Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(188 words)

Author(s): Groote, Marc De
[German Version] ( Oikoumenios; 6th cent.), author of the first continuous Greek commentary on Revelation, which he explains in a purely allegorical manner (Allegory). That work, which existed in part as early as the 7th century in a Syriac translation, was used by Andrew of Caesarea, and especially by Arethas of Caesarea. Oecumenius also wrote some scholia (Scholium) on the Pauline homilies of J. Chrysostom. Between the 8th and 10th centuries these became part of a catena on Paul’s letters (CPG 4,…

Oertzen, Jasper von

(182 words)

Author(s): Knieling, Reiner
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1833, Rostock – Nov 14, 1893, Hamburg). After abandoning a career as an officer, and making an unsuccessful attempt at farming, v. Oertzen had a meeting with J.H. Wichern in Berlin in 1868 which was an important influence on the rest of his life. In 1870 he became head of the Rauhes Haus (institution for boys with behavioral problems) in Hamburg-Horn. Subsequently he became director of the newly founded Hamburg City Mission (1875–1884). At the same time he was director of…

Oetinger, Friedrich Christoph

(394 words)

Author(s): Ehmer, Hermann
[German Version] (May 2 or 6, 1702, Göppingen – Feb 10, 1782, Murrhardt), son of a town clerk. Oetinger attended the monastic schools of Blaubeuren and Bebenhausen, then from 1722 to 1727 studied theology at Tübingen. From 1731 to 1738, with intervals of travel, he was a tutor at the Tübingen Stift (Tübingen: II). He became a pastor in 1738 in Hirsau, in 1743 in Schnaitheim, in 1746 in Waldorf; then dean in 1752 in Weinsberg, in 1759 in Herrenberg, and in 1766 prelate in Murrhardt. Oetinger’s earl…

Oettingen, Alexander Konstantin von

(155 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1827, Wissust, Livonia – Aug 20, 1906, Dorpat), Protestant theologian; 1856–1890 full professor of sys-¶ tematic theology in Dorpat. In addition to numerous shorter occasional writings ( Ueber akuten und chronischen Selbstmord, 1881) and a traditionally oriented outline of dogmatics ( Lutherische Dogmatik, 3 vols., 1897–1902), it is Oettingen’s lasting merit to have coined the term social ethics in his work Die Moralstatistik und die christliche Sittenlehre. Versuch einer Socialethik auf empirischer Grundlage (2 vols., 1868, 1873; 3rd ed. 1882 …

Offering Bag

(369 words)

Author(s): Sporbeck, Gudrun
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Art History I. Liturgy The offering bag is used during worship to collect alms for the charitable outreach of the church. Its use is based on the Early Church practice of alms or oblations (Mass) offered by members of the congregation during the offertory (Collections: II). In the churches of the Reformation, deacons were chosen to collect alms in the offering bag after the sermon; the bags were kept in the “common chest” and later distributed by the deacons to the poor o…


(1,531 words)

Author(s): Ruff, Anthony William
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy The offertory is the point in the liturgy of the Eucharist when the offerings are received and the altar is prepared for the eucharistic liturgy (Eucharist). The offerings include bread and wine for the communion service, and typically money (Collections) for the church and the poor. This offering of money was not emphasized in the Early Church; Justin, for instance, says only that the bread and wine are brought in. Tertullian und Hippolytus tell of the …


(9,171 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Rüterswörden, Udo | Burtchaell, James Tunstead | Lips, Hermann von | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Early Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Church History – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Law – IX. Missiology I. Religious Studies Over the course of history, the word office has been used for a wide variety of functions. In every case, however, what is peculiar to the term is that it refers to an activity independent of the unique personal characteristics of the officeholder. In the context of religious studies, what first comes to mind is the office…

Office, Removal from

(164 words)

Author(s): Pirson, Dietrich
[German Version] As a rule, a church office is conferred for an unlimited time and cannot be withdrawn, since the task associated with the office is perceived as essentially long-term. Therefore, loss of office is considered in church law to be permitted only in exceptional circumstances. Catholic church law lists as such situations renuntiatio, translatio, amotio, and privatio (cf. CIC cc. 184–196). The relevant law of the Protestant churches relating to ministers recognizes, in addition to loss of office on the basis of a decision in the course of chu…

Official Assistance

(172 words)

Author(s): Wall, Heinrich de
[German Version] is the support that one authority gives in individual cases to another at the latter’s request to enable it to perform its tasks, for example by granting sight of files, aid resources, etc. Official assistance given by a judicial act is called legal assistance. In Germany, according to article 35/I of the Basic Law, all federal and regional authorities are bound to give mutual legal and official assistance. However, this does not affect the churches unless they are exceptionally p…
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