Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Stallmann, Martin

(156 words)

Author(s): Stallmann, Edith
[German Version] (Aug 13, 1903, Börninghausen – Jan 29, 1980, Göttingen), read theological studies at Marburg (R. Bultmann, F. Gogarten), was a pastor (1929–1948) and professor of Evangelical theology with a teaching position for religious studies at the Pädagogische Hochschule in Lüneburg in 1948, and at Göttingen in 1961. He was honorary professor of practical theology from 1965. Obtaining his doctorate in 1959, he was made emeritus professor in 1968. Stallmann clarified the relationship between…

Stamm, Johann Jakob

(173 words)

Author(s): Mathys, Hanspeter
[German Version] (Sep 11, 1910, Basel – Nov 3, 1993, Wabern, Bern). After studying theology and Assyriology in Basel, Neuchâtel, Marburg, and Leipzig, Stamm received a doctorate in both fields. From 1949 to 1976 he taught at Bern as professor of Old Testament (to 1960 also of the history of religions); from 1960 to 1980 he was also responsible for ancient Near Eastern languages. Shaped by the tradition of Christian humanism and theologically indebted to K. Barth, in his academic publications he pl…

Stancarus, Franciscus

(155 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1501, Mantua – Nov 12, 1574, Sopnica, near Sandomierz), Hebraist, physician, and theologian, whose contentiousness triggered violent disputes wherever his unsettled life took him. Probably of Jewish descent and initially a priest or monk, after studying in Basel and in southern Germany he was appointed professor of Hebrew in Vienna in 1544 and in Cracow in 1549. Called to the University of Königsberg (Kaliningrad), he left after three months because of a clash with A. Osiander…

St. Andrews, University of

(183 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] Because Scotland maintained its allegiance to the Avignon pope Benedict XIII to the bitter end during the Great Western Schism, it was impossible for Scots to study on the continent. In 1410 the bishop of St. Andrews founded the oldest Scottish university (theology, canon law, the artes). Successor bishops added additional colleges. St. Leonard’s College was a gateway for Reformation theology in Scotland, but it was not until 1559 that leading representatives of the university gave university support to the Reformation. Their…

Stange, Carl

(251 words)

Author(s): Scheliha, Arnulf v.
[German Version] (Mar 7, 1870, Hamburg – Dec 5, 1959, Göttingen), appointed lecturer in systematic theology at Halle, 1895; associate professor at Königsberg (Kaliningrad), 1903; professor at Greifswald, 1904; professor of systematic and practical theology at Göttingen, 1912. His theological thought was based on fundamental ideas of I. Kant and F.D.E. Schleiermacher. He combined an epistemological and voluntaristic foundation for the independence of religious experience with an ontological concept…

Stăniloae, Dumitru

(296 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Jürgen
[German Version] (Nov 17, 1903, Vlădeni – Oct 5, 1993, Bucharest), studied theology in Chernivtsi (1922–1927), Athens, Munich, Berlin, Paris, and Belgrade. On his return to Romania, in 1929 he was appointed lecturer at the Theological Academy in Sibiu (Hermannstadt), where he was appointed professor in 1934 and rector in 1936. After his marriage in 1930, he was ordained to the diaconate (1931) and priesthood (1932). Until he was dismissed by the Communist regime, he also edited the church newspaper Telegraful Român (1934–1945). In 1946 he was forced to resign as rector and l…

Stanislaus of Cracow, Saint

(178 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1036–1040, Szczepanów – Apr 11, 1079, Cracow), martyr bishop and patron saint of Poland. Initially a parish priest in Czembocz, as bishop of Cracow (from 1072) he came into bitter conflict with King Boleslav II, which cost ¶ him his life. Church tradition has it that he was slain by the king himself during mass in the Church of St. Michael because he had rebuked the king for his immoral way of life, but the alternative tradition is more believable – that he was condemned to death as a traitor for his political opposition and was gruesomely executed by truncatio membrorum. His…

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady

(168 words)

Author(s): Gunther Brown, Candy
[German Version] (Nov 12, 1815, Johnstown NY – Oct 16, 1902, New York City) was the most prominent spokesperson for the American women’s movement (Feminism and feminist theology). She helped organize the women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls, NY (1848), where she introduced a “Declaration of Sentiments, based on the Declaration of Independence, calling for women’s equal rights. Stanton served as president of the New York Woman’s Temperance Society (1851–1853) and as an officer in the Women’s L…

Stapel, Wilhelm

(195 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Oct 27, 1882, Calbe – Jun 1, 1954, Hamburg), political commentator and writer. After receiving his Dr.phil. in 1911, Stapel devoted his efforts to anti-modernist, nationalist ideas, becoming a dominant figure in the “conservative revolution.” From 1918 to 1938, he and Albrecht Erich Günther published the journal Deutsches Volkstum; with a Protestant bias and close friendship with E. Hirsch, they championed a program of ethnic nationalism with an anti-Semitic flavor. Especially between 1926 and 1938, Stapel was the dominant voi…


(391 words)

Author(s): Kuhn, Thomas K.
[German Version] 1. Johann Friedrich (1708, Bern – May 1775, Bern). After studying in Brugg, Bern, and Marburg, Stapfer served from 1738 to 1740 as a military chaplain in Waldstätten (Bern) and from 1740 to 1750 as a tutor and garrison chaplain in Oberdießbach (near Thun). From 1750 to 1775 he served there as pastor, succeeding S. Lutz. He turned down offers of a chair at Marburg. After 1743 he published a final systematic treatise of “polemics”, his Institutiones theologiae polemicae univesae (5 vols., 1743–1747); his other major works include his dogmatic Grundlegung zur wahren Relig…

Staphylus, Friedrich

(330 words)

Author(s): Pfnür, Vinzenz
[German Version] (Stapelage; Aug 27, 1512, Osnabrück – Mar 5, 1564, Ingolstadt), Greek scholar and theologian. After the death of his parents, Staphylus lived with relatives in Danzig (Gdansk) and Kaunas. He studied in Cracow, Padua, and from 1536 to 1546 in Wittenberg, receiving his M.A. in 1541. From 1546 to 1551 he was in the service of Duke Albert of Prussia (from 1546 to 1548 as professor at Königsberg [Kaliningrad]). During this period he engaged in theological debates with G. Gnapheus and A. Osiander (1551: Synodus sanctorum patrum antiquorum contra nova dogmata Andreae Osiandri).…

Starbuck, Edwin Diller

(160 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] (Feb 20, 1866, Guilford Township, IN – Nov 18, 1947, Los Angeles, CA), American pioneer of the psychology of religion and educational theory as an empirical science based on developmental psychology. After a happy childhood with his Quaker parents, he studied at Harvard under W. James and at Clark University under G.S. Hall. His dissertation on conversion and adolescent development, based on questionnaires, was published in 1899; it is considered the first book on the empirical ps…

Starcke, Christoph

(168 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1684, Freienwalde – Dec 12, 1744, Driesen, Neumark [now Drezdenko, Poland]). After attending school in Berlin, began studying at Halle in 1703. From Halle he brought the spirit of Pietism to his future work as an instructor in Berlin (1705), pastor in Nennhausen, Kreis Rathenow (1709), and senior pastor and garrison chaplain in Driesen (1737). In collaboration with others, he produced a Synopsis bibliothecae in Novum Testamentum (1733–1737), an exegetical and homiletical reference work with many tables, which continued in print into the l…

Starck, Johann August

(327 words)

Author(s): Spehr, Christopher
[German Version] (von; Oct 28, 1741, Schwerin – Mar 3, 1816, Darmstadt). After studying theology and Near Eastern languages at Göttingen, Starck began teaching in St. Petersburg in 1763. In 1766 he was given a research position at the library of St. Germain in Paris; in 1767 he was appointed deputy rector of the Gymnasium in Wismar. After another stay in St. Petersburg, in 1770 he was appointed professor of Near Eastern languages and second court chaplain at Königsberg (Kaliningrad). In 1772 he wa…

Starck, Johann Friedrich

(183 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1680, Hildesheim – Jul 17, 1756, Frankfurt am Main), Pietist devotional writer. During his studies at Gießen, he was won over to Pietism by J.H. May. After working as a private tutor in Frankfurt am Main, in 1709 he was appointed preacher in Geneva; in 1711 he was appointed pastor in Sachsenhausen and in 1723 at the Barfüßerkirche in Frankfurt. Rejecting separatist Pietism, Starck brought “true, inward, heartfelt devotion” into the state church through his edifying and devotional writings. His Tägliches Handbuch in guten und bösen Tagen (1727; ET: Daily Hand-Bo…


(365 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (pl. startsy) is the Russian equivalent to the Greek word γέρων/ gérōn; it denotes an experienced (and therefore usually elderly) ascetic, whose spiritual direction younger ascetics as well as Christians living in the world accept without question. The roots this phenomenon go back to Eastern monasticism in the Early Church. St. Anthony is the prototypical starets, but this form of spiritual direction did not fully come into its own until the late 18th century in Russia, when Paisius Velichkovsky left Athos for Moldavia with 60 discip…

Staritz, Katharina Helena Charlotte

(187 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] ( Jul 25, 1903, Breslau [Wrocław] – Apr 3, 1953, Frankfurt am Main), one of the first women ordained in the Old Prussian Union (1928). As municipal vicar of Breslau (appointed ¶ Nov 1933), she championed the cause of the city’s Jewish citizens, helping them emigrate and thus probably saving the lives of more than 100 Jews (National Socialism: I, 4). After her circular letter against the “Jewish badge” dated Sep 12, 1941, became generally known, she was relieved of her duties; expelled from Breslau, she went to …


(5 words)

[German Version] Constellations

Stasiewski, Bernhard

(261 words)

Author(s): Haas, Reimund
[German Version] (Nov 14, 1905, Berlin – Jul 1, 1995, Königswinter-Ittenbach), Catholic church historian. After studying theology, he was ordained to the priesthood on Jan 27, 1929, in Breslau (Wrocław); he went on to study history and Slavistics at Berlin, where he earned his doctorate in 1933. In 1935 he was appointed to teach Polish history. In 1943 he organized the diocesan historical association of Berlin and in 1946 the Katholisches Bildungswerk. In 1940 he was drafted and served as an inter…


(4,704 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Terminology The word state with its various cognates came into use in the Romance languages in the 16th century and was used in German ( Staat) by the end of the 18th. It expresses the notion of the socio-historical “state” or “condition” of a body politic – more specifically the state of physical security ensured for this body by the authority effective and recognized within a “national population” living in its “national territory” (Georg Jellinek [1851–1911], Allgemeine Staatslehre, 1900). Domestically the authority reliably governs the outward relati…
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