. Composition – II. Theology – III. History The Gospel of Luke, the third canonical Gospel, is attested in full in the Greek manuscripts Sinaiticus and Vaticanus dating from the 4th century, but large portions are already attested in Papyri nos. 4, 45, and especially 75 dating from the 3rd century (Biblical manuscripts: II, 1 and 2). I. Composition 1. Content and structure The Gospel of Luke begins with a preamble (1:1–4) and narratives similar to a prologue, the birth and infancy narratives (1:5–2:52), in which Luke relates the origins o…

Lull, Raymond

(559 words)

Author(s): Lohr, Charles
[German Version] (1232/1233, Majorca, Spain – 1316, Tunis, Morocco), Catalonian philosopher, theologian, mystic, and poet. At about the age of 30 (around 1263), while he was court official of the later King James II of Majorca, Lull decided to dedicate his life to the conversion of the infidels. He studied Latin and Arabic, Christian and Islamic theology, authored several works in the most varied literary genres, outlined an Ars compendiosa inveniendi veritatem (1274), and founded a monastery of languages for future missionaries in Majorca (1276). A new version of the Ars ( Ars demonst…

Lullus of Mainz (Saint)

(147 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Lul; c. 710, Wessex – Oct 16, 786, Hersfeld). In Rome in 738 Lullus joined his fellow-countryman Boniface, whom he helped (after 752 as auxiliary bishop) expand the organization of the church east of the Rhine. After the death of Boniface in 754, Lullus was appointed to the see of Mainz (I), although Pope Hadrian I did not make him archbishop until 780/782. Lullus commissioned the Vita Bonifatii, served as an adviser to Charlemagne in evangelizing the Saxons, and expanded the bishopric of Mainz by absorbing the sees of Büraburg and Erfurt (I). S…


(287 words)

Author(s): Simuchimba, Melvin
[German Version] Lumpa was an African Independent Church founded in 1955 by Alice Lenshina Mulenga Lubusha in Sione (“Zion”), in the Chinsali district of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). Lenshina, a lapsed catechumen of the Free Church of Scotland at Lubwa mission, began after receiving visions to preach, baptize and eradicate local sorcery. Her exclusion from the mission church led to the founding of Lumpa church (Lumpa means “surpassing all others”). At the ¶ top of the church hierarchy was “Mama” (grandmother) Lenshina herself, supported by deacons in charge of out…


(820 words)

Author(s): Montgomery, Ingun
[German Version] I. City and Bishopric – II. University I. City and Bishopric The earliest documentary references to Lund as a wealthy and fortified Danish city date from around 940. The Anglo-Saxon missionaries Gerbrand and Bernard evangelized the province of Skåne in the reign of Canute the Great of Denmark (995–1035). During this time, the first church was established in Lund, under the bishopric of Roskilde. At the beginning of his reign, Sweyn Estridsen (d. 1074) established two bishoprics in Skåne, o…

Lüpke, Hans Johannes Eberhard Burghard von

(167 words)

Author(s): Klein, Michael
[German Version] (Dec 28, 1866, Müden an der Aller – Jan 1, 1934, Göttingen). Between 1893 and 1925, Lüpke served as pastor and superintendent in various cures in Thuringia and Hanover. After early involvement in rural social welfare work (Welfare system), he became the founder and nestor of the Dorfkirchenbewegung, a village church movement with a romantic agrarian vision. He was the editor of the journal Die Dorfkirche (1907/1908–1933), to which he contributed many fundamental articles. He was also a promoter of rural evening classes and night courses. Theolo…

Lupold of Bebenburg

(238 words)

Author(s): Widder, Ellen
[German Version] (c. 1297 Bemberg Castle near Rot am See, district of Schwäbisch Hall – Oct 28, 1363, Bamberg?). Born of a knightly Frankish family, Lupold became a canon of the Würzburg cathedral in 1316. After studying law at Bologna, he received his Dr. decretorum before 1326. He enjoyed a substantial income from chapter benefices in Mainz and Bamberg. In 1328 he established contact with the archbishop of Trier, Baldwin of Luxemburg, an important political figure in the Empire. He may have had …

Lupus of Ferrières

(234 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (c. 805 – after autumn 862), from a west Franconian/Bavarian noble family, was from 840 until his death abbot of Ferrières (archdiocese of Sens), where he had been educated (staying with Rabanus Maurus in Fulda from 829 to 836). He was the court chaplain of Charles the Bald and his adviser in the predestination controversy. Lupus was one of the most important philologists of the Carolingian period: he collected and prepared text-critical editions of ancient authors such as Cicero …

Lupus of Troyes (Saint)

(99 words)

Author(s): Heil, Uta
[German Version] (c. 383, Toul – 478), like his brother Vincent, entered the monastery on Lérins Islands (426), after being married to Piminiola (the sister of Hilary of Arles). While on a trip to Troyes, he was elected bishop. Lupus's journey to England in 429 with Germanus of Auxerre on an anti-Pelagian mission, his efforts in the resistance to the destruction of Troyes by the Huns, and the five letters from Sidonius Apollinaris to Lupus show that he was an erudite personality. Uta Heil Bibliography N.K. Chadwick, Poetry and Letters in Early Christian Gaul, 1955.

Luria, Isaac

(302 words)

Author(s): Dan, Joseph
[German Version] (Acronym: Ha-ARI; 1534, Jerusalem – 1572, Safed) is regarded as the most important Jewish kabbalist (Kabbalah) of modern times, the originator of a revolutionary kabbalistic myth, which is the dominant theology in orthodox Judaism to this day. His father was of European origin (“Ashkenasi”; Judaism). Not long after Luria was born, his family went to Egypt, where Luria was raised and educated. He became a halakhic authority (Halakhah) with great creative abilities and dealt in comm…

Lütgert, Wilhelm

(163 words)

Author(s): Merk, Otto
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1867, Heiligengrabe, Ostprignitz – Feb 21, 1938, Berlin). In 1892 Lütgert ¶ became Privatdozent at Greifswald; in 1895 he was appointed full professor. In 1901 he moved to Halle an der Saale, where he became professor of New Testament in 1902 and professor of systematic theology in 1912, succeeding M. Kähler. In 1929 he went to Berlin, where he was dismissed for political reasons in 1935. His New Testament studies explore the occasion of the Pauline Epistles and, like his Die Religion des deutschen Idealismus und ihr Ende (1923–1930), examine the causes of dec…

Luthard, Christoph Ernst

(179 words)

Author(s): Laube, Martin
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1823, Maroldsweisach, Lower Franconia – Sep 21, 1902, Leipzig). Luthardt studied Protestant theology at Erlangen and Berlin from 1841 to 1845, as a student of J.C.K. v. Hofmann. In 1854 he was appointed professor at Marburg. From 1856 to 1895 he was professor systematic theology at Leipzig. Luthardt is one of the most prominent representatives of confessional Lutheranism (Lutherans). With K.F.A. Kahnis and F. Delitzsch, he led the Leipzig theological faculty to a golden ag…

Luther Academy

(198 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Thomas Martin
[German Version] The historical background to the foundation of the Luther Academy in 1932 – the successor to the Apologetics Seminar (Apologetics) – was the “Luther renaissance.” Its initiator and first academic director, C. Stange, was also interested in cooperation with the Lutheran churches of Scandinavia. Its first chairman was L. Ihmels. Its main emphases were on study conferences (Sondershausen) and publication of the Nachrichten der Luther-Akademie ( NLA) and Studien der Lutherakademie ( SLA). To secure the academy's funding, Stange placed his work in the serv…


(6,151 words)

Author(s): Schubert, Anselm | Knuth, Hans Christian | Grundmann, Christoffer H. | Nüssel, Friederike
[German Version] I. Denominations: Lutheran Churches in History – II. Lutheran Churches Today – III. Statistical Survey – IV. Missions – V. Ecumenism I. Denominations: Lutheran Churches in History 1. General Lutheranism denotes that portion of Christianity that traces its historical and theological origin to the Reformation of Martin Luther and uses his works as its theological foundation. The Latin terms Lutherani and Lutheranismus were coined originally by Roman Catholic opponents of the Reformation movement in order to identify it as heretical (firs…
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