Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Lücke, Gottfried Christian Friedrich

(310 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Aug 24, 1791, Egeln near Magdeburg – Feb 14, 1855, Göttingen). After periods of undergraduate and graduate study in Halle an der Saale and Göttingen, Lücke became assistant professor in Berlin (1818), professor of New Testament and church history in Bonn (1819), and of New Testament and systematic theology in Göttingen (1827). In 1839, he joined the Consistorial Council and in 1843 became abbot of Bursfelde Abbey. Lücke may be considered the most important student of F.D.E. Schleiermacher; he published his teacher's Hermeneutik posthumously in 1838. In his Grundriß …


(254 words)

Author(s): Krasser, Helmut
[German Version] (T. Lucretius Carus; c. 98–55 bce) authored a didactic philosophical poem entitled De rerum natura in which he outlined the core issues of Epicurean teachings (Epicurus) in the fields of physics, anthropology, and cosmology. The individual books are devoted to the following topics: 1. principles of atomism, 2. theory of motion, 3. the soul, 4. theory of perception, 5. natural history, 6. natural phenomena. His principal source is Epicurus's work Peri physeos; his main concern is to deliver the human being from his fear of the gods and of death, and t…

Luder, Peter

(161 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1415, Kislau [Bad Schönborn] – 1472, Vienna). After basic studies in Heidelberg from 1430/1431, Luder lived from 1434 to 1456 in Italy and also visited Greece. He was a student of Guarino da Verona (1374–1460) in Ferrara, received a notary's certificate from the Republic of Venice in 1444 and studied medicine in Padua. From 1456 to 1460, he held an electoral commission to teach the studia humanitatis in Heidelberg. In his programmatic inaugural address, he commended the study of history, rhetoric, and poetry. In 1460, he resumed his travels. …

Lüderwald, Johann Balthasar

(171 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1722, Fahrland near Potsdam – Aug 25, 1796, Vorsfelde near Wolfsburg), studied in Helmstedt where he attended lectures by J.L. v. Mosheim. In 1747, he became a Lutheran pastor in Glentorf near Königslutter, and in 1762 superintendent and pastor primarius in Vorsfelde. Sympathetic in his early years with the theology of Wolffianism (C. Wolff), he ultimately adhered to late orthodoxy (Orthodoxy: II, 2) and opposed G.E. Lessing in the Fragments Controversy. In addition, Lüderwald became known especially for his comprehensive treatise on the Berufung und Seli…

Ludger, Saint

(203 words)

Author(s): von Padberg, Lutz E.
[German Version] (c. 742, Zwesen – Mar 26, 809, Billerbeck) was from a West Frisian noble family who supported Willibrord. As a student of Gregory of Utrecht, whose Vita he wrote in 790/791, and after an apprenticeship with Alcuin in York (767–772), Ludger became one of the most important Anglo-Saxon missionaries. After his activities in Frisia and a pilgrimage to Rome and Monte Cassino (784–787), Charlemagne entrusted him with the West Saxon mission. In Münster, Ludger established a monasterium in 793 which, along with his own monastery Werden, was under his rectorate. C…

Lüdke, Friedrich Germanus

(356 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Apr 10, 1730, Stendal – Mar 8, 1792, Berlin) studied theology in Halle an der Saal, initially with S.J. Baumgarten, then, after participating in the Seven Years War as a chaplain, under the definitive influence of J.A. Nösselt. In 1765, he became deacon, then archdeacon at St. Nicholas (Berlin). Through his writings and, even more, through his many contributions to F. Nicolai's Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek ( Comprehensive German Library, nearly 1000 reviews), Lüdke became an important proponent of neology (Enlightenment, The: II, 4, c). His ess…

Ludlow, John Malcolm Forbes

(154 words)

Author(s): Larsen, Timothy
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1821, Nimach, India – Oct 17, 1911, London, England) was a Christian socialist, born to English parents, but raised in Paris, where he studied at the Collège Bourbon. From 1838 he was entered at Lincoln's Inn, becoming a barrister in 1843. He became a devoted disciple of F.D. Maurice, facilitating the gathering of a group of like-minded men around Maurice. Ludlow was the architect and builder of the resulting Christian socialist movement (Socialism), which began in 1848. In 1850 he founded the Christian Socialist journal. He deserves most of the credit for…

Ludolf, Heinrich Wilhelm

(150 words)

Author(s): Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika
[German Version] (Dec 20, 1655, Erfurt – Jan 25, 1712, London) became secretary to Prince George of Denmark in 1686, took a diplomatic journey to Russia in 1693 followed by stays in England, Holland and Germany (in Halle an der Saale and elsewhere). He traveled to the Orient (1698/99), returning to London in 1700 as a corresponding member of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Ludolf's Reformation objective of an ecclesia universalis, which ¶ was closely linked to diplomatic and economic concerns and met or attracted the interest of A.H. Francke, related in…

Ludolf, Hiob

(186 words)

Author(s): Butterweck, Christel
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1624, Erfurt – Apr 8, 1704, Frankfurt). Ludolf went to school in Erfurt, then studied medicine and law there from 1639 to 1645. Advanced study of the major European and Middle Eastern languages qualified him as a private tutor and interpreter for noble families. During study trips, he came to know such figures as G. Voetius and A.M. van Schurman. In 1651 he entered the service of Duke Ernest the Pious, whose enthusiasm for Ethiopia (Acts 8:26–40) led him to support Ludolf's work on an Ethiopic dictionary (21699), a grammar (21703), and a geography (1681). Ernest…

Ludolf of Saxony

(180 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] (c. 1300, northern Germany – Apr 10, 1378, Straßburg). Initially a Dominican, he was a Carthusian after c. 1340 (Straßburg, Coblenz [Prior], Mainz, Straßburg). His major work is the Vita Jesu Christi, a work based on the gospel harmony of Zacharias of Besançon (Chrysopolitanus, first half of the 12th cent.), early church authors and medieval, meditative and historicizing Jesus literature. It does not simply recount Jesus' life, but seeks, in individual sections (structured according to the scheme of lectio, meditatio and oratio and enriched by introductions an…

Lugano, Bishopric

(147 words)

Author(s): Krahwinkler, Harald
[German Version] The see of Lugano was established in 1888 as the apostolic administrature of the canton of Ticino, encompassing former diocesan territories of Milan and Como. Until 1968 it was linked with the see of Basel aeque principaliter. The year 1971 saw the nominal transformation of the apostolic administrature into a diocese directly responsible to the Holy See. A theological academy was founded in 1992 and a theological faculty in 1993, when the seminary in Lugano that had been closed in 1968 was reopened under Bishop Euge…

Lugo, John de

(167 words)

Author(s): Reboiras, Fernando Domínguez
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1583, Madrid – Aug 10, 1660, Rome), theologian, Jesuit (1603), and cardinal (1643). After 1616 Lugo taught philosophy at various Spanish colleges; from 1621 to 1642, he was professor of theology at the Jesuit College in Rome. After 1642 he served as adviser to several Roman congregations and oversaw the publication of his extensive writings, which dealt more with resolving internal Scholastic controversies, especially in moral theology (but also analysis fidei, the history of dogma, and doctrine of the eucharistic sacrifice), than with fundam…

Luhmann, Niklas

(376 words)

Author(s): Hesse, Heidrun
[German Version] (Dec 8, 1927, Lüneburg, near Hamburg – Nov 6, 1998, Oerlinghausen, near Bielefeld, Westphalia), one of the most important social theorists of the 20th century. Luhmann viewed sociology as the most important academic discipline of modernity and developed a conceptually highly ambitious version of sociological systems theory. After taking a degree in law, ¶ he began a career in Lüneburg's public administration followed by service in the ministry of education and cultural affairs of Lower Saxony. After studying sociology with T. Parsons…

Luís de Granada

(183 words)

Author(s): Reboiras, Fernando Domínguez
[German Version] (Louis of Granada, Luís de Sarria; 1504, Granada – Dec 31, 1588, Lisbon), Spanish Dominican, renowned preacher and writer. After studying at Valladolid, he served 11 years as a preacher at the cathedral in Córdoba. In 1550 he was transferred to Portugal, where he remained until his death. Equipped with an excellent Humanistic and theological education, Luís left an extensive body of works, which found a worldwide audience. His writings – especially his imaginative, emotional descr…


(114 words)

Author(s): Toepsch, Alexandra
[German Version] Luján, pilgrimage (III, 2.b) site in Argentina northwest of Buenos Aires, symbol of the national and religious identity of the Argentinian people. A miraculous statue was brought to Luján by ship from Brazil in 1630 at the request of a Portuguese immigrant, a small terracotta figurine representing Mary Immaculate. Early in the 20th century, the statue was silvered. Initially the statue was venerated at a farm on the Rio Luján. In 1762, with the support of the faithful, a chapel was built in the modern city of Luján. The neo-Gothic pilgrimage church dates from 1874. Alexandr…

Lukács, György

(435 words)

Author(s): Vajda, Mihály
[German Version] (George; Apr 13, 1885, Budapest – Jun 4, 1971, Budapest). Lukács was born into a prosperous, assimilated Jewish family. His interest turned early to philosophy. Personal contact with G. Simmel, through whom he came to know E. Bloch as well as Emil Lask and Max Weber, shaped his views in the years leading up to World War I and the early years of the war. During the last years of the war, he spent most of his time in Hungary, where he was the leading figure of the so-called Sunday C…

Luke, Gospel of

(2,195 words)

Author(s): Radl, Walter
[German Version] I. Composition – II. Theology – III. History The Gospel of Luke, the third canonical Gospel, is attested in full in the Greek manuscripts Sinaiticus and Vaticanus dating from the 4th century, but large portions are already attested in Papyri nos. 4, 45, and especially 75 dating from the 3rd century (Biblical manuscripts: II, 1 and 2). I. Composition 1. Content and structure The Gospel of Luke begins with a preamble (1:1–4) and narratives similar to a prologue, the birth and infancy narratives (1:5–2:52), in which Luke relates the origins o…

Lull, Raymond

(559 words)

Author(s): Lohr, Charles
[German Version] (1232/1233, Majorca, Spain – 1316, Tunis, Morocco), Catalonian philosopher, theologian, mystic, and poet. At about the age of 30 (around 1263), while he was court official of the later King James II of Majorca, Lull decided to dedicate his life to the conversion of the infidels. He studied Latin and Arabic, Christian and Islamic theology, authored several works in the most varied literary genres, outlined an Ars compendiosa inveniendi veritatem (1274), and founded a monastery of languages for future missionaries in Majorca (1276). A new version of the Ars ( Ars demonst…

Lullus of Mainz (Saint)

(147 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (Lul; c. 710, Wessex – Oct 16, 786, Hersfeld). In Rome in 738 Lullus joined his fellow-countryman Boniface, whom he helped (after 752 as auxiliary bishop) expand the organization of the church east of the Rhine. After the death of Boniface in 754, Lullus was appointed to the see of Mainz (I), although Pope Hadrian I did not make him archbishop until 780/782. Lullus commissioned the Vita Bonifatii, served as an adviser to Charlemagne in evangelizing the Saxons, and expanded the bishopric of Mainz by absorbing the sees of Büraburg and Erfurt (I). S…


(287 words)

Author(s): Simuchimba, Melvin
[German Version] Lumpa was an African Independent Church founded in 1955 by Alice Lenshina Mulenga Lubusha in Sione (“Zion”), in the Chinsali district of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). Lenshina, a lapsed catechumen of the Free Church of Scotland at Lubwa mission, began after receiving visions to preach, baptize and eradicate local sorcery. Her exclusion from the mission church led to the founding of Lumpa church (Lumpa means “surpassing all others”). At the ¶ top of the church hierarchy was “Mama” (grandmother) Lenshina herself, supported by deacons in charge of out…
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