Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

Subscriptions: see

Stallmann, Martin

(156 words)

Author(s): Stallmann, Edith
[German Version] (Aug 13, 1903, Börninghausen – Jan 29, 1980, Göttingen), read theological studies at Marburg (R. Bultmann, F. Gogarten), was a pastor (1929–1948) and professor of Evangelical theology with a teaching position for religious studies at the Pädagogische Hochschule in Lüneburg in 1948, and at Göttingen in 1961. He was honorary professor of practical theology from 1965. Obtaining his doctorate in 1959, he was made emeritus professor in 1968. Stallmann clarified the relationship between…

Stamm, Johann Jakob

(173 words)

Author(s): Mathys, Hanspeter
[German Version] (Sep 11, 1910, Basel – Nov 3, 1993, Wabern, Bern). After studying theology and Assyriology in Basel, Neuchâtel, Marburg, and Leipzig, Stamm received a doctorate in both fields. From 1949 to 1976 he taught at Bern as professor of Old Testament (to 1960 also of the history of religions); from 1960 to 1980 he was also responsible for ancient Near Eastern languages. Shaped by the tradition of Christian humanism and theologically indebted to K. Barth, in his academic publications he pl…

Stancarus, Franciscus

(155 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1501, Mantua – Nov 12, 1574, Sopnica, near Sandomierz), Hebraist, physician, and theologian, whose contentiousness triggered violent disputes wherever his unsettled life took him. Probably of Jewish descent and initially a priest or monk, after studying in Basel and in southern Germany he was appointed professor of Hebrew in Vienna in 1544 and in Cracow in 1549. Called to the University of Königsberg (Kaliningrad), he left after three months because of a clash with A. Osiander…

St. Andrews, University of

(183 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] Because Scotland maintained its allegiance to the Avignon pope Benedict XIII to the bitter end during the Great Western Schism, it was impossible for Scots to study on the continent. In 1410 the bishop of St. Andrews founded the oldest Scottish university (theology, canon law, the artes). Successor bishops added additional colleges. St. Leonard’s College was a gateway for Reformation theology in Scotland, but it was not until 1559 that leading representatives of the university gave university support to the Reformation. Their…

Stange, Carl

(251 words)

Author(s): Scheliha, Arnulf v.
[German Version] (Mar 7, 1870, Hamburg – Dec 5, 1959, Göttingen), appointed lecturer in systematic theology at Halle, 1895; associate professor at Königsberg (Kaliningrad), 1903; professor at Greifswald, 1904; professor of systematic and practical theology at Göttingen, 1912. His theological thought was based on fundamental ideas of I. Kant and F.D.E. Schleiermacher. He combined an epistemological and voluntaristic foundation for the independence of religious experience with an ontological concept…

Stăniloae, Dumitru

(296 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Jürgen
[German Version] (Nov 17, 1903, Vlădeni – Oct 5, 1993, Bucharest), studied theology in Chernivtsi (1922–1927), Athens, Munich, Berlin, Paris, and Belgrade. On his return to Romania, in 1929 he was appointed lecturer at the Theological Academy in Sibiu (Hermannstadt), where he was appointed professor in 1934 and rector in 1936. After his marriage in 1930, he was ordained to the diaconate (1931) and priesthood (1932). Until he was dismissed by the Communist regime, he also edited the church newspaper Telegraful Român (1934–1945). In 1946 he was forced to resign as rector and l…

Stanislaus of Cracow, Saint

(178 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1036–1040, Szczepanów – Apr 11, 1079, Cracow), martyr bishop and patron saint of Poland. Initially a parish priest in Czembocz, as bishop of Cracow (from 1072) he came into bitter conflict with King Boleslav II, which cost ¶ him his life. Church tradition has it that he was slain by the king himself during mass in the Church of St. Michael because he had rebuked the king for his immoral way of life, but the alternative tradition is more believable – that he was condemned to death as a traitor for his political opposition and was gruesomely executed by truncatio membrorum. His…

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady

(168 words)

Author(s): Gunther Brown, Candy
[German Version] (Nov 12, 1815, Johnstown NY – Oct 16, 1902, New York City) was the most prominent spokesperson for the American women’s movement (Feminism and feminist theology). She helped organize the women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls, NY (1848), where she introduced a “Declaration of Sentiments, based on the Declaration of Independence, calling for women’s equal rights. Stanton served as president of the New York Woman’s Temperance Society (1851–1853) and as an officer in the Women’s L…

Stapel, Wilhelm

(195 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Oct 27, 1882, Calbe – Jun 1, 1954, Hamburg), political commentator and writer. After receiving his Dr.phil. in 1911, Stapel devoted his efforts to anti-modernist, nationalist ideas, becoming a dominant figure in the “conservative revolution.” From 1918 to 1938, he and Albrecht Erich Günther published the journal Deutsches Volkstum; with a Protestant bias and close friendship with E. Hirsch, they championed a program of ethnic nationalism with an anti-Semitic flavor. Especially between 1926 and 1938, Stapel was the dominant voi…


(391 words)

Author(s): Kuhn, Thomas K.
[German Version] 1. Johann Friedrich (1708, Bern – May 1775, Bern). After studying in Brugg, Bern, and Marburg, Stapfer served from 1738 to 1740 as a military chaplain in Waldstätten (Bern) and from 1740 to 1750 as a tutor and garrison chaplain in Oberdießbach (near Thun). From 1750 to 1775 he served there as pastor, succeeding S. Lutz. He turned down offers of a chair at Marburg. After 1743 he published a final systematic treatise of “polemics”, his Institutiones theologiae polemicae univesae (5 vols., 1743–1747); his other major works include his dogmatic Grundlegung zur wahren Relig…

Staphylus, Friedrich

(330 words)

Author(s): Pfnür, Vinzenz
[German Version] (Stapelage; Aug 27, 1512, Osnabrück – Mar 5, 1564, Ingolstadt), Greek scholar and theologian. After the death of his parents, Staphylus lived with relatives in Danzig (Gdansk) and Kaunas. He studied in Cracow, Padua, and from 1536 to 1546 in Wittenberg, receiving his M.A. in 1541. From 1546 to 1551 he was in the service of Duke Albert of Prussia (from 1546 to 1548 as professor at Königsberg [Kaliningrad]). During this period he engaged in theological debates with G. Gnapheus and A. Osiander (1551: Synodus sanctorum patrum antiquorum contra nova dogmata Andreae Osiandri).…

Starbuck, Edwin Diller

(160 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] (Feb 20, 1866, Guilford Township, IN – Nov 18, 1947, Los Angeles, CA), American pioneer of the psychology of religion and educational theory as an empirical science based on developmental psychology. After a happy childhood with his Quaker parents, he studied at Harvard under W. James and at Clark University under G.S. Hall. His dissertation on conversion and adolescent development, based on questionnaires, was published in 1899; it is considered the first book on t…

Starcke, Christoph

(168 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1684, Freienwalde – Dec 12, 1744, Driesen, Neumark [now Drezdenko, Poland]). After attending school in Berlin, began studying at Halle in 1703. From Halle he brought the spirit of Pietism to his future work as an instructor in Berlin (1705), pastor in Nennhausen, Kreis Rathenow (1709), and senior pastor and garrison chaplain in Driesen (1737). In collaboration with others, he produced a Synopsis bibliothecae in Novum Testamentum (1733–1737), an exegetical and homiletical reference work with many tables, which continued in print into the l…

Starck, Johann August

(327 words)

Author(s): Spehr, Christopher
[German Version] (von; Oct 28, 1741, Schwerin – Mar 3, 1816, Darmstadt). After studying theology and Near Eastern languages at Göttingen, Starck began teaching in St. Petersburg in 1763. In 1766 he was given a research position at the library of St. Germain in Paris; in 1767 he was appointed deputy rector of the Gymnasium in Wismar. After another stay in St. Petersburg, in 1770 he was appointed professor of Near Eastern languages and second court chaplain at Königsberg (Kaliningrad). In 1772 he …

Starck, Johann Friedrich

(183 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1680, Hildesheim – Jul 17, 1756, Frankfurt am Main), Pietist devotional writer. During his studies at Gießen, he was won over to Pietism by J.H. May. After working as a private tutor in Frankfurt am Main, in 1709 he was appointed preacher in Geneva; in 1711 he was appointed pastor in Sachsenhausen and in 1723 at the Barfüßerkirche in Frankfurt. Rejecting separatist Pietism, Starck brought “true, inward, heartfelt devotion” into the state church through his edifying and devotional writings. His Tägliches Handbuch in guten und…


(365 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (pl. startsy) is the Russian equivalent to the Greek word γέρων/ gérōn; it denotes an experienced (and therefore usually elderly) ascetic, whose spiritual direction younger ascetics as well as Christians living in the world accept without question. The roots this phenomenon go back to Eastern monasticism in the Early Church. St. Anthony is the prototypical starets, but this form of spiritual direction did not fully come into its own until the late 18th century in Russia, when Paisius Velichkovsky left Athos for Moldavia with 60 disciples in 176…

Staritz, Katharina Helena Charlotte

(187 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] ( Jul 25, 1903, Breslau [Wrocław] – Apr 3, 1953, Frankfurt am Main), one of the first women ordained in the Old Prussian Union (1928). As municipal vicar of Breslau (appointed ¶ Nov 1933), she championed the cause of the city’s Jewish citizens, helping them emigrate and thus probably saving the lives of more than 100 Jews (National Socialism: I, 4). After her circular letter against the “Jewish badge” dated Sep 12, 1941, became generally known, she was relieved of her duties; expelled from Breslau, she went to …


(5 words)

[German Version] Constellations

Stasiewski, Bernhard

(261 words)

Author(s): Haas, Reimund
[German Version] (Nov 14, 1905, Berlin – Jul 1, 1995, Königswinter-Ittenbach), Catholic church historian. After studying theology, he was ordained to the priesthood on Jan 27, 1929, in Breslau (Wrocław); he went on to study history and Slavistics at Berlin, where he earned his doctorate in 1933. In 1935 he was appointed to teach Polish history. In 1943 he organized the diocesan historical association of Berlin and in 1946 the Katholisches Bildungswerk. In 1940 he was drafted and served as an inter…


(4,704 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Terminology The word state with its various cognates came into use in the Romance languages in the 16th century and was used in German ( Staat) by the end of the 18th. It expresses the notion of the socio-historical “state” or “condition” of a body politic – more specifically the state of physical security ensured for this body by the authority effective and recognized within a “national population” living in its “national territory” (Georg Jellinek [1851–1911], Allgemeine Staatslehre, 1900). Domestically the authority reliably governs the outward relati…

State and Christianity

(12 words)

[German Version] Church and State, State and Religion

State and Church

(9 words)

[German Version] Church and State

State and Religion

(2,721 words)

Author(s): Besier, Gerhard | Herms, Eilert | Kleine, Christoph
[German Version] I. The Problem In Western societies, the relationship between the state and religion is determined less by religion’s constitutional status – freedom of religion is a fundamental constitutional right everywhere – than by historical tradition. Where the major confessional bodies were (or still are) state churches, there is still a hierarchy of religions. Without regard to actual religious life, the state gives traditional religions a special status, materially and ideally. In the publ…

State Church

(1,054 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] I As one type of relationship between church and state, a state church is a church incorporated into the state in such a way that it appears to be a state institution. As a result, the state not only has the right to intervene in the internal governance of the church (staffing, deciding doctrinal conflicts, disposition of church property, etc.; Church polity) but also may use the church for state purposes. 1 The history of state churches began when Theodosius I made the Christian church the only recognized church of the Roman Empire ( Reichskirche). In East Rome, a sacral …

State Contributions to the Churches

(452 words)

Author(s): Rüfner, Wolfgang
[German Version] The state contributions that the major churches receive in Germany are compensation for the expropriation of church property (Property, Church), especially during the Reformation and in the context of the French Revolution and the associated end of the Old Empire. This is stated clearly in §35 of the Principal Resolution of the Imperial Deputation of Feb 25, 1803. The territorial princes were conceded the right to confiscate church property, but they were obliged to provide for the needs of the churches. Article 138 §1 of the Weimar Constitution, which continu…

State Cult

(1,973 words)

Author(s): Kleine, Christoph | Otto, Eckart | Kern, Martin | Pye, Michael
[German Version] I. History of Religions State cults in the narrow sense are religious ceremonies, governed by tradition or law, performed in the name of the state and for its benefit; typically they are addressed to extrasensory powers such as gods, demons, natural numina, or personalized cosmic forces. It is necessary to distinguish cults celebrated regularly at fixed times and places from those staged on a particular occasion such as an enthronement, the death of a ruler, a natural disaster, an epi…

State-owned Enterprise

(222 words)

Author(s): Kreikebaum, Hartmut
[German Version] A state-owned or public enterprise in the strict sense is an enterprise (Corporation) run by public authorities at various hierarchical levels. Its purpose is to produce and supply public goods and services. Such enterprises serve the public interest; by the principle of equality in German Basic Law art. 3, no one can be excluded from their use and enjoyment. Public goods include the maintenance of public safety (Security, Internal and external), monitoring of the economy and the …

State Religion

(245 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] The term state religion denotes a religious element unifying the collectivity of subjects, considered indispensable for the existence of the state (“un roi, une loi, une foi”). It was taken for granted as the foundation of nearly every early form of the state. To the extent that religion is considered an element of public order, religious pluralism is perceived as a threat to the unity of the state, since it bears the seed of civil war, or at least qualified loyalty on the part of th…

State Supremacy

(7 words)

[German Version] Secular Supremacy

State Systems

(797 words)

Author(s): Stroh, Ralf
[German Version] A state system is the external structure of state governance and the external organization of the execution of governance. The Aristotelian system has influenced all later theories. It arranges the forms of state according to the number of rulers – one ruler, a few rulers, or many rulers (Arist. Pol. 1278b - 1301a). All of these forms of state face the alternative of either ¶ serving the common good or the self-interest of the rulers. This gives rise to the following positively regarded forms of state and their corresponding corrupt versions:…

Station Church

(202 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda
[German Version] A statio (“station”) was originally a gathering or gathering place; it then came to be associated particularly with fasts and the liturgy of the word. In 4th-century Rome, it finally came to denote the eucharistic celebration by the bishop and the local church in stational churches, first newly designated and then permanently assigned in the 7th century; until 1970 they were still listed in the Roman Missal for 89 days. A unique feature (until the early 14th cent.) was a procession from a nearby church ( collecta). This form of urban liturgy, attested for other cit…

Stations of the Cross

(484 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda
[German Version] a Catholic devotion that reenacts Jesus’ passion in 14 stations, from his sentencing by Pontius Pilate to his entombment, either tracing his footsteps or in contemplative prayer; it is primarily associated with Lent. Pilgrims began visiting the biblical sites associated with Jesus’ life in the 4th century, but the beginnings of the stations go back only to the late Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Franciscans in Jerusalem guided pilgrims along the Via Dolorosa, the (unhistorical…

Statistics, Church

(566 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian
[German Version] Church statistics record the measurable data of the church’s life and circumstances. Such statistics, in a preliminary stage, begin to appear in the 14th century, in the form of registers recording baptisms, marriages, and burials (Ministerial offices). In the Churches of the Reformation, too, we soon find church registers with similar entries. The beginning of modern statistics was signaled by the numerical recording of data to identify regularities (political arithmetic). As the…

Statistics, Religion Adherence

(845 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred
[German Version] In the first instance, religious statistics report the data that provide information on the local or global distribution of individual religions or religious groups. They are one aspect of a larger “religiometrics,” which includes all measurable factors associated with religion (e.g. sacred buildings, production of religious books and media, endowments) in order to take these quantitative values into account in interpreting religious phenomena or developments. “Counting procedures” in the context of religion go back to the dawn of the 1st millennium bce, if Da…

Stattler, Benedikt

(290 words)

Author(s): Fitschen, Klaus
[German Version] ( Jan 30, 1728, Kötzing – Aug 21, 1797, Munich). After teaching at Jesuit colleges, in 1780 Stattler was appointed professor of dogmatics at Ingolstadt, where he had J.M. Sailer as a student and later a colleague. After the Jesuit order was suppressed, he was able to keep his chair temporarily, but he was dismissed in 1781. In 1782 he was appointed to a parish in Kemnath (Upper Palatinate), but in 1788 he resigned and retreated into the life of an independent scholar in Munich. In this same year, he wrote his Anti-Kant polemic in opposition to Kant’s epistemology. From …

Status confessionis

(393 words)

Author(s): Slenczka, Notger
[German Version] The concept of a status confessionis comes from the situation presented in Matt 10:32f., in which – under persecution – one must decide (Decision) between confessing Christ and denying Christ. Not every situation requiring a decision involves a status confessionis. Paul, for example, considered eating food offered to idols irrelevant to a person’s relationship to God (Adiaphora). But those who could see eating such food only as separation from Christ should refrain (Rom 14; 1 Cor 8). The term itself emerged during the Adiaphorist controversy, in which Mela…

Staudenmaier, Franz Anton

(369 words)

Author(s): Holzem, Andreas
[German Version] (Sep 11, 1800, Donzdorf, Württemberg – Jan 19, 1856, Freiburg im Breisgau). Ordained to the priesthood in 1827, in 1828 he was appointed lecturer at Tübingen and in 1830 professor of dogmatics at Gießen; in 1837 he took the same position in Freiburg, where he was also appointed canon. Staudenmaier, who studied with Johann Sebastian Drey (1777–1853), J.B. Hirscher, and J.A. Möhler in Tübingen, took issue with F.D.E. Schleiermacher, who, he argued, no longer based religion on the tr…

Stäudlin, Karl Friedrich

(167 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Markus
[German Version] ( Jul 25, 1761, Stuttgart – Jul 5, 1826, Göttingen). After studying from 1779 to 1784 at the Stift in Tübingen, in 1790 he was appointed professor of theology at Göttingen, on the recommendation of his teacher G.C. Storr. In 1803 he was also appointed to the consistorial council. To the end of his life, he and the church historian G.J. Planck together shaped the life of the theological faculty. In numerous contributions in almost every theological discipline, he sought to present …

Stauffenberg, Claus Schenk Graf von

(322 words)

Author(s): Hoffmann, Peter
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1907, Jettingen – Jul 20, 1944, Berlin), colonel on the general staff. His personality was rooted in three sources: the service ethic and faith ethic of the Catholic nobility in southern Germany ( noblesse oblige) together with family honor, the esotericism of the poet S. George, and the responsibility of the soldier. The officer corps must fight on behalf of the army, “our nation, and the state itself, aware that our military tradition and hence its bearer, the officer corps, represents the fundamental bea…

Staupitz, Johann von

(483 words)

Author(s): Hamm, Berndt
[German Version] (c. 1468 Motterwitz, near Leisnig – Dec 28, 1524, Salzburg). Staupitz, descended from an old Saxon family, played a key role in the transition from late medieval reform to the Reformation, especially because of his relationship to Luther. After his studies (M.A. from Cologne in 1489), he joined the observant German reform congregation of the Augustinian Hermits. He earned his Dr.theol. at Tübingen, where he had been the Augustinian prior since 1497; 1500 he became prior in Munich.…

Stavropigial Monasteries

(263 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451 for the first time set out to “integrate” monasticism, placing it under the authority of the local bishop; the erection of monasteries was made subject to episcopal approval (c. 4). The external sign of a monastic foundation was the erection of a cross, the so-called stavropigia (from Gk σταυρὸν πηγνύναι/ staurón pēgnýnai), mentioned in the civil ecclesiastical laws of Emperor Justinian I ( Cod. Iust. I 3.26; Novella 5.1; 67.1; 131.7), which adopted this canonical legislation ( Cod. Iust. I 3.39; Novella 133.4). The bishop h…

Steck, Karl Gerhard

(202 words)

Author(s): Rendtorff, Trutz
[German Version] (Apr 28, 1908, Markt Nordheim, Middle Franconia – Jul 6, 1983, Frankfurt am Main). As a theological student, he belonged to a small circle of K. Barth’s students at Bonn. In 1936 he was appointed lecturer at the seminary of the Confessing Church in Frankfurt am Main; in 1939 he replaced E. Thurneysenas editor of the series “Theologische Existenz heute.” In 1943 he was appointed pastor in Sulzbach-Rosenberg and in 1948 superintendent of the Protestant house of studies in Göttingen,…

Steck, Odil Hannes

(256 words)

Author(s): Schmid, Konrad
[German Version] (Dec 26, 1935, Munich – Mar 30, 2001, Zürich). After studying theology in Neuendettelsau, Wuppertal, and Heidelberg (doctorate in 1965 under G. Bornkamm, influenced by G. v. Rad), he taught from 1968 to 1976 as professor of Old Testament in Hamburg, from 1976 to 1978 in Mainz, and from 1978 to 2001 in Zürich. His dissertation explored the long arc of transmission of the Deuteronomistic understanding of history (Deuteronomistic History) from the OT into early Christianity, signalin…


(182 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Heinrich
[German Version] The Stedingers were groups of rural settlers (mostly colonists) along the lower Weser north of Bremen, who revolted in 1204 against the counts of Oldenburg and the archbishop of Bremen. Since they refused to pay the taxes they owed the Bremen church even after they were excommunicated (1227?), Archbishop Gerhard II denounced them as heretics for defying God and the church’s power of the keys, sacrilege, and consorting with demons (Bremen Lenten synod, 1230 or 1231). No influence o…

Steffens, Henrik

(352 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (May 2, 1773, Stavanger, Denmark [now Norway] – Feb 13, 1845, Berlin). Beginning in 1790, Steffens studied natural history in Copenhagen and Kiel, where he taught as a lecturer in 1796. In 1798 he traveled to Jena. J.G. Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre (ET: The Science of Knowing, 2005) and especially F.W.J. Schelling’s Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur (1797; ET: Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature, 1988) and Von der Weltseele (1798) influenced him deeply. In Freiberg he studied at the Mining Academy and published Beyträge zur innern Naturgeschichte der Erde (1801), dedi…

Stegmann, Josua

(171 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1588, Sülzfeld – Aug 3, 1632, Rinteln), received his Dr.theol. at Leipzig in 1617. In 1618, on the recommendation of J. Gerhard, he was called to Stadthagen as superintendent and professor at the Academic Gymnasium, which achieved university status in 1621 and was moved to Rinteln, where J. Rist was among his students. When Rinteln was occupied by Brunswick troops in 1623, Stegmann took flight. When he returned, he was appointed ephorus of the county of Schaumburg. With t…

Steil, Ludwig

(113 words)

Author(s): Nicolaisen, Carsten
[German Version] (Oct 29, 1900, Lüttringhausen – Jan 17, 1945, Dachau) was appointed pastor in Holsterhausen in 1929. In 1933 he was one of the cofounders of the Confessing Church in Westphalia and a member of its administrative committee under K. Koch. His criticisms of National Socialist ideology (National Socialism) led to his arrest in September of 1944; in early December he was sent to the concentration camp at Dachau in degrading conditions. Weakened by three weeks of transport and insufficient nourishment, he died soon after his arrival. Carsten Nicolaisen Bibliography G. Steil…

Steinbach, Wendelin

(151 words)

Author(s): Feld, Helmut
[German Version] (1454, Butzbach – Jan 14, 1519, Tübingen), member of the Brethren of the Common Life and professor of theology ( via moderna) in Tübingen. At an early age, Steinbach entered the Sankt Markus house of the Brethren of the Common Life (Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life) in Butzbach. Along with G. Biel, he joined (1477) the monastery of Sankt Amandus in Urbach, founded by Count Eberhard the Bearded. In 1481 he began his theological studies at the University of Tübingen, receiving his Dr.theol. on Oc…

Steinbart, Gotthilf Samuel

(342 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Sep 21, 1738, Züllichau – Feb 3, 1809, Frankfurt an der Oder), was educated in the school at Kloster Bergen; he counteracted its culture of Pietism and transitional theology by privately reading the philosophers of the Enlightenment, including J. Locke and Voltaire. He went on to study theology in Halle (S.J. Baumgarten) and Frankfurt an der Oder ( J.G. Toellner). After teaching in Berlin and Züllichau, in 1774 he was appointed director of the Züllichau orphanage as well as professor of philosophy and associate professor of theology in ¶ Frankfurt; he was promoted t…

Steinbeck, John

(175 words)

Author(s): Siebald, Manfred
[German Version] (Feb 27, 1902, Salinas, CA – Dec 20, 1968, New York), American writer and journalist. His realistic novels and short stories, mostly set in California, are characterized by incisive social criticism. His characters are caught between the poles of ethical idealism and materialism ( The Pearl, 1947) and between biological or social determinism and free will ( East of Eden, 1952). He focused repeatedly on the lives of losers – as in Of Mice and Men (1937) and Cannery Row (1944) – and the struggle for economic and social justice, for example in In Dubious Battle (1936) and The Gra…
▲   Back to top   ▲