Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(173 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Ukrainian L'viv, Polish Lwów, Russ. L'vov, Ger. Lemberg). The variety of names borne by this city of some 733,000 (2001) in the heart of Galicia bears witness to its mixture of nationalities. Founded c. 1250 by the Galician prince Daniel and his son Leo, it was incorporated into Poland in 1366, fell to Austria in 1772, became Polish once more in 1919, Soviet in 1939, came under the German General Government in 1941, and in 1944 was restored to the Ukraine (until 1991 part of the …


(211 words)

Author(s): Eisen, Ute E.
[German Version] (1st cent.), a God-fearer and dealer in purple cloth from the Lydian city of Thyatira. She lived in Philippi, where she gathered with other women to worship in the synagogue on the Sabbath (Acts 16:13f.). Tradition has it that she was converted by Paul's preaching, the first person converted to Christianity on European soil (Acts 16:14f.). Her name may be an ethnicon (“the Lydian woman”), suggesting that she – like many in her profession – was a freedwoman. But there is also liter…


(402 words)

Author(s): Wolf, Gerhard Philipp
[German Version] Lyon is a French city at the confluence of the Saône with the Rhône. Originally a Celtic settlement, in 43 bce it became a Roman colony and eventually the administrative center of the three Gallo-Roman provinces. By the end of the 4th century, the ecclesiastical province of Lyon coincided with the Roman province Lugdunensis Prima. The establishment of the earliest Christian community in Gaul is associated with Pothinus (died 177) and Irenaeus of Lyon, originally from Smyrna. After the Merovingian kin…

Lyon and Vienne, Martyrs of

(338 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] In his Historia ecclesiastica (V 1), Eusebius of Caesarea includes fragments of a letter written by the churches of Lyon and Vienne in Gaul to the Christians in Asia and Phrygia during the episcopate of Bishop Eleutherus of Rome, with a hagiographically stylized account of a contemporary persecution of Christians. Clearly the Christians were initially detained on the basis of accusations; in conformity with the edict of Emperor Trajan, those who confessed their faith were imprisoned …

Lyon, Councils of

(650 words)

Author(s): Rieger, Reinhold
[German Version] I. The first Council of Lyon was the renewed attempt of Pope Gregory IX to oppose Emperor Frederick Hohenstaufen after the emperor had forestalled a council convoked in Rome by Gregory in 1241. His successor ¶ Innocent IV succeeded in evading the power of the emperor and on Jan 3, 1245, convoked a council in Lyon to clarify the relationship between pope and emperor, take measures against the Tartars, and find help for the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Land. The council held three sessions from …


(1,929 words)

Author(s): Schröer, Henning
[German Version] I. Relevance – II. Sitz im Leben – III. Authorship – IV. History – V. Tasks – VI. Poetic Approaches – VII. Goals I. Relevance Lyricism, or the art from which poems are issued, is and always has been theologically relevant in the practice of religion and church, although its appreciation has been subject to historical fluctuations. The significance of the Psalter (Psalms/Psalter), as the poetic center of the Bible, lies in its pristine power. In his rich anthologies, Kurz ( Höre Gott!) demonstrated the formative impact of the Psalms on lyricism. Marti apt…

Lysius, Heinrich

(167 words)

Author(s): Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika
[German Version] (Oct 24, 1670, Flensburg, Schleswig-Holstein – Oct 16, 1731, Königsberg, Prussia [today Kaliningrad, Russian exclave]) studied theology at Leipzig (1686), Jena (1687), and Halle (1694), receiving his Dr.theol. in 1702. The same year he was appointed associate professor of theology, director of the Collegium Fridericianum, and preacher in Königsberg. In 1707 he was appointed full professor and in 1715 court chaplain as well; in 1717 he was appointed to the consistory and made inspe…