Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Otto of Freising

(296 words)

Author(s): Kandler, Karl-Hermann
[German Version] (1112/1116, Neuburg, Austria – Sep 22, 1158, Morimond, France). Son of Margrave Leopold III of Austria and Agnes, daughter of Emperor Henry IV; uncle of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. ¶ After studies in Paris (under Hugh of St. Victor) and Chartres (?, under Gilbert of Poitiers), in 1133 Otto entered the Cistercian Order in Morimond, and in 1138 was called to become bishop of Freising. He paid attention to religious life in his diocese and took part in the Second Crusade with Emperor Conrad III. Otto had a thorough knowledge of philosophy and theology. He wrote tw…

Otto-Peters, Louise

(390 words)

Author(s): Hertfelder, Thomas
[German Version] (Mar 26, 1819, Meissen – Mar 13,1895, Leipzig), writer, journalist, and campaigner for women’s rights. Otto-Peters grew up as a lawyer’s ¶ daughter in materially secure, cultured middle-class surroundings. From 1842 she published, in some cases under the pseudonym of Otto Stern, poems, novellas, and reviews, inter alia in Ernst Keil’s journal Planet and Robert Blum’s Sächsische Vaterlandsblätter [Leaves from the Saxon fatherland]. In her novels of social criticism (e.g. the censored Schloß und Fabrik [Castle and factory], 1846) and memoranda she dealt w…

Otto, Rudolf

(691 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Astrid
[German Version] (Sep 25, 1869, Peine – Mar 6, 1937, Marburg). Brought up by conservative Lutheran parents in Peine and Hildesheim, Otto began to study Protestant theology in Erlangen in 1888. In 1889 he transferred to the University of Göttingen, where he passed his theological examinations in 1892 and 1895; in 1898 he received his doctorate with a thesis on Luther’s concept of the Holy Spirit. In the same year he received a venia legendi for the history of systematic theology and the history and philosophy of religion. In 1906 he was appointed associate professor at…

Otto the Great

(435 words)

Author(s): Laudage, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 23, 912 – May 7, 973, Memleben), East Frankish (not German) king and Holy Roman Emperor. Otto, the most important of the Ottonians, reigned almost 37 years. Already nominated to the throne in 929/930 by his father, Henry I, he was made king at Aachen on Aug 7/8, 936, through ceremonial enthronement, homage, and anointing. Despite bitter conflicts over issues of succession and rank with his brothers Thankmar and Heinrich (937–941) and his sons Liudolf and Wilhelm (953–955), he was able to stre…

Otto, Walter Friedrich

(622 words)

Author(s): Mohr, Hubert
[German Version] ( Jun 22, 1872, Hechingen – Sep 23, 1958, Tübingen), classical philologist and specialist in religious studies. Otto was professor of classical ¶ philology at Basel (1913/1914), Frankfurt am Main (1914–1934), and Königsberg (today Kaliningrad; 1934–1944); from 1946 until his death in 1958 he taught at Tübingen as visiting professor and emeritus professor. His work and influence are important for the study of religion in antiquity and the history of religions. He began his career as a Latinist, studying under Franz Büchler ( Aufsätze zur römischen Religionsgesch…


(5 words)

[German Version] Is/Ought

Our Father

(6 words)

[German Version] Paternoster


(5 words)

[German Version] Substance

Outler, Albert Cook

(187 words)

Author(s): Abraham, William
[German Version] (Nov 17, 1908, Thomasville, GA – Sep 1, 1989, Bradenton, FL), one of the greatest Methodist theologians of the 20th century. He lived all his life within the orbit of the church and was without peer as an ecclesiastical leader and scholar in North American Methodism (Methodists). Educated at Wofford College (B.A. 1928), Emory University (B.D. 1933), and Yale University (Ph.D. 1938), he taught at Duke (1938–1945), Yale (1945–1951), and Perkins School of Theology, Southern Methodist…

Outsiders and Marginal Groups

(407 words)

Author(s): Zilleßen, Dietrich
[German Version] The terms “outsider” and “marginal groups” have been commonly used since the mid-1960s to denote individuals and groups who exhibit “deviant behavior.” Various cognitive models attempt to grasp the basic conflict within the complex relationship of the self to the other (Stranger). Sociological approaches (establishment versus outsider relationship etc.) and those of philosophy (problems of truth and ideology etc.), psychoanalysis (the unconscious, transference etc.), ethnology (cu…
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