Religion Past and Present

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Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

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Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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(1,039 words)

Author(s): Porter, Andrew
[German Version] Physics, from the Greek term ϕυσικὴ ϑεωρία/ physikḗtheōría, “physical theory,” is the exploration of such processes of nature, which are measurable and mathematical, and underlie the general laws of nature (Law/Natural law: I). The interest of physics lies in the study of inorganic matter, its states, its elements (Atomism), and its interacting forces. For Aristotle, physics is the study of things that change in time, the study of motion, and of how one thing causes the motion of anothe…


(395 words)

Author(s): Imorde, Joseph
[German Version] is the name given to a collection, originally in Greek, of various longer texts in which existing, exotic, in part also mythical animals, stones, and plants (e.g. lion, unicorn, diamond) are interpreted in terms of ascetic conduct and salvific Christian truths by one who knows nature, the Physiologus. The literature spoke of this scholar’s symbolic, allegorical, or typological view of things, and of a method of symbolism that uses nature only to point to a hidden moral or spiritua…


(1,828 words)

Author(s): Hornauer, Holger | Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The Greek Φύσις/ Phýsis is an abstract personification and an effective divine power. It is not restricted to any particular area of responsibility, and has no cult of its own or special iconography, with two exceptions: the votive relief of Archelaus of Priene (so-called “Apotheosis of Homer,” c. 120–130 bce), and the mosaic of Merida (2nd cent. ce; natura is between heaven, the sea, the Euphrates, the Nile, Tellus etc.). 2. In pre-Socratic natural philosophy (see also Nature), Physis may be personified and thought of as divine power (…

Piaget, Jean

(396 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] (Aug 9, 1896, Neuchâtel – Sep 16, 1980, Geneva). After studying largely as an autodidact, he received a doctorate in natural science in 1918 at Neuchâtel, after which he worked in various psychological laboratories in Zürich and Paris (beginning work with Alfred Binet in 1919). From 1921 he held various teaching positions and professorships (sometimes concurrent) in Geneva, Neuchâtel, and Paris in the natural sciences, psychology and sociology; he also taught within the context of…


(265 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Order of Poor Clerks Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools (Scolopi, Escolapios, Ordo Clericorum Regularium Pauperum Matris Dei Scholarum Piarum), was founded in 1602 in Rome by the Spanish priest José de Calasanz (saint, 1556/1557–1648; deposed as general in 1642), and elevated to an order in 1621. It is characterized by Marian (Mary, Veneration of: I) and Ignatian (Ignatius of Loyola) spirituality and a centralized constitution. Special vows are taken for the upb…

Picasso, Pablo

(504 words)

Author(s): Werner, Norbert
[German Version] (Oct 25, 1881, Malaga – Apr 8, 1973, Mougins, near Cannes), Spanish painter, graphic designer, and sculptor. Taught initially by his father, an art teacher, Picasso subsequently studied at the School ¶ of Fine Arts in La Coruña (1892), the Royal Academy of Art in Barcelona (1895), and the San Fernando Academy in Madrid (1897). After 1900 he traveled regularly to Paris. In 1900 he presented an exhibition of 150 portraits in mixed media in Els Quatre Gats, an art café in Barcelona. In his Blue Period (1901–1904), …

Picht, Georg Max Friedrich Vallentin

(186 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee
[German Version] (Jul 9, 1913, Strasbourg – Aug 7, 1982, Breitnau), head of the Birklehof secondary school at Hinterzarten between 1946 and 1956; head of the research center of the Evangelische Studiengemeinschaft (FEST; Protestant Student Fellowship) from 1968 to 1982; professor of the philosophy of religion at Heidelberg between 1965 and 1978. Influenced by the crisis experience of National Socialism and by the Platonic ideal of philosophical responsibility for the community, Picht took an activ…

Pico della Mirandola

(799 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] 1. Giovanni (Feb 24, 1463, Mirandola near Modena – Nov 17, 1494, Florence), son of the count of Mirandola. From 1477, he studied canon law, artes liberales, philosophy, and literature, especially in Bologna, Ferrara, Padua, Paris, and Perugia. In addition to Greek, he learned Hebrew and Arabic. He paid several visits to Florence, where he made friends with Lorenzo de’ Medici and his circle, especially with M. Ficino, Angelo Poliziano (1454–1494), and Girolamo Benivieni (1453–1542). …

Picpus Society

(367 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio Sacrorum Cordium Jesu et Mariae necnon adorationis perpetuae SS. Sacramenti Altaris, SSCC). The congregation, named after its former motherhouse in the Rue de Picpus in Paris, consists of a male branch (the Picpus Fathers, in Germany also commonly known as the “Arnstein Fathers,” after their first settlement in Arnstein on the Lahn), and a female branch (the Picpus Sisters or Zélatrices). It was founded in the late 18th century, in response to the pressure of the Fren…

Pictet, Bénédict

(217 words)

Author(s): Weber, Édith
[German Version] (May 30, 1655, Geneva – Jun 10, 1724, Geneva), orthodox Reformed theologian. Pictet made educational journeys through France, the Netherlands, and England. He was ordained in 1678 and admitted to the Compagnie des Pasteurs in Geneva. From 1686 he was professor of theology at the Geneva Academy. The church entrusted him, as chair of the commission for the revision of the Geneva Psalter (Church song: I, 5), with the task of modernizing the version of the Psalms by Valentin Conrart (…

Piderit, Johann Rudolf Anton

(357 words)

Author(s): Spehr, Christopher
[German Version] (Aug 18, 1720, Pyrmont, Lower Saxony – Aug 2, 1791, Kassel) began studying theology, philology, and philosophy at Jena in 1737 (including work with J.G. Walch); in 1739 he moved to Marburg, where he studied with C. Wolff, receiving his Dr.phil. in 1745. In 1747 he was appointed professor of philosophy at Marburg. He received his Dr.theol. in 1759. From 1758 to 1761 he served as prorector of the University of Marburg. In 1766 he was appointed professor of oriental languages and phi…

Pidoux, Pierre

(200 words)

Author(s): Marti, Andreas
[German Version] (Mar 4, 1905, Neuchâtel – Jun 15, 2001, Geneva). After studying theology at Lausanne and a brief period as pastor of the French church in Winterthur, Pidoux studied organ in Geneva. As an organist in Lausanne and then in Montreux, he championed the rediscovery of early music and improved musical and liturgical quality in the worship of the Reformed Church in the canton of Waadt. He contributed substantially to the hymnal Psaumes et cantiques (1976). His significance as a musicologist rests on his editing and publication of vocal and keyboard music of t…

Piechowski, Paul Felix

(182 words)

Author(s): Wolfes, Matthias
[German Version] (Jun 30, 1892, Turoschein, East Prussia – Jun 9, 1966, Bonn-Bad Godesberg), studied theology and philosophy from 1911 to 1914 (Lic.theol., Dr.phil.); this was followed by military service until 1919. In 1919 he became pastor in Berlin-Neukölln, in 1928 in Berlin-Britz; he was removed from office in 1934 following disciplinary proceedings. After medi-¶ cal studies, he practiced as a doctor from 1938. In the 1920s Piechowski took part in founding religious socialist organizations. Around 1930 he was one of the best-known representativ…

Pieper, Josef

(318 words)

Author(s): Thurner, Martin
[German Version] (Apr 4, 1904, Elte, Münsterland – Nov 6, 1997, Münster), one of the most renowned and most widely read German Christian (Catholic) philosophers of the 20th century. After working as a free-lance writer and professor in Essen, Pieper was appointed to a chair on the philosophical faculty at Münster, where from 1959 and even after retiring in 1972 he covered the field of philosophical anthropology. He traveled frequently as a visiting professor and undertook many lecture tours, and r…


(244 words)

Author(s): Bienert, Wolfgang A.
[German Version] (of Alexandria; died c. 312), presbyter and leader of the Alexandrian Didaskaleion from the time of Bishop Theonas (281/282–300), perhaps in conjunction with Theonas’s successor Peter of Alexandria (300–311) and the later bishop Achillas (c. 311–312). Eusebius of Caesarea, a contemporary, describes Pierius ( Hist. eccl. VII 32. 26f.) as an excellent preacher, and a scholarly and well-informed biblical exegete, who led the life of an ascetic. Jerome mentions that he was called “the younger Origen” ( Origenes iunior); he was also theologically close to Origen…

Piero della Francesca

(176 words)

Author(s): Warnke, Martin
[German Version] (c. 1415, Borgo Sansepolcro – Oct 12, 1492, Borgo Sansepolcro), painter. After his apprenticeship, probably in Florence, Piero worked initially for churches near his home town, then in Ferrara and Rimini, and later in Urbino, commissioned by the local rulers. Throughout his lifetime, he also held various public offices in Sansepolcro. His most important work is the multipart fresco cycle on the discovery of the true cross, painted in the choir of the Franciscan church in Arezzo (1452–1466). The formal vocabulary of the frescoes, the polyptychs, the enigmatic Flagella…

Pierre d’Ailly

(8 words)

[German Version] Ailly, Pierre d’


(6,563 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | O’Malley, Steven | Winkler, Eberhard | Sträter, Udo | Feldtkeller, Andreas
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe a. Definition. Pietism was a religious revival movement in late 17th- and 18th-century Protestantism (I, 1), alongside Anglo-Saxon Puritanism (Puritans) the most significant post-Reformation religious movement. Emerging within both the Lutheran and the Reformed churches, Pietism broke with orthodox Protestantism regulated by the authorities, which it perceived as a moribund Christianity of habit, pressed for an individualized and spiritualized rel…


(3,477 words)

Author(s): Jödicke, Ansgar | Sparn, Walter | Koch, Traugott | Seiferlein, Alfred | Weismayer, Josef | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Piety (recently often also “spirituality”) is understood, first, as the forms of expression of lived religiosity; research in this area is particularly the subject of folklore studies and church history for the idividual, secondly, piety has to do with particular qualities of feeling, such as reverence, with which the psychology of religion (Gruehn, Sundén) is concerned. Objective and subjective components are combined in various ways in the historical developme…

Piety, History of

(1,577 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Early Research At the dawn of the 21st century, a history of piety is more a desideratum than a reality, especially in Protestantism. In the 19th century, the notion of piety as defined in its modern sense by Pietism, J.W. v. Goethe, and Romanticism and grounded theologically by F.D.E. Schleiermacher did not lead to academic study of the history of piety. To this day, religious scholarship avoids the term; there is no lemma Frömmigkeit in HRWG II, 1990. Not until the end of the 19th century did church history deal with the history of piety, primarily …

Piety (Pietas)

(402 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian
[German Version] The term piety, from Lat. pietas, largely synonymous with Gk εὐσέβεια/ eusébeia, OHG and Gothic fruma, and modern Ger. Frömmigkeit stands on the borderline between ethics and religion. It denotes an obedient and respectful attitude toward a person or object, usually considered a positive trait. Today it is often reduced to a person’s attitude toward the departed. A shift of meaning is already visible in Latin: on the one hand, pietas denotes behavior in the interpersonal sphere, especially toward one’s parents (Cic. Partitiones oratoriae 78; De inventione 2.66); on…

Pigge, Albert

(161 words)

Author(s): Zschoch, Hellmut
[German Version] (Pigghe, Pighius; c. 1490, Kampen – Dec 29, 1542, Utrecht), Roman Catholic controversialist (Controversial theology). After a curial career begun in 1522 under Hadrian VI, his former teacher at Leuven, Pigge devoted himself in the 1530s to stabilizing the papal church in the Netherlands. In his most important work, Hierarchiae ecclesiae assertio (1538), he vigorously developed the theme of papal infallibility as a secure basis for the church’s teaching. In 1540/1541 he attended the disputations in Worms and Regensburg as papal obs…

Pilate, Pontius

(357 words)

Author(s): Schwartz, Daniel R.
[German Version] Pontius Pilate was the fifth Roman governor of Judaea (Palestine). According to Flavius Josephus he was appointed by Tiberius in 26 ce, though possibly as early as 19, and served until around the time of Tiberius’s death in 37 ce. In the so-called Pilate inscription from Caesarea (see most recently Alföldy) his title is given as “praefectus Iudaeae.” Assessment of his tenure depends upon one’s choice between Tacitus’s general statement ( Historiae V 9.2) that “under Tiberius [Judaea] was quiet,” and Josephus’s account ( Bell. II 169–177; Ant. XVIII 55–89) which pict…

Pilgrimage/Places of Pilgrimage

(9,650 words)

Author(s): Winter, Fritz | Raspe, Lucia | Jehle, Irmengard | Hartinger, Walter | Schmid, Josef Johannes | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies A pilgrimage is a journey by an individual or group, religiously motivated, usually over a substantial distance and (esp. in earlier periods) demanding great effort. A Western pilgrim today can hardly imagine the dangers to which a peregrinus was exposed. This Latin term, the etymon of the English word pilgrim, denoted a foreigner or in some cases an exile. A person who undertook a pilgrimage was thus someone who had to leave his or her familiar environment. The element of foreignness and movement also induced…

Pilgrim of Bordeaux

(173 words)

Author(s): Röwekamp, Georg
[German Version] The Pilgrim of Bordeaux is the name given a traveler from Bordeaux who went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 333 and wrote an account of it. This earliest (extant) pilgrim’s account still belongs to the genre of the itinerarium ( Itinerarium Bordigalense), recording distances, remount stations ( mutationes), and sleeping quarters ( mansiones). Such a record would also help in the planning of other journeys. At a few points, the text provides information on the places visited, especially when describing the journey in the Holy Land …

Pilgrim of Passau

(201 words)

Author(s): Erkens, Franz-Reiner
[German Version] (died May 20/21, 991; bishop of Passau 971–991), nephew of Archbishop Frederick of Salzburg (958–991). Educated at Niederaltaich Abbey, with the support of the Ottonians Pilgrim undertook to reorganize of the bishopric following the Magyar incursions and the rebellions against Otto II. He did not hesitate to forge Carolingian documents to consolidate the material basis of his church. His part in the mission to the Magyars is hard to gauge, but its (putative) success, reinforced by…


(203 words)

Author(s): Mutius, Hans-Georg v.
[German Version] is understood in talmudic and post-talmudic exposition of the law of Judaism to mean the astute analysis of halakhah texts, that investigates and attempts to solve contradictions and obscurities in ongoing discussion. In order to solve the difficulties, the scholar employs his own innovative understanding, rather than referring back to possible solutions handed down in the tradition. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the term acquires a negative connotation in German and Polish Juda…


(5 words)

[German Version] Priesthood

Pinsker, Leon

(166 words)

Author(s): Brenner, Michael
[German Version] (Judah Leib; 1821, Tomaszów Lubelski, Poland – 1891, Odessa), physician and most important pioneer of political Zionism (II). Pinsker initially joined the Jewish assimilation movement in Russia and worked on the weekly Rassvyet. The anti-Jewish pogroms that broke out in 1881 after the assassination of Tsar Alexander II reinforced his growing doubts about assimilation. In 1882 he wrote Autoemancipation (ET: Self-emancipation, 1891), which identified anti-Semitism as a “socio-pathological phenomenon” of the peoples among whom Jews lived. Jew…

Pionius, Saint

(212 words)

Author(s): Seeliger, Hans Reinhard
[German Version] Pionius, Saint, presbyter and martyr in Smyra (today Izmir). Contrary to Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 15.46f., he was not contemporary with Polycarp of Smyrna, with whose martyrdom the literary tradition of Pionius’s being burned alive became associated. The historicity of the account has been challenged repeatedly, but prosopographic and form-critical observations allow the hearing (ch. 19f.) to be dated in the context of the religio-political measures of the emperor Decius (249–251). The text was rev…

Pious Disposals

(131 words)

Author(s): Thiele, Christoph
[German Version] These are donations of property made by legal transactions between living persons (e.g. by gift) or after death (e.g. by inheritance or legacy), mostly to ecclesiastical juridical persons, but also to natural persons, directly or in the form of a trust; they are intended for church or charitable purposes. The donor’s wishes must be carefully observed. Pious disposals in the strict sense are to be distinguished from independent or dependent pious foundations. Explicit regulations in church law were given to pious disposals and their fulfillment in CIC/1983 cc. 1299–…

Piper, Otto Alfred

(299 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1891, Lichte, Thuringia – Feb 13, 1982, Princeton, USA). Piper’s mother, descended from French Huguenots, provided contacts with France that helped to shape his life. A forerunner of the youth movement, he expressed that generation’s typical criticism of capitalism and individualism. He was severely traumatized by voluntary service at the front, and in 1920, having gained his doctorate in Göttingen, he became a socialist advocate of pacifism and ecumenism ¶ (Ecumene). He rejected the identification of faith and politics made by Religious Soci…

Pippin, Donation of

(293 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] When the Carolinigian mayor of the palace, Pippin the Younger (c. 715–768), wanted to overthrow the Merovingians in 750/751 and become king himself, he sought and received the support of the papacy, and replaced the royal lineage he lacked by sacralization of the new kingship. The popes had already attempted to form an alliance with the Franks, since Rome was repeatedly threatened by the Lombards, and Byzantium was too weak to give protection. In 754, during a visit to Frankish la…


(469 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. C(h)aritas. (baptized Barbara; Mar 21, 1467, Eichstätt – Aug 19, 1532, Nuremberg), abbess (from 1503) of the Clarissene convent in Nuremberg and an outstanding female figure (Women: IV, 2) of the Reformation period. The daughter of a patrician Nuremberg family, she entered the convent in 1479 to be educated and then took her vows, probably in 1483. She mastered Latin, read theological works, and corresponded with several Humanists. In 1525, when the Reformation carried the day i…

Pirmin, Saint

(200 words)

Author(s): Padberg, Lutz E. v.
[German Version] (died c. 750; feast day Nov 3). Pirmin probably came from northern Gaul (Meaux?). His work in Frankish lands aimed less at mission than at strengthening the Christian faith. He took part after 721 in the founding of Pfungen and Reichenau (c. 724). As abbot and bishop in Murbach (727), Pirmin realized his ideal of the monastic peregrinatio, going back to models of Irish-Frankish monasticism. In 730 he founded the monastery of Hornbach. His Vita, produced in that area in 870/880, contains legendary features. The Scarapsus, a handbook for pastoral work with the bapti…

Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer

(168 words)

Author(s): Haag, Hans Jakob
[German Version] Sayings of Rabbi Eliezer, an 8th or 9th-century midrash ascribed pseudepigraphically to the Tanna (Tannaim) Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus. Although there are around 100 manuscripts and more than 30 printed editions, there is still no critical edition. It basically presents biblical history according to Genesis and Exodus, interspersed with ethical chapters. Attempts to assign it to a particular midrashic genre are problematic. Expressions like “narrative midrash” or “rewritten Bible”…


(288 words)

Author(s): Weinhardt, Joachim
[German Version] As early as the 3rd century bce, this Ligurian-Etruscan settlement became an ally of Rome, and developed in antiquity into an important military port. It was under a Lombard governor; then, under the Franks, became part of the Tuscan Marche; and in the 11th century rose to become a significant sea and trading power (with victories against the Saracens, increasing influence on Corsica and Sardinia). The famous buildings of the Piazza dei Miracoli – the archiepiscopal cathedral, the leani…

Pisa, Council of

(155 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1409). After the failure of various attempts to put an end to the Western Schism (Papacy: II),most cardinals of the two rival popes (Gregory XII [1406–1415] in Rome, Benedict XIII [1394–1417/1423] in Avignon) renounced their obedience to them, and together called a council in Pisa. This condemned both popes (without deciding on their legitimacy) for their obdurate behavior, and deposed them. However, since these popes did not submit, and they continued to receive political suppor…

Pisano Family

(413 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Michael
[German Version] Nicola (Niccolo’) Pisano (probably 1220/1225, Apulia – 1278/1284, Pisa?), worked as a sculptor in Pisa, Siena, Bologna, and Perugia. The “antique Romanesque” (Proto-Renaissance [Renaissance: III]) quality of his pulpit in the Pisa baptistery (1260) goes back to the “classicist” court art of Frederick Hohenstaufen. Nicola used Tuscan relief sarcophagi as a model. With his son Giovanni (c. 1245/1250, Pisa? – 1314/ 1315, Siena?) and Arnolfo (di Cambio) as assistants, he created the c…

Piscator, Erwin Friedrich Maximilian

(179 words)

Author(s): Bauschulte, Manfred
[German Version] (Dec 17, 1893, Wetzlar – Mar 30, 1966, Starnberg). After dire experiences with the army in World War I, Piscator began to work in the theater in Berlin as an actor and director, using workers and amateurs. Having formed a “proletarian theater” in 1920, he developed a personal dramatic style that focused solely on topical issues, made use of new techniques of staging and projection, and developed in the direction of a political theater for the masses. In 1931 he made the film Vosstaniye rybakov ( Revolt of the Fishermen) in the Soviet Union, based on a novella by Anna …

Piscator, Johannes

(182 words)

Author(s): Albrecht-Birkner, Veronika
[German Version] (Fischer; Mar 27, 1546, Straßburg [Strasbourg] – Jul 26, 1625, Herborn). After studying theology at Straßburg and (from 1564) at Tübingen (M.A. 1568), in 1571 Piscator began lecturing in Straßburg, but as a Calvinist (Calvinism) had to leave in 1574. Until 1576 he taught at Heidelberg, then Siegen, Neustadt an der Hardt, and Moers. Beginning in 1584, he and C. Olevian shaped the academy in Herborn (Reformed colleges in Germany), founded to be the intellectual center of German Calvinism. His position that only Christ’s oboedientia passiva makes satisfaction for sin…

Pissarro, Camille

(524 words)

Author(s): Kitschen, Friederike
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1830, St. Thomas, Danish West Indies – Nov 13, 1903, Paris), French painter and graphic artist, a key figure of Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism. Born to Jewish parents of French descent, Pissarro grew up on the Danish island of St. Thomas in the Antilles. He received his artistic training in Paris as a private student of painters of the École des Beaux-Arts and at the private Académie Suisse, where he met Claude Monet and Paul Cézanne around 1860. Pissarro’s early landscapes echo the en plein air painting of the Barbizon school, especially those of Jea…

Pistis Sophia

(202 words)

Author(s): Schenke, Hans-Martin
[German Version] is the name of a figure of Gnostic myth (Gnosis), after whom a Gnostic book is named, that was translated from Greek into Coptic. This book is contained in the Codex Askewianus. The whole book contains two different Gnostic writings: first, a three-part longer work, which was actually called The (Three) Books of the Redeemer; then, at the end, a shorter piece with no subdivisions. The framework of the main work consists of conversations of Jesus with his disciples on the Mount of Olives in the 12th year after his resurrection. The Pistis Sophia part narrates not only the …


(358 words)

Author(s): Schenke, Hans-Martin | Decot, Rolf
[German Version] 1. Johannes (1502/1503, Nidda – Jan 25, 1583, Nidda), Reformer in Hesse, pastor in Nidda from 1526, from 1541 to 1580 also superintendent of Alsfeld. Throughout his life, Pistorius devoted himself to introducing and consolidating the Reformation in the church of Hesse. In 1538/1539 he participated in drawing up the Ziegenhain order of discipline and the Kassel church order, as well as a proposal – comparatively benign – on how to treat the Jews in Hesse. At the behest of landgrave P…

Pithou, Pierre

(6 words)

[German Version] Gallicanism

Pius II, Pope

(444 words)

Author(s): Weinhardt, Joachim
[German Version] (Enea Silvio Piccolomini, born Oct 18, 1405, Corsignano, near Siena; pope Aug 19, 1485 – Aug 14, 1464), an outstanding Humanist on the throne of St. Peter. After legal and humanistic studies at Siena and Florence, he participated in the Council of Basel in the entourage of various prelates. He supported the conciliarist ideas of his employers and in 1440 was appointed secretary to the conciliar pope Felix V. At the Frankfurt diet of 1442, King Frederick III crowned him imperial po…

Pius I, Saint

(245 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[German Version] According to the Muratorian Fragment (73f.), Pius was the brother of the author of the Shepherd of Hermas, who wrote between 120 and 150 ce. Like his brother, he was probably born as a slave ( verna) in the household of his master, sold to someone in Rome, and there given his freedom. He was a presbyter of one of Rome’s numerous Christian house churches. In the second half of the 2nd century, when Rome was developing monepiscopacy, Pius’s name, still part of the local Roman tradition, was used as a building block for the Roman bishop list (Iren. Haer. III 4.4; cf. 7.2), which a…

Pius IV, Pope

(336 words)

Author(s): Burkard, Dominik
[German Version] (Giovanni Angel de’ Medici; born Mar 31, 1499, Milan; pope Dec 25, 1559 – Dec 9, 1565). After studying medicine and law, he worked for ¶ a short time as a lawyer. He went to Rome in 1526, where Clement VII appointed him protonotary. He began his rapid ascent in the Curia under Paul III: he was appointed governor of several cities in the Papal States, archbishop of Ragusa in 1545, and commissary general of the papal auxiliaries in the Schmalkaldic War (Schmalkaldic League) in 1546. In 1549 he was made a car…

Pius IX, Pope

(1,067 words)

Author(s): Arnold, Claus
[German Version] (Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti; born May 13, 1792; pope Jun 16, 1846 – Feb 7, 1878). The family of Pius IX were minor provincial nobility in the Papal States. Epileptic seizures forced him to ¶ interrupt his education at the Piarist College in Volterra (1803–1809), and he convalesced at home. In 1814 he began looking for a career in Rome and in 1816 he decided on the priesthood. In 1819, after rudimentary study of theology, he was ordained at the Roman College; his illness required him to obtain a dispensation. A…

Pius VIII, Pope

(228 words)

Author(s): Mörschel, Tobias
[German Version] (Francesco Saverio Castiglioni, born Nov 20, 1761, Cingoli, near Ancona; pope Mar 31, 1829 – Nov 30, 1830). After an education befitting his noble lineage, Castiglioni was ordained to the priesthood in Rome in 1785. After completing several years of legal studies, he served as vicar general in various dioceses. As bishop of Montalto (1800), he came into conflict with Napoleonic Italy. Appointed bishop of Cesena and made a cardinal in 1816, he was translated to Frascati in 1821 and…
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