Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Sohm, Rudolph

(568 words)

Author(s): Pawlowski, Hans-Martin
[German Version] (Oct 29, 1841, Rostock – May 16, 1917, Leipzig), studied law in Rostock, Heidelberg, and Berlin; after his habilitation in Göttingen in 1866, he was appointed to professorships at Freiburg (1870), Straßburg (now Strasbourg; 1872), and Leipzig (1887). ¶ He had intended initially to devote himself primarily to legal history, but in Straßburg he found himself compelled to take a position on the “struggle between state and church just [triggered] . . . in Germany . . . by the Vatican Council” (Pawlowksi, 307f.) – later cal…

Söhngen, Gottlieb

(179 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter
[German Version] (May 21, 1892, Cologne – Nov 14, 1971, Munich), Catholic fundamental theologian and philosopher of religion. He headed the Albertus Magnus Academy in Cologne from 1924 to 1930. In 1937 he was appointed professor at Braunsberg. From 1947 to 1958 he held the chair of fundamental theology and philosophical propaedeutics at the University of Munich. Within the context of Neoscholasticism, he sought to break through a purely restorative Thomism and open theology to the sweep of salvati…

Söhngen, Oskar

(256 words)

Author(s): Bunners, Christian
[German Version] (Dec 5, 1900, Wuppertal-Barmen – Aug 28, 1983, Berlin). A student of R. Otto’s, he ¶ received his Dr.phil. in 1922 and his Lic.theol. in 1924. In 1926 he was appointed to a pastorate in Cologne and in 1932 became a consultant to the High Consistory in Berlin. In 1936 he became chief consistorial councilor. From 1951 to 1969 he served as spiritual vice-president in the chancery of the Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union in Berlin, where he also taught at the Academy of Music as a lecture…

Sohn, Georg

(195 words)

Author(s): Mahlmann, Theodor
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1551, Rosbach vor der Höhe, Wetterau – Apr 23, 1589, Heidelberg), began his studies in Marburg in 1566 and moved to Wittenberg in 1569; a conversion experience in July of 1570 led him to change from law to theology, receiving his M.A. on Sep 6, 1571. In 1572 be was back in Marburg, where he was appointed professor of theology in 1574, receiving his Dr.theol. on Jan 9, 1578. In 1584 he went to Heidelberg. In Marburg he developed the Melanchthonianism of his Wittenberg teac…

Sōka Gakkai

(280 words)

Author(s): Hase, Thomas
[German Version] (“Value-Creating Society”), a lay Buddhist organization (Buddhism: I, 2.e) established in Japan in the 20th century and today one of the largest of the Japanese new religious movements (I; Japan: VI, 2). The predecessor organization of the Sōka Gakkai was founded in 1930 by Tsunesaburō Makiguchi (1871–1944) and Josei Toda (1900–1958), both adherents of Nichiren Buddhism, which traces its roots back to Nichiren. Borrowing from Nichiren, Makiguchi created a theory of values and educ…

Sokolow, Nahum

(179 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Barbara
[German Version] ( Jan 16, 1861, Wyszogród, Poland – May 17, 1936, London), Hebrew writer, journalist, and leading Zionist politician. His tireless journalistic activity in all the major Jewish media of his time served as his platform, so that he counts as one of the founding fathers of Hebrew journalism. He held high offices in Zionism early on: he was invited to become general secretary in 1906, and in 1911 he was elected to the Zionist Executive; from 1920 to 1931 he was its chairman. From 1931…

Solano, Francisco

(172 words)

Author(s): Toepsch, Alexandra
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1549, Mantilla, Andalusia – Jul 14, 1610, Lima, Peru), joined the Franciscan order in 1569 and worked initially as a domestic missionary. In 1589 he was sent to Peru aboard a ship carrying African slaves; from Peru he was sent to Santiago del Estero in what is now Argentina. Using that as a base, he preached the gospel for 15 years among the Tonokoté, counseled their chiefs, and healed the sick. He returned to the Franciscan house in Lima as guardian. Today many places in…

Soler, Mariano

(223 words)

Author(s): Toepsch, Alexandra
[German Version] (Mar 25, 1846, San Carlos, Uruguay – Sep 26, 1908, Gibraltar), studied theology from 1868 to 1874 at the Gregorianum in Rome, earning a Dr.theol. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1872. In 1875 he returned to Uruguay, where he founded the Catholic Club of Montevideo, a lyceum for university studies – the first free university in Uruguay and the Society of Science and the Arts. In 1879 he became a parish priest in Montevideo. From 1884 to 1890, he served as vicar general of the …

Solesmes Abbey

(238 words)

Author(s): Saulnier, Daniel
[German Version] The Benedictine Abbey of Solesmes, in western France 50 km from Le Mans, was founded c. 1010 and survived until the French Revolution (1792). In 1833 P.L.P. Guéranger acquired the abbey and established it as a retreat house for prayer and study, marking the beginning of the revival of Benedictine monasticism in France. The abbey gained increasing fame through the role of Dom Guéranger in the life of the church in the 19th century. His Institutions liturgiques (1840–1851) and L’année liturgique (1841–1866) contributed substantially to the renewal of liturgical…

Solidarity

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Figl, Johann | Zürcher, Markus Daniel | Baumgartner, Alois
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term solidarity (from neo-Lat. solidaritas, derived from solidus, “solid, firm”; Fr. solidarité) denotes the cohesiveness of a “group,” ultimately society, expressed in a generally ethical sense of cohesion. In the history of the term, originally borrowed from legal usage (Wildt, Baumgartner), É. Durkheim (1893) distinguishes the “organic solidarity” of a differentiated modern society from the “mechanical solidarity” of so-called primitive societies, in which the individ…

Solin

(155 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] in Croatia near Split, was an Illyrian city that became a Roman colony under Julius Caesar. It flourished under the Empire, since it had an excellent harbor and good communications with the interior, and became the capital of the province of Dalmatia. Christianity spread very early and intensively in Salona. The city and its surroundings and the nearby island of Brattia (Brac) contain the ruins of a large number of churches and buildings over the tombs of martyrs, dating from the…

Sölle, Dorothee

(376 words)

Author(s): Kuhlmann, Helga
[German Version] (Sep 30, 1929, Cologne – Apr 27, 2003, Göppingen). After studying classical and Germanic philology, philosophy, and Protestant theology, she taught in a Gymnasium and was an adviser in higher education. She received her habilitation in Cologne in 1971; from 1975 to 1987 she was professor of systematic theology at Union Theological Seminary in New York; in 1994 she received an honorary professorship from Hamburg. From the late 1960s on, she was active in organizing political nighttime prayers in Cologne, in church conferences, in the peace movem…

Solmization

(166 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] is a method of learning the individual musical pitches of a piece of vocal music by means of specific solmization syllables; it goes back to Guido of Arezzo, who derived it from the hymn assigned to the feast of John the Baptist ( Ut queant laxis Resonare fibris/ Mira gestorum Famuli tuorum,/ Solve poluti Labii reatum,/Sancte Johannes). The initial pitches of each half-line of the hymn melody (not specifically liturgical in the MA) produce a rising six-tone scale or hexachord (C=ut, D=re, E=mi, F=fa, G=sol, A=la). ¶ Scales from F to D ( hexachordum molle) and from G to E ( hexach…

Solomon

(1,558 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Lattke, Michael
[German Version] I. Bible 1. Literary analysis. The primary source for Solomon (Heb. ְׁשׁלמה/ šĕlōmōh) is 1 Kgs 1–12. It has a chiastic structure centered on the account of the design, construction, and dedication of the Jerusalem temple (II, 4; 1 Kgs 5–8); it is flanked by descriptions of Solomon’s illustrious wisdom and reign (1 Kgs 3f. and 9f.), with narratives of his rise and decline constituting the outward framework (1 Kgs 1f. and 11f.). This overall structure is a product of Deuteronomistic historiogra…

Solomonic Writings

(3,079 words)

Author(s): Lattke, Michael
[German Version] I. Wisdom of Solomon 1. Canonicity and versions. The Wisdom of Solomon ( Sapientia Salomonis) is classified as a deuterocanonical or apocryphal book (Apocrypha). Both terms reflect its inclusion in the Septuagint, but the Muratorian Canon (Muratorian Fragment) even recognizes the book of Wisdom written in Greek by “friends of Solomon” as part of the New Testament. In general, though, it is classed among the antilegomena of the Old Testament. In the LXX, which itself influenced the (initially an…

Solovetsky Monastery

(312 words)

Author(s): Troitski, Aleksandr N.
[German Version] The Solovetsky Monastery (Spaso Preobraženskii Soloveckii monastyr’), with the ¶ Redeemer Cathedral of the Transfiguration, is the most famous monastery of northern Russia (Russian monasteries); it was founded on the Solovetsky Islands in 1436 by St. German (died 1479/1484), who lived there from 1429 to 1435 together with St. Savvattii (died Sep 27, 1435) and St. Zossima. By 1450 the monastery had already been given the entire archipelago; later it also received extensive mainland propertie…

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeyevich

(894 words)

Author(s): George, Martin
[German Version] ( Jan 16/28, 1853, Moscow – Jul 31/Aug 13, 1900, Uzkoe, near Moscow), mystic, poet, pamphleteer, and theologian; still the most significant religious philosopher produced by Russia. Growing up in a devout and cultured family, Solovyov began to engage in ascetic exercises while still a child. He studied the natural sciences in Moscow from 1869 to 1872. His personal involvement with the philosophy of Plato, B. Spinoza, F.W.J. Schelling, A. Schopenhauer, and E. v. Hartmann brought hi…

Solstice

(314 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen
[German Version] In the Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice marks the reversal of the sun’s apparent movement and hence the beginning of summer (with Jun 21/22 as the longest days); the winter solstice on Dec 21/22 with the shortest days similarly marks the beginning of winter. These turning points determine the chronology of the recurrent seasons of the year in the form of a calendar. The calendar in turn determines major feast days and times of ritual observance (Feasts and festivals). Preh…

Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich

(267 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Christine
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1918, Kislovodsk – Aug 3, 2008, Moscow) studied, among other things, mathematics and literature in Rostov na Donu. In 1945 he was sentenced to eight years in a labor camp. He was rehabilitated in 1957. In 1969 he was expelled from the Soviet writers’ union and the following year was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1974 he was deported from the Soviet Union and emigrated in 1976 to the United States, returning to Russia in 1994. His short stories include: A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962) – the diary of a day in the prison camp from a prison…

Somalia

(806 words)

Author(s): Spindler, Marc
[German Version] The Republic of Somalia was created on Jul 1, 1960, from a merger of British Somaliland Protectorate and Italian Somalia. It covers an area of 637, 657 km2, mostly flat desert with mountains in the north. Somalia is known for its recurring droughts, sporadic floods, and an overwhelmingly torrid climate. According to the last reliable count of 1975 Somalia is approaching a population of 8 million, including a large number of nomads. Permanent warfare has displaced large numbers of people in the country and abroad. Consequently, a…

Somaschi

(178 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ordo Clericorum Regularium a Somasc[h]a, CRS), an order of regular clergy founded in Somasca, Lombardy, in 1534 by the Venetian noble Gerolamo Miani (St. Emiliani, c. 1486–1537) in the spirit of Catholic reform as a Compagnia dei Servi deipoveri (“Society of servants of the poor”). It was to have a pastoral, charitable, and educational apostolate, focused especially on education of orphans. After a difficult beginning, the order consolidated but almost died out c. 1800. Later it experienced a slow revival, which las…

Sombart, Werner

(333 words)

Author(s): Aldenhoff-Hübinger, Rita
[German Version] ( Jan 19, 1863, Ermsleben ­– May 28, 1941, Berlin). After studying political science, Sombart received his doctorate from Berlin, where he studied with G. Schmoller, the leader of the “younger” historical school of economics. After a brief period of practical work, he joined the University of Breslau (Wrocław) as an associate professor in 1890; in 1906 he moved to the Berlin School of Commerce. Finally in 1917 he succeeded A.H.G. Wagner as a full professor at the Frederick William University in Berlin. His Sozialismus und soziale Bewegung im 19. Jahrhundert (1896; ET: So…

Soner, Ernst

(160 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (or Sohner; Dec 1572, Nuremberg – Sep 28, 1612, Altdorf, near Nuremberg), appointed district physician in Nuremberg in 1603 and professor of medicine at the Reichsstädische Akademie in Altdorf in 1605. In 1607/1608 he served as its rector. During an educational tour in 1598, he had been converted by Andreas Wojdowski and Christoph Ostorodt in Leiden to the theological views of their teacher F. Socinus; on his return to Altdorf, he promoted their ideas among his close friends. He w…

Song of Songs, The

(1,290 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter | Otto, Eckart
[German Version] I. Place and Date While individual poems like Song 1:9–11 may go back to the preexilic period, collections, redaction(s), and linguistic revision(s) date from just before and especially during the 3rd century bce. The text contains several loanwords: pardēs (4:13: “orchard,” from Old Iranian), ¶ ʾ appiryôn (3:9: “palanquin,” most likely from Gk), and qinnāmôn (4:14: “cinnamon,” ultimately from Malay kayu manis, “sweet wood”), along with several words borrowed from Old Indic. Beside numerous lexical and grammatical Aramaisms, it exhibits fea…

Song Sermon

(289 words)

Author(s): Henkys, Jürgen
[German Version] A song sermon (or hymn sermon) is a liturgical address based on a hymn (Church song) as an embodiment and anchor of faith and thus meets the obligation of public preaching to be biblical, ecclesiastical, and contemporary. The hymn sermon’s roots go back to the 16th century ( J. & C. Spangenberg). It flourished well into the 18th century, when it also provided fertile soil for the growth of hymnology, but it ¶ disappeared with the arrival of rationalism, which was so at odds with the stock of traditional hymns. It was the studies of Rößler and work don…

Songs Rabbah

(8 words)

[German Version] Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah

Sonntag, Karl Gottlob

(169 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1765, Radeberg – Jul 17, 1827, Riga), Protestant theologian inclined toward moderate rationalism (III); he left a deep impression on the ecclesiastical and spiritual life of Livonia. After studying at Leipzig from 1784 to 1788, he became rector of the cathedral school in Riga. He was appointed senior pastor in 1791, assessor of the Livonian supreme consistory in 1799, and general superintendent in 1803. He deserves credit for reshaping the liturgy, creating a hymnal, prom…

Son of God

(2,958 words)

Author(s): Zeller, Dieter | Karrer, Martin | Nüssel, Friederike
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Son of God as a title applied to an individual must be distinguished from children of God (Child of God) applied to several individuals or a group (e.g. the Israelites). The New Testament title alludes to Davidic messiahship, based on 2 Sam 7:14a (Messiah: II, 2), where God promises Solomon fatherly oversight and appoints him as his representative on earth. Ps 2:7 (cf. Pss 89:27f.*; 110:1–3) uses that text to assert the worldwide dominion of the king of Israel. The “begetting” a…

Son of Man in the New Testament

(1,001 words)

Author(s): Müller, Mogens
[German Version] The expression Son of Man (Gk ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνϑρώπου/ ho hyiós toú anthrṓ pou) is the most frequent self-designation of Jesus in the Gospels, appearing in 82 passages – 69 in the Synoptics (14 in Mark, 30 in Matthew, 25 in Luke), 13 in John. Not counting parallels, there are 38 Synoptic Son-of-Man logia. In addition there are 24 Synoptic logia whose parallels lack the expression, frequently substituting I. Except for John 12:34 (and Luke 24:7), Son of Man appears in the Gospels only on the lips of Jesus; outside the Gospels, it appears only in Acts 7:56 (cf. L…

Sonthom, Emanuel

(184 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (anagram of E. Thomson; dates unknown), English merchant in Danzig (Gdansk) and Stade (presence documented from 1599 to 1612). Under the title Güldenes Kleinot der Kinder Gottes (Frankfurt am Main, 1612), he translated the First Booke of the Christian Exercise (1582) of the English ¶ Jesuit Robert Persons (or Parsons), which he knew in a Protestant version by Edmund Bunny ( A Booke of Christian Exercise, 1584). After the edition published in Lüneburg in 1632, which included a third section probably written by J. Gesenius, “Sonthom” (so called f…

Soothsayer

(5 words)

[German Version] Divination/Manticism

Sophia of Jesus Christ (NHC III, 4; BG 8502/3; SJC)

(88 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Judith
[German Version] In the Sophia, the risen Christ instructs his disciples concerning the supreme God and his emanations. The work probably originated in the 2nd century as a revision of Eugnostos (NHC III, 3; V, 1; Nag Hammadi), combining Christian and Gnostic ideas. Judith Hartenstein Bibliography Ed.: D. Parrott, ed., Nag Hammadi Codices V,2–5 and V,1, NHS 27, 1991 J. Hartenstein, “Eugnostos und die Weisheit Jesu Christi,” in: Nag Hammadi Deutsch, vol. I, GCS.NF 8, 2001, 323–379 (bibl.).

Sophiology

(579 words)

Author(s): Ruppert, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] In the West, the liturgical and doxological veneration of Sophia as the personified wisdom of God (Prov 8; Wis 8; Sir 24), still found in Alcuin’s church poetry, was gradually relegated to a mystical and esoteric fringe ( J. Böhme, New Age); in Russian Orthodox piety, however, Sophia remained a living reality in the church – in liturgical lections and hymns, and above all in church dedications and iconography. The earliest Russian churches were dedicated to St. Sophia – for exampl…

Sophistic School

(1,021 words)

Author(s): Rese, Friederike
[German Version] a school of Greek philosophy (I) in the 5th and 4th centuries bce. After the pre-Socratics, who were more interested in natural philosophy, and prior to Socrates, the Sophists turned their attention to political life. They thought of themselves as teachers who would be paid to teach young Greek men faculties they could employ to gain political influence, especially the faculty of “speaking well” (εὖ λέγειν/ eú légein) but also the faculty of political virtue (Virtues; ¶ ἀρετή/ aretḗ ). This classic era of Sophistics was followed by a second phase during th…

Sophocles

(269 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard
[German Version] (497/496, Athens – 406 bce), Athenian tragedian, who had his debut in 470. Seven of his plays (out of probably 113) have survived: Ajax and the Trachinian Women, written in the 450s, Antigone (c. 440), Oedipus the King (436–433), Electra (a late work), Philoctetes (409), and Oedipus at Colonus (performed posthumously in 401). His tragedies present individuals in extreme situations, whose behavior can overstep the limits of hubris. The protagonists are contrasted with figures representing the average person (Chrysothemis, Ismene…

Sophronius

(226 words)

Author(s): Perrone, Lorenzo
[German Version] (c. 550, Damascus – Mar 11, 638, Jerusalem). After studying rhetoric, Sophronius traveled to Palestine in 578 and there became a monk. He and John Moschus undertook journeys to Egypt, Sinai, Syria, Cyprus, Rome, and North Africa. In 634 he became patriarch of Jerusalem. In his synodal letter to Sergius I of Constantinople, he stated his resistance to Monenergism as a possible resolution of the conflict with the Monophysites. Shortly before his death, he surrendered the holy city t…

Sopron

(187 words)

Author(s): Csepregi, Zoltán
[German Version] a city on the western edge of Hungary. Already affected by the Reformation in 1520, it had become predominantly Lutheran by the mid-16th century. Simon Gerengel was active as a preacher from 1565 to 1571. The Counter-Reformation put an end to the city’s unique symbiosis of Protestants and Catholics, but Protestant worship was able to continue even during the “decade of mourning” of Hungarian Protestantism (1671–1681). In the 17th century, many noble Austrian families took refuge …

Sorcery

(5 words)

[German Version] Magic

Sosthenes

(6 words)

[German Version] Paul’s Associates

Soter

(175 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[German Version] presbyter-bishop in Rome between c. 166 and 175, responsible for external relations: his responsibilities included Christians traveling to Rome, organizing aid missions, and probably correspondence with the Corinthians (Dionysius of Corinth in Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 23.10f.). In the second half of the 2nd century, the presbyters in charge of external relations became increasingly more important than the other presbyters in the city, so that Anicetus and Soter became the forerunners of monepiscopacy in Rome. The Roman…

Soteriology

(5 words)

[German Version] Redemption/Soteriology

Soto, Domingo de

(189 words)

Author(s): Augusto Rodrigues, Manuel
[German Version] (1495, Segóvia – Nov 15, 1560, Salamanca), a Dominican, was one of the most important masters of the “school of Salamanca” and among the most important representatives of late Scholasticism in Spain. After studying in Alcalá and Paris, where he heard the lectures of Francis of Vitoria, he became a professor at the University of Salamanca. He was a theological adviser to Emperor Charles V and represented the Dominican order at the Council of Trent. He defended B. de Las Casas in th…

Soto, Pedro de

(169 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1495, Alcalá – Apr 20, 1563, Trent), Catholic controversialist. He joined the Dominicans in 1518 and supported the reform of his order. In 1542 he was appointed confessor to Charles V, an office from which he resigned in 1548 because he thought the imperial court was not attacking the Reformation vigorously enough. He played a role in founding the University of Dillingen, where he lectured in theology from 1549 to 1555. In 1555 he accepted a posting to England but remained onl…

Soubirous, Bernadette, Saint

(179 words)

Author(s): Ries, Markus
[German Version] (baptized Marie- Bernarde; religious name: Marie-Bernard; Jan 7, 1844, Lourdes – Apr 16, 1879, Nevers), joined the Sisters of Charity of Nevers as a novice in 1866 but did not take ¶ permanent vows until 1878. Bernadette was born to an impoverished family and suffered from asthma, cholera, and tuberculosis of the bone. Between Feb 11 and Jul 16 of 1858, she experienced 18 visions in a grotto beside the Gave near Lourdes, encountering a white “something” ( aquerò), then a luminous “small young lady” ( uo pétito demizéla), which she experienced as an apparition of the …

Soul

(8,968 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Seebass, Horst | Gödde, Susanne | Necker, Gerold | Rudolph, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. Phenomenology Western, Christian connotations of the concept of the soul, imposed on the religio-historical evidence by outside studies, must be generally excluded if the soul is understood as the principle of manifestations of life that are perceptible (or culturally considered to be perceptible), although they are rarely categorized under a common umbrella term. It is therefore reasonable to speak of a multiplicity of souls – for example four among the Ob-Ugrians (Hasenfratz, Einführung, 38–41), five among the Proto-Germanic peoples ( ib…

Soul Bird

(169 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl
[German Version] The fugitive soul is represented pictorially in many forms. Late, principally Roman sarcophagi depict Prometheus (Culture hero) forming a human being as a statuette, to which Athena adds a butterfly (Gk ψυχή/ psychḗ ). Frequently the soul is represented as a bird. The soul bird itself comes from ancient Egypt. In the earliest period, a bird resembling a stork, later a falcon, was considered the embodiment of divine powers called ba. Probably on account of a later shift in meaning, this term was already translated by Horapollon as psychḗ or “soul.” In the Old Kingdom…

Soul, Sleep of the

(275 words)

Author(s): Link, Christian
[German Version] According to Augustine of Hippo ( De haeresibus 83; MPL 42, 46), the notion of a sleep or death of the soul was already current among the “Arabs” in the time of Origen. This means that souls in the “intermediate sate” share the fate of their mortal bodies, rising to life again with them only on the Last Day. This idea, with various rationales, was later advocated by Pope John XXII, the Renaissance savant P. Pomponazzi, a few Anabaptist groups, A. v. Karlstadt, and Luther. The arguments f…

South Africa

(1,920 words)

Author(s): Hofmeyr, Johannes Wynand
[German Version] I. General South Africa, located at the southern tip of the African continent (Africa), extends across around 1,220,000 km2. In the new South Africa there are nine provinces: Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, North-West, Northern Cape, Eastern Cape, and Western Cape. South Africa’s population is estimated to be about 42 million (75.2% Black, 13.6% White, 8.6% Colored, and 2.6% Indian). Some 60% of Whites are of Afrikaner descent and most of the rest are of British descent. Th…

South African Missions

(362 words)

Author(s): Hexham, Irving
[German Version] Roman Catholic missionaries entered South Africa during the 16th century. The first serious Protestant missionaries were Moravian Brethren (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: II,4) who arrived in 1792. London Missionary Society missionaries followed in 1799. The British annexation of the Cape in 1806 led to conflicts between missionaries like J.T. van der Kemp and J. Philip. The British expelled Roman Catholic missionaries in 1806, only allowing them officially to return in 1837. The…

South America

(8 words)

[German Version] America, Latin America

Southcott, Johanna

(177 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (April 1750 [baptized Jun 6, 1750, Devonshire] – Dec 27, 1814, London), a self-described prophet, gathered a considerable following in the early 19th century. Coming from a farming family, in 1792 she joined the Methodists, but two years later broke with them after she began to issue prophecies. Her first tract, “The Strange Effects of Faith” (1801), described her expectation of a speedy end of the age and her own role in the Last Days, influenced by Richard Brothers (1757–1824), …

South-East Asia

(1,659 words)

Author(s): Mürmel, Heinz
[German Version] comprises the modern continental countries Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Singapore, together with the island states of Indonesia, Brunei, East Timor, and the Philippines. The territory of Malaysia comprises both continental and insular regions (see the map at Asia). In the year 2000, the population was about 522 million; 27.2% were Buddhists, 2% Hindus, 26.8% Muslims, 21.4% Christians (14.7% Catholics), and 22.6% other. South-East Asia is extraordinarily varied – ethnically, linguistically, culturally, and religiously.…

Southern Baptist Convention (SBC)

(359 words)

Author(s): Leonard, Bill J.
[German Version] is the largest Protestant denomination in the United States and the largest Baptist denomination (Baptists: II) in the world, claiming some 17 million members in over 40,000 churches. The convention began in 1845 as a result of debates over slavery between Baptists North and South, specifically related to the appointment of slaveholding missionaries. Southerners pledged to evangelize the world and supported the Confederacy. After the American Civil War, the denomination was rebuil…

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

(152 words)

Author(s): Luker, Ralph E.
[German Version] In 1957, M.L. King Jr. and other black ministers organized SCLC to attack racial disfranchisement and segregation in the southern United States (Civil rights, Discrimination). Except for a platform for King’s oratory, SCLC was fairly ineffective in its early years. Other civil rights organizations sustained legal challenges to de iure segregation, launched the sit-in movement to contest segregation at restaurants, lunch counters, and theaters, and staged freedom rides to test federal orders to desegregate interstate transportati…

Souverain, Jacques

(279 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (probably died in England in 1698). Not until years after his death was Souverain identified as the author of Le Platonisme dévoilé, ou Essai touchant le verbe Platonicien, published by the Unitarian S. Crell in 1700, supposedly in Cologne but in fact in Amsterdam. Souverain, probably from Languedoc, was removed from his office as a Reformed preacher on grounds of heresy shortly before the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (Huguenots: I, 1), whereupon he moved to the Netherlands. When he offended the Dutch …

Sovereignty

(970 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] The term sovereignty – as defined by J. Bodin after antique and medieval precursors – does not denote a legal title but a social reality, the reality of an effective social power to preserve external and internal peace in the territory over which it holds sway, a “commonwealth.” The term itself implies its peculiar mode of operation: recognition of its bearer as possessing the coercive power ( vis) necessary to assure sufficient compliance internally with the laws it issues, to make appointments to office and vest them with authority, and also to…

Soviet System

(540 words)

Author(s): Jähnichen, Traugott
[German Version] Theory. Soviets (councils) are formed through equal, free, but not necessarily secret ballots (Elections) by an electorate organized by factory or military unit, and in part also by residential district. They are broadly responsible for economic, political, and legal matters. The concentration of all power in these soviets eliminates separation of powers. The elected members of these councils, whose discussions and decisions are ongoing and always public, are subject to an imperat…

Soviet Union

(736 words)

Author(s): Stricker, Gerd
[German Version] I. General The Soviet Union (officially Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR) was born out of V. Lenin’s so-called October Revolution (Nov 7/8, 1917); it lasted until Dec 31, 1991. Its area of 22.4 million km2 made it the largest country in the world; at the end, it comprised 15 national republics. Its 1989 population of 290.7 million included 90 national groups, 40 ethnic groups, and hundreds of smaller population groups. In 1989 the 145.1 million Russians constituted 50.02% of the total population, the 44.2 …

Soyo

(293 words)

Author(s): Spindler, Marc
[German Version] The modern port of Soyo, on the south bank of the Zaire estuary, is flourishing economically because of coastal petroleum reserves. It has the same location as earlier settlements – the city of Santo Antonio do Zaire and the port of Mpinda – from which African slaves were shipped to Brazil for several centuries. Soyo was also a coastal province of the famous ancient kingdom of Kongo in the 15th and 16th centuries and an important part of its history. After the Battle of Ambuila in…

Sozialdienst katholischer Frauen (SKF)

(291 words)

Author(s): Hümmeler, Elke
[German Version] founded in 1899 as the Verein vom Guten Hirten by Agnes Neuhaus (1854–1944). Its mission was and still is to help women, girls, and young children in situations of social endangerment. Today the SKF is a Catholic women’s professional association engaged in social work in several areas: aiding children and young people, women and families in situations of particular strain, and endangered women and families; caring for the mentally ill and exercising guardianship under the guardia…

Sozialdienst katholischer Männer (SKM)

(110 words)

Author(s): Bohrmann, Thomas
[German Version] founded in Essen in 1912 as the Katholischer Männer-Fürsorge-Verein and renamed Sozialdienst Katholischer Männer (SKM) in 1962. In 1991 it was given the official name SKM – Katholischer Verband für soziale Dienste in Deutschland e.V., with headquarters in Düsseldorf. The SKM is an affiliate of the Deutscher Caritasverband (Caritas); by its constitution, it is to assist people in need to find help and to improve the social conditions of those in need of help. Originally active onl…

Sozomen

(342 words)

Author(s): Hansen, Günther Christian
[German Version] (Salamanes Hermeias Sozomenos; c. 380, near Gaza – 440, Constantinople), after 425 a lawyer in Constantinople and author of a history of the church from 324 to 422 in nine books (the last left in outline). His birth to Christian parents in rural Gaza, then still largely pagan, and his socialization in the company of Palestinian monks left their mark on his thought and his work. The latter was based on the church history of Socrates Scholasticus, whom he never mentions by name; he …

Space

(1,407 words)

Author(s): Hüttemann, Andreas | van den Brom, Luco Johan
[German Version] I. Philosophy One of the first detailed discussions of space and its nature was undertaken by Aristotle, who rejected the atomists’ assumption of a void (Atomism: I) as well as Plato’s identification of space and matter. Aristotle defined the position of a body as the inner boundary of the body surrounding it (e.g. in the case of water, the inner surface of its container). According to Aristotle, therefore, a void or empty space cannot exist within or the world or outside it. In 1277 the proposition that God cannot move the world along a straight line was conde…

Spain

(2,644 words)

Author(s): Herbers, Klaus
[German Version] I. General In antiquity Hispania denoted the whole Iberian Peninsula, sometimes including Mauretania Tingitana; not until the late Middle Ages was Portugal gradually excluded. The general political and ecclesiastical history of Spain was dominated by three factors: its position on the periphery of the continent of Europe, which led to close contacts (at times very close) with northern Africa; centuries of religious and political diversity, especially in the Middle Ages, in contrast to…

Spalatin, Georg

(449 words)

Author(s): Beyer, Michael
[German Version] (Burkhardt; Jan 17, 1484, Spalt – Jan 14, 1545, Altenburg), son of a Franconian tanner, Spalatin attended the Latin school in Nuremberg in 1497 and began his university studies in 1498 at Erfurt, one of a circle of students of the Humanist Nikolaus Marschalk, whom he followed to Wittenberg in 1502. After receiving his M.A. in 1503, he devoted himself to the study of law, which he continued in Erfurt in 1504. Between 1505 and 1516, he worked primarily as a teacher, initially – thro…

Spalding, Johann Joachim

(843 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Nov 1, 1714, Tribsees, Swedish Pomerania – May 22, 1804, Berlin). One of the most important Lutheran theologians of the 18th century, revered by his contemporaries as the patriarch of Enlightenment theology for his intellectual honesty, ecclesiastical modernity, and human integrity, Spalding was a pioneer of modern theology. From 1731 to 1733 he studied philosophy and theology in Rostock and afterwards in Greifswald, receiving his Dr.phil. in 1736. From 1745 to 1747 he served as secretary of the Swedish embassy in Berlin, whil…

Spangenberg

(387 words)

Author(s): Wolff, Jens
[German Version] 1. Johann (Mar 29, 1484, Hardegsen – Jun 13, 1550, Eisleben). After attending school in Göttingen (1501) and Einbeck (1502), Spangenberg began his university studies at Erfurt in the fall of 1508, receiving his bachelor’s degree in 1511. He served as head of the Latin school in Stolberg (Harz) and in 1524 was appointed pastor in Nordhausen (Harz), where he improved the town school. In June of 1546 he was called to Eisleben as inspector of the churches in comital Mansfeld; while ther…

Spangenberg, August Gottlieb

(416 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Dietrich
[German Version] ( Jul 15[16], 1704, Klettenberg, Harz – Sep 18, 1792, Berthelsdorf ), son of Georg Spangenberg, a Lutheran pastor, and Dorothea Katharina Nese, a pastor’s daughter. After attending school in Ilfeld, he studied theology in Jena and served as an amanuensis for J.F. Buddeus. In 1722 he experienced a Pietist conversion and became a disciple of J.G. Gichtel, attracted by J. Otto Glüsing (died 1727). In 1727 he came in contact with the Herrnhuters and led a revivalist student fellowship in 1729 as magister legens. In 1732 he received an adjunct appointment to the Hal…

Spanheim

(560 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] 1. Friedrich, the Elder ( Jan 1, 1600, Amberg – May 14, 1649, Leiden), Reformed theologian. He was appointed professor of theology in Geneva in 1626 and professor of theology in 1631; from 1633 to 1637 he served as rector of the university. He was appointed professor of theology in Leiden in 1642 and in 1648 he became pastor of the Walloon congregation there. He was a champion of strict Reformed orthodoxy as defined by the Synod of Dort, rejecting such theological positions as M. Amyraut’s doctrine of grace. Christoph Strohm Bibliography C. Borgeaud, Histoire de l’univers…

Speaking in Tongues

(7 words)

[German Version] Glossolalia

Special Education

(1,176 words)

Author(s): Bleidick, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Definition and History In both German and English, the term special education ( Sonderpädagogik) is used more or less synonymously with remedial education, education of the disabled, and rehabilitation education. It denotes the theory and practice of providing education, instruction, and therapy for disabled people at various stages of life: early education, compulsory schooling, vocational training, and adult education (Education of adults). People are considered handicapped or disabled if injury to their physical or mental functions has …

Special Gods

(363 words)

Author(s): Vollmer, Ulrich
[German Version] In religious studies, the term special gods is sometimes used synonymously with functional gods, gods of appearance, or indigitamental gods, but it is used here in the narrower sense intended by H. Usener¶ when he introduced it. For Usener, special gods, equivalent to Varro’s di certi, represent one stage in the development of the human consciousness of God, understood as an evolutionary process (Evolution: II) characterized by continuous progress from the particular to the general. The lowest stage is represented by the “momentary gods” (Moment, God of …

Specialist Universities

(360 words)

Author(s): Aschenbrenner, Dieter
[German Version] The establishment of specialist universities of applied sciences in Germany began in 1968 on the basis of an agreement among the Länder; the purpose was to meet a growing need for qualified engineers, management experts, and other professionals, especially in the European context, through academic training focused on practical application. The first generation of these universities was built between 1968 and 1971. Their forerunners, many with a rich tradition, were engineering academies, schools of ap…

Special Ministries

(496 words)

Author(s): Schloz, Rüdiger
[German Version] The pastoral profession (Clergy) assumes that the pastor is a generalist, a view reflected in theological education. Liturgy and religious ceremonies, instruction, pastoral care, and church leadership are the fundamental competencies required for cura generalis in the local church. But ministerial leadership has always had a place for special competencies (Cybernetics: III). When Frederick the Great instituted standing armies, army chaplaincy became the first “special ministry.” In the 19th century, industrializat…

Speculation

(1,498 words)

Author(s): Figl, Johann | Schnepf, Robert | Danz, Christian
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The use of the term speculation in religious studies is not divorced from its use in philosophy (see II below) and everyday language, but – especially in the phenomenology of religion – it has been used in a sense specific to religious studies, particularly to denote reflective, rationalizing, and systematizing deliberations regarding a particular religion, such as have arisen in certain historical situations (e.g. cultural upheavals) and various theoretical context…

Speculative Theology

(1,024 words)

Author(s): Danz, Christian
[German Version] Speculative theology arose in the context of the speculative philosophy of F.W.J. Schelling and G.W.F. Hegel; it represented a distinct form of primarily modern Protestant theology, based on the deep-rooted conviction of a positive relationship between philosophy and theology, or faith and reason. The historically divergent conceptions of speculative theology were due not only to fundamentally different understandings of speculation, but also to different understandings of the relationship between faith and knowledge. I. The development of speculative …

Speculum humanae salvationis

(256 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] the most important and widespread typological work of the late Middle Ages, combining texts and pictures. It borrowed the structure of the Biblia pauperum (Bible of the Poor), organized around salvation history, and expanded it thematically, in particular by including scenes from the life of Mary and the passion of Jesus; it also divided the text into tractates. The title and year of composition (1324) of the nova compilatio appear already in early 14th-century manuscripts. Whether it was compiled by German Dominicans (possibly associated with Lud…

Speech Act

(540 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael
[German Version] Philosophers of language traditionally reflect on the relationship between language and reality along with the truth or falsity of utterances and propositions. Despite some intimations in the work of earlier authors, especially G. Frege (“Der Gedanke,” 1918) and Adolf Reinach (“Die apriorischen Grund­lagen des bürgerlichen Rechts,” 1913), it remained for L. Wittgenstein ( Philosophische Untersuchungen, 1953; ET: Philosophical Investigations, 2001 [bilingual]) and John Langshaw Austin ( How To Do Things with Words, 1962) to formulate the insight that …

Speer, Robert Elliot

(143 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Christoffer H.
[German Version] (Sep 10, 1867, Huntingdon, PA – Nov 23, 1947, Bryn Mawr, PA), defining figure in American missionary work of his time. Influenced by D.L. Moody, he became active in the Student Volunteer Movement; in 1891, just as he was beginning his theological studies, he was appointed secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, with which he remained associated for over 50 years until his retirement in 1937. Missiologically close to R. Anderson, he was a prolific author and much i…

Spee (Spe) von Langenfeld, Friedrich

(291 words)

Author(s): Zschoch, Hellmut
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1591, Kaiserswerth – Aug 7, 1635, Trier), joined the Jesuits in 1610 and worked for the order as a theological teacher in support of the Counter-Reformation; in 1629 he was appointed professor of theology in Trier. He owes his importance not to his role as an academic theologian but to his unique combination of piety, literary talent, and active commitment to the suffering. His major religious works, the Güldenes Tugend-Buch and Trutz-Nachtigall, published posthumously in 1649, influenced confessional Roman Catholic religiosity through literat…

Spellman, Francis Joseph

(218 words)

Author(s): Galvin, John Patrick
[German Version] (May 4, 1889, Whitman, MA – Dec 2, 1967, New York). After studies at Fordham University, New York, and in Rome, Spellman was ordained to the priesthood in 1916 and received his doctorate in theology the same year. He served in diocesan assignments in the archdiocese of Boston until 1925, when he assumed a position at the Vatican’s Secretariat of State. In this capacity he became close personally and professionally to Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, who was secretary of state from 1929 u…

Spells

(5 words)

[German Version] Magic

Spencer, Herbert

(165 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Apr 27, 1820, Derby, England – Dec 8, 1903, Brighton, England), social scientist and popular writer, worked as a railway engineer and political journalist. His System of Synthetic Philosophy (1862–1896) established his reputation as a comprehensive thinker about society, education, ethics, and politics. To each of these domains he applied general evolutionary ideas. Evolution also explained the history of religions, which mirrored the social systems in which they existed, reinforced the practices of existin…

Spencer, John

(171 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (1630, Bocton, Kent, England, baptized Oct 31, 1630 – May 27, 1693, probably Cambridge, England), English theologian and Hebraist. He ¶ served as fellow (1655) and master (1667) of Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge, before being appointed dean of Ely (1677). His most influential work, De Legibus Hebraeorum (1685), traced the religious antiquities of the ancient Hebrews and laid the foundation for the subsequent emergence of the study of comparative religion. He was the first scholar to observe the similarities between Hebre…

Spencer, Sir Stanley

(200 words)

Author(s): Robinson, Duncan
[German Version] ( Jun 30, 1891, Cookham – Dec 14, 1959, Cliveden). Trained at the Slade School of Fine Art in London, twice an Official War Artist and knighted toward the end of his long and productive career, Spencer was nonetheless regarded at the time of his death as an eccentric, isolated from the mainstream of contemporary art, a figurative painter unfashionably preoccupied with religious subject-matter. Just as Fra Angelico used 15th-century Florence as the setting for his scenes from the N…

Spener, Philipp Jakob

(1,012 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] ( Jan 13, 1635, Rappoltsweiler, Elsass [Ribeauvillé, Alsace] – Feb 5, 1705, Berlin), father of Lutheran Pietism (I, 1). Son of a devout middle-class family with connections at court, he was brought up on edifying Puritan literature and J. Arndt’s Wahres Christentum. At the age of 16, he entered the University of Strasbourg (II); after foundation courses in philosophy (1653 master’s disserta-¶ tion against T. Hobbes), he studied the system of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a) under J.K. Dannhauer, a theology he remained faithful to throughout his…

Spengler, Lazarus

(246 words)

Author(s): Gößner, Andreas
[German Version] (Mar 13, 1479, Nuremberg – Sep 7, 1534, Nuremberg). Spengler, the son of a town clerk, entered the civil service of Nuremberg in 1496 after studying in Leipzig. After 1507 he was the administrative head of the imperial city. He adopted the ideals of Humanism early on, admired the church father Jerome, and soon expressed enthusiasm for the preaching of J. v. Staupitz, which persuaded him to adopt an Augustinian theology of grace. On this basis, he became the spokesman for the Refor…

Spengler, Oswald

(398 words)

Author(s): Hübinger, Gangolf
[German Version] (May 29, 1880, Blankenburg, Harz – May 8, 1936, Munich), cultural philosopher and political writer. After studying natural and humane sciences in Halle, Munich, and Berlin, Spenger received his doctorate from Halle in 1904, with a dissertation about Heraclitus directed by the Neo-Kantian Alois Riehl. From 1907 to 1912 he taught mathematics, natural science, German, and history at a Gymnasium in Hamburg. In 1913, working as an independent scholar, he started on his major work, Der Untergang des Abendlandes (1918/1922), in which he described world history as …

Spenser, Edmund

(300 words)

Author(s): Meller, Horst
[German Version] (c. 1552, London – Jan 16, 1599, London). For centuries Spenser, the son of a clothmaker, has been among the luminaries of English poetry. As a scholarship student at Cambridge, he became known through his friendship with the poet P. Sidney, to whom he dedicated his “Shepherd’s Calendar” in 1579 and whose early death he lamented in his classic elegy “Astrophel” (1586). Thanks to his relationship with Sidney and his friends, who were close to the court, Spenser was appointed admini…

Speratus, Paul

(319 words)

Author(s): Beyer, Michael
[German Version] (or Spreth; Dec 13, 1494, Rötlen, near Ellwangen – Aug 12, 1551, Marienwerder [Kwidzyn], Poland). After studying at several European universities, Speratus was ordained to the priesthood in 1506; c. 1519/1520 he served a church in Dinkelsbühl and in 1520 was appointed dean of the cathedral in Würzburg. Dismissed because of his sympathies with the Reformation (evangelical preaching, secret marriage), he went to Salzburg and Vienna (where he was excommunicated by the faculty of theo…

Speyer

(401 words)

Author(s): Bümlein, Klaus
[German Version] The Roman civitas of Nementum is mentioned as the seat of a bishopric as early as 345. Since the 7th century, the episcopal list of Speyer has been preserved almost without a gap. The Salian dynasty (1024–1125; Salians), beginning with Conrad II, had the cathedral rebuilt (Church architecture: II, 2.b with fig. 12). The monumental Romanesque cathedral was intended as the burial place of the Salian emperors. By 1294 the city had generally achieved independence from episcopal rule. It…

Sphinx

(6 words)

[German Version] Composite Beings

Spiecker, Friedrich Albert

(282 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph
[German Version] (Feb 19, 1854, Boppard – Jul 10, 1937, Berlin), businessman. After an apprenticeship in Hachenburg (Westerwald), in 1872 he began language study in Antwerp and London. In 1879 he was appointed director of the Missions-Handels-Actien-Gesellschaft of the Rhenish Missionary Society in Barmen. In 1902 he was appointed to the executive board of Siemens in Berlin. Spiecker embodied the novel figure of the Protestant economic self-made men, who by virtue of personal competence and commun…

Spiegel zum Desenberg, Ferdinand August von

(314 words)

Author(s): Jordan, Stefan
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1764, Schloß Canstein, Westphalia – Aug 2, 1835, Cologne), descended from ancient Westphalian nobility, buried in the choir of Cologne cathedral. From 1777 to 1783 he studied at an aristocratic boarding school in Fulda, then from 1783 to 1785 he studied law, political science, and economics in Münster, where he was appointed to the canonry in 1793 and elected dean of the cathedral in 1799. In 1796 he was appointed privy councilor in the secular district administration of …

Spiera, Francesco

(100 words)

Author(s): Weinhardt, Joachim
[German Version] (1502, Cittadella, – Dec 27, 1548, Cittadella). In 1548 Spiera, an Italian jurist, recanted his Protestant belief in justification by faith before the Inquisition. He fell into a depression because he believed he had committed the unforgiveable “sin against the Holy Spirit” and soon died a natural death. Bishop P.P. Vergerio cared for him and ascribed his conversion to Protestantism to this experience. His widely published account of Spiera’s death (later with a foreword by Calvin) warned crypto-Protestants against concealing their faith. Joachim Weinhardt Biblio…

Spieth, Andreas Jakob

(98 words)

Author(s): Jones, Adam
[German Version] (Nov 2, 1856, Hegensberg – May 28, 1914, Hamburg). In 1874 he entered training at the headquarters of the Basel Mission. From 1880 to 1901, he worked in Ho (now southeastern Ghana) as a missionary of the Norddeutsche Mission; after 1901 he worked in Tübingen. He was the most important translator of Ewe for the Norddeutsche Mission; he and Diedrich Westermann were its leading ethnographers. His publications include Die Ewe-Stämme: Material zur Kunde des Ewe-Volkes in Deutsch-Togo (1906) and Die Religion der Eweer in Süd-Togo (1911). Adam Jones Bibliography MNDMG 75, 19…

Spifame, Jacques

(187 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1502, Paris – Mar 23, 1566, Genega), seigneur de Passy. After studying law, he was appointed counselor of state and parliamentary counselor in Paris; he was appointed bishop of Nevers in 1548. In 1559 he resigned, fled to Geneva, and became a Protestant, having been suspected of Protestant sympathies for some time. In the background was an adulterous relationship in the distant past and a desire to legitimate a love affair and the children it produced. Together with T. Beza, Spif…

Spina, Bartolomeo de

(152 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1475, Pisa – Apr 3, 1547, Rome). After joining the Dominicans in 1493, Spina taught in Modena, Bologna, and Padua. He had contacts with S.M. Prierias but nevertheless harshly attacked T. de Vio Cajetan for not correctly teaching the immortality of the soul. He served as an inquisitor and also considered the prosecution of witches essential. He did not agree with the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. In 1542 Paul III appointed him Magister Sacri Palatii, an office that ena…

Spinner, Heinrich Wilfrid

(116 words)

Author(s): Hamer, Heyo E.
[German Version] (Oct 12, 1854, Bonstetten – Aug 31, 1918, Weimar), Dr.theol. (Zürich, 1891). In 1878 he was appointed pastor of the Zürcher Kirche. In 1884 he was a co-founder of the Allgemeiner Evangelisch-protestantischer Missionsverein (AEPM; Ostasien-Mission); from 1885 to 1891 he was the first missionary of the AEPM in Japan, establishing German-speaking congregations in Tokyo (1885) and Yokohama (1886). From 1892 to 1896, he served as senior pastor in Ilmenau, Thuringia; from 1896 to 1918 h…

Spinola, Christoph de Royas y

(13 words)

[German Version] Royas y Spinola, Christoph de
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