Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Stigel, Johann

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (May 13, 1515, Fiemar, near Gotha – Feb 11, 1562, Jena). After attending school in Gotha, Stigel went to Wittenberg in 1531 to study law, philology, astronomy, medicine, and physics. He received his master’s degree on Apr 20, 1542; on Aug 27, 1543, he was appointed to a professorship in the faculty of arts. In 1548 he was called to Jena to build up the Hohe Schule in cooperation with V. Strigel and was offered a chair. His contacts indicate that he was associated with the circle o…


(381 words)

Author(s): Mödl, Ludwig
[German Version] The noun stigma comes from Greek στίγμα/ stígma, “tattoo, mark” – a brand or tattoo serving for adornment or as a token of ownership. As an apotropaic sign that someone belongs to a deity, it was rejected by the Old Testament (cf. Exod 13:16; Lev 19:28), but it entered the language as an eschatological token (cf. Isa 44:5; Ezek 9:4; Rev 13:16f.). In Gal 6:17, Paul uses the term for the visible marks left by his apostolic ministry (affliction and heartache: 2 Cor 6:4; whipped, stoned, shi…


(167 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Stigmatines (Stimmatini, Bertoniani, Congregatio Presbyterorum a Sacris Stigmatibus Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, CSS, CPS), founded in Verona (northern Italy) in 1816 by the popular missionary Gaspare Bertoni (1777–1853). Following the model of the previously suppressed Jesuits, the Stigmatines were intended as a missionary and educational ministry. As of 2009, there were 441 members, primarily in Italy, Brazil, the United States, and South Africa. The generalate is in Rome. II. Stigmatine Sisters (Stimmatine, Povere Figlie delle Sacre Stimmate di S…

Stiles, Ezra

(104 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1727, North Haven, CT – May 12, 1795, New Haven, CT), Congregationalist minister and college president, entering the ministry (1755) as pastor of the Second Congregational Church in Newport, Rhode Island. There he opposed the slave trade and engaged in a variety of scientific and literary ¶ pursuits. He became president of Yale in 1778. His life-long support of liberty led him to oppose schemes to send an Anglican bishop to the colonies. He prophesied a great future for the independent United States. Mark A. Noll Bibliography E.S. Morgan, The Gentle Puritan: A …

Stillingfleet, Edward

(94 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Apr 17, 1635, Cranborne, Dorset – Mar 27, 1699, Westminster), Latitudinarian theologian and antiquary. After becoming a fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge, in 1653, he published a series of works, including his Irenicum (1659), Origines Sacrae (1662), and Rational Account (1664), which established his reputation as a theologian and brought rapid preferment. He then became, in succession, archdeacon of London, dean of St. Paul’s, and bishop of Worcester. Grayson Carter Bibliography Works: The Works, ed. R. Bentley, 6 vols., 1709/1710 On Stillingfleet: W. …

Stipend, Ministerial

(601 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] Together with old-age pension and survivors’ benefits, the ministerial stipend is the heart of the adequate livelihood the churches owe their clergy, who can then devote themselves totally to their pastoral ministry as a full-time vocation and be financially independent to fulfill the duties assigned to them at ordination. This obligation to support the clergy follows from the decision made by the Early Church and consciously ratified by the churches of the Reformation that minist…

Stip, Gerhard Chryno Herman

(106 words)

Author(s): Wüstenberg, Ulrich
[German Version] (May 4, 1809, Norden, East Frisia – Jun 21, 1882, Potsdam), theologian and hymnologist. He studied in Göttingen and Bonn. After serving a parish in Osteel, near Norden, he became a private tutor to C.K.J. Bunsen in London. After 1842 he worked as an independent scholar in Potsdam in the field of hymn and hymnal reform. He put special emphasis on the principle of confessional legitimacy and strict preservation of hymns in their original form. Ulrich Wüstenberg Bibliography Works include: Beleuchtung der Gesangbuchsbesserung, 1842 Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851 (e…

Stirner, Max

(209 words)

Author(s): Eßbach, Wolfgang
[German Version] (actually Johann Casper Schmidt; Oct 25, 1806, Bayreuth – Jun 25, 1856, Berlin), a member of the group of intellectuals called Young Hegelians. Stirner radicalized the Young Hegelian reinterpretations of Hegel’s philosophy of spirit/mind – L. Feuerbach’s turn toward anthropology and B. Bauer’s toward “purecriticism” – by asserting the anonymous facticity of each individual existence as an infungible vital substance and a source of authentic intellectual creation. It was in opposit…

St. John, Feasts of

(236 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda
[German Version] The Nativity of John the Baptist is celebrated by the Catholic, Anglican, Byzantine, and Coptic churches on Jun 24 (it is also in the Lutheran Calendar of Saints), the Beheading on Aug 29; the earliest evidence of both observances dates from the 5th century. The date of the nativity observance was determined in the West in relationship to Christmas and Luke 1:36; later the feast incorporated customs associated with the summer solstice. The Byzantine church later established a seco…

St. John’s Hospitallers

(11 words)

[German Version] Knights of Malta/St. John’s Hospitallers

St. John’s Wine

(190 words)

Author(s): Guth, Klaus
[German Version] The calendar of the saints (Hagiography) has several feasts of St. John. The medieval legend of the poisoned chalice probably inspired the introduction of sharing St. John’s wine at the end of the liturgy on Dec 27 (beginning in the 13th cent.). The blessing of St. John’s wine in the church inculturated the earlier custom of memorial drinking (from the Carolingian court) in the late German Middle Ages. “Memorial drinking” also took place on the feast days of other saints. Through …


(179 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] The town of Stobi (modern Gradsko) in what is today Macedonia came into existence no later than the 3rd century bce. It flourished during the Roman Empire, as the remains of various structures attest, serving as a junction on the important north-south road to Thessalonica and linking with the Via Egnatia toward the northeast. Stobi took on special importance in Late Antiquity, when it became the capital of the province of Macedonia Secunda. Its conquest by the Goths under Theodoric the Great in 479 b…

Stock, August

(178 words)

Author(s): Zuckschwerdt, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 13, 1863, Zadelow, Pomerania [now Sadłowo, Poland] – Nov 7, 1924, Berlin-Lichterfelde), Protestant clergyman. He served in rural ministry until 1896, when he was appointed pastor of the church of St. Catherine in Brunswick. There, working in the spirit of E. Sulze, he endeavored to form a “living congregation,” committed not only to worship and the sacrament but also to activity ministry, including social service. The gathering place was now the “community hall,” whose constr…

Stöckel, Leonhard

(147 words)

Author(s): Gottas, Friedrich
[German Version] (1510, Bartfeld, Upper Hungary [now Bardejov, Slovakia] – Jun 7, 1560, Bartfeld), studied theology in Wittenberg with Luther and Melanchthon. As rector of the Bartfeld Gymnasium, he implemented the cultural and educational program of the Humanists and Reformers and introduced academic drama. He adapted the Augsburg Confession for five towns in Upper Hungary: Bartfeld, Kaschau, Eperies, Leutschau, and Zeben (now Bardejov, Košice, Prešov, Levoča, and Sabinov, Slovakia). Today his authorship of the Confessio Pentapolita (1549) ascribed to him is no longer…

Stöcker, Helene Hulda Caroline Emilie

(205 words)

Author(s): Hildmann, Philipp W.
[German Version] (Nov 13, 1869, Elberfeld – Feb 23, 1943, New York), campaigner for women’s rights and journalist. With the Bund für Mutterschutz und Sexualreform that she founded in 1905, she took up the cause of improving the legal and social position of single mothers and their children. In the periodicals Mutterschutz (1905–1907) and Die Neue Generation (1908–1933) that she edited, she ¶ advocated a “new ethics” of relations between the sexes based on mutual love and equal rights and campaigned for universal women’s suffrage, sexual enlightenment, and decriminalized abortion. A r…


(7 words)

[German Version] Agriculture and Stock-Farming

Stockmayer, Otto

(178 words)

Author(s): Thiede, Werner
[German Version] (Oct 21, 1838, Aalen, Württemberg – Apr 11, 1917, Hauptwil, Switzerland). Stockmayer was converted while working as a private tutor in Switzerland. After studying theology, he served Free churches in Tavannes, Geneva, and L’Auberson. In 1874 he took part in the Oxford Meeting to Promote Scriptural Holiness and became a leading theologian and itinerant preacher for the Holiness movement (I). After 1878 he served as head of a convalescent home he founded in Hauptwil, in which pastor…

Stoddard, Solomon

(85 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1643, Boston, MA – Feb 11, 1729, Northampton, MA), Congregationalist minister, in 1672 called as the second pastor of Northampton Congregational Church. Against Boston’s ministers he favored opening the Lord’s Supper to all respectable persons as a “converting ordinance.” Two years before his death he presided over the installation of his grandson, J. Edwards, as his successor in the Northampton pulpit. Mark A. Noll Bibliography P.J. Tracy, American National Biography, ed. J.A. Garraty et al., vol. XX, 1999, 822f.

Stoecker, Adolf

(404 words)

Author(s): Greschat, Martin
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1835, Halberstadt – Feb 7, 1909, Bolzano-Gries), Protestant clergyman and politician. He served as pastor in Seggerde (1863) and Hamersleben (1866), then as divisional chaplain in Metz (1871), before coming to Berlin in 1874 as fourth court chaplain and cathedral preacher. He was a gifted speaker and commentator, influenced by the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements). His guiding vision, both ecclesiastically and politically, was that of a Protestant church firmly…


(452 words)

Author(s): Bees, Robert
[German Version] As an “intellectual movement” (Pohlenz), from the outset Stoicism (Stoics) was influential beyond the members of the school itself. It attracted personalities who did not exactly consider themselves Stoic philosophers but did reflect certain specific Stoic teachings in their work. Examples include the poet Aratus, who begins his Phainomena with an invocation to Zeus that recalls the hymn of Cleanthes to Zeus, and Strabo, who opens his geography with a defense of Homer in the spirit of the Stoics. The theory behind Hellenistic u…


(1,582 words)

Author(s): Bees, Robert
[German Version] I. History The Stoic school takes its name from the Stoa Poikílē, the “Painted Porch,” in Athens, where the earliest public teaching began at the end of the 4th century bce. Founded by Zeno of Citium, the Stoa rapidly became the dominant influence on Hellenistic discussion and remained the most influential philosophical school until the end of antiquity (Philosophy: I; Hellenistic philosophy). The school’s tradition can be divided into three distinct historical phases. 1. Early Stoa. Zeno came to Athens from Citium, a Phoenician settlement on Cyprus, in 3…

Stolberg, Friedrich Leopold Graf zu

(299 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (Nov 7, 1750, [Bad] Bramstedt [then in Denmark] – Dec 5, 1819, Sondermühlen estate, near Melle), grew up in a polyglot environment of Lutheran Pietism at the Copenhagen court. Despite having studied law, he preferred reading classical English, Latin, and Greek literature; in Göttingen he became a member of the Göttingen Grove, writing enthusiastically and spontaneously, in a Romantic religious vein like F.G. Klopstock. As Danish ambassador (1789–1791) and jurist in the service of …

Stoltz, Johann

(145 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1514, Wittenberg – 1556, Weimar), editor of the Jena edition of Luther’s works. He came to Wittenberg in 1532 and went through the usual course of instruction, receiving his M.A. in 1539. There was a brief interruption when he was ordained as a deacon in Jessen in 1539 and served as court tutor in Freiberg and Dresden in 1539/1540. In 1544 he was appointed to a professorship at the Wittenberg Pädagogium and the theological faculty. In 1547 he was appointed court chaplain in We…

Stolz, Fritz

(238 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria
[German Version] ( Jul 16, 1942, Männedorf, Switzerland – Dec 10, 2001, Männedorf ). After studying theology and Near Eastern philology in Zürich and Heidelberg, he taught Hebrew and Old Testament at the seminary in (Bielefeld-)Bethel from 1969 to 1980. In 1980 he was appointed professor of the history of religions and the study of religion in Zürich, where he taught until his death. He was also active in several bodies both within and outside the university, for example as a member of the researc…

Stolz, Johann Jakob

(279 words)

Author(s): Kuhn, Thomas K.
[German Version] (Dec 31, 1753, Basadingen, near Zürich – Mar 12, 1821, Zürich), Reformed theologian. The son of Friedrich Salomon, a master shoemaker, and Judith Hofstätter, he received his training in Zürich and was ordained in 1774. After employment as a tutor in Weinfelden (Thurgau), in 1781 on the recommendation of J.K. Lavater he was appointed second Reformed pastor in Offenbach am Main; on the strength of his excellent reputation, in 1784 he was appointed preacher at the Martinskirche in Br…

Stone, Barton Warren

(131 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1772, near Port Tobacco, MD – Nov 9, 1844, Hannibal, MO), leader of the American Restoration Movement, was ordained as Presbyterian, but early on began to doubt aspects of traditional Presbyterian practice. In 1801 he was the ¶ key figure in the great Cane Ridge revival meeting in Kentucky (Revival/Revival movements: II). In an active career as preacher, writer ( Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery, 1804), and editor, he promoted an apocalyptic vision of Christian faith, the practice of baptism by immersion, and the resto…

Stones, Sacred

(381 words)

Author(s): Kraatz, Martin
[German Version] Stones of all kinds, from large rocks to precious stones, can play a concrete or metaphorical role in religion. In many religions, stones – unhewn or finished, individually or in groups, piled loosely or installed permanently – mark a site endowed with special power, often a cult site recalling an event in which this power was once revealed and where it is now worshiped. In the case of ancient Israel and its neighbors, this use of stones is well attested both in the Tanakh and arc…

Storm, Theodor

(424 words)

Author(s): Hurst, Matthias
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1817, Husum [then under Danish rule] – Jul 4, 1888, Hademarschen), German poet and novelist, whose North Frisian background left an enduring mark on his work. His upbringing was vague on all issues of religion; as a consequence, he turned his back on Christianity and developed instead a humanistic commitment to life in this world, which nevertheless had melancholic and sometimes pessimistic elements occasioned by its denial of transcendental hopes. After studying law at K…


(451 words)

Author(s): Hurst, Matthias | Kirn, Hans-Martin
[German Version] 1. Johann Christian ( Jun 3, 1712, Heilbronn – May 8, 1773, Stuttgart). In 1744 he was appointed deacon at the Leonhardskirche in Stuttgart and also court chaplain. In 1759 he was appointed preacher at the collegiate church and consistorial councilor; in 1765 he was appointed prelate of Herrenalb, in 1772 prelate of Alpirsbach. Storr was an independent representative of early Württemberg Pietism in the school of J.A. Bengel. He was critical, however, of Bengel’s interpretation of the…


(5 words)

[German Version] Narrative

Story Bible

(301 words)

Author(s): Rasch, Christian Willm
[German Version] A story Bible or historiated Bible (Ger. Historienbibel ) is a prose work of the 14th century or 15th century, often illustrated (Bible illustrations), reproducing the narrative material of the Bible in the vernacular and usually incorporating apocryphal texts and accounts from secular history. Formal analogies have repeatedly led scholars to postulate the influence of the Jewish Haggadah and Christian historiography (Eusebius of Caesarea, Jerome, Isidore of Seville). A major source of many story Bibles was the Historia scholastica of Peter Comestor, which…

Stosch, Bartholomäus

(331 words)

Author(s): Beutel, Albrecht
[German Version] (Sep 12, 1604, Strehlen, Silesia [now Strzelin, Poland] – Mar 5 [?], 1686, Berlin), Reformed theologian and adviser on religious policy. After schooling at the Schönaichianum Gymnasium in Beuthen [Bytom], he began to study theology in Frankfurt an der Oder in 1626. In 1629 he began working as a private tutor in East Prussia. From 1632 to 1640 he broadened his education by traveling in the ¶ Netherlands (Leiden), England, and France. In 1640 he was appointed pastor in Pilten (Livonia; now Piltene, Latvia). In 1643 he was appointed court chaplain i…

Stössel, Johann

(213 words)

Author(s): Hasse, Hans-Peter
[German Version] ( Jun 23, 1524, Kitzingen – Mar 18, 1576, Senftenberg). After studying in Wittenberg (M.A. 1549) and Jena, in 1554 he was appointed superintendent in Heldburg. At the Colloquy of Worms in 1557 (Disputations, Religious), he joined the Ernestine theologians against Melanchthon. In 1560 he defended Lutheran eucharistic doctrine at a disputation in Heidelberg. In 1561 he was appointed superintendent in Jena and in 1562 professor of theology; he received his Dr.theol. in 1564. In the d…

Stoß, Veit

(359 words)

Author(s): Renftle, Barbara Regina
[German Version] (c. 1445, Horb am Neckar – Sep 22, 1533, Nuremberg), sculptor, woodcarver, painter, and engraver, outstanding master of late German Gothic art. In 1476 Stoß traveled from Nuremberg to Cracow to create the altarpiece of the high altar in the church of St. Mary for the German congregation there. It was followed by other important creations, primarily in stone. In 1496 he returned to work in Nuremberg. Stoß’s work is characterized by an exuberant, powerful, and dynamic expressive dri…

Stowe, Harriet Beecher

(246 words)

Author(s): Thuesen, Peter J.
[German Version] ( Jun 14, 1811, Litchfield, CT – Jul 1, 1896, Hartford, CT), author and critic of New England Calvinism, was the daughter of L. Beecher and Roxana Foote. Educated at her sister Catharine Beecher’s Hartford Female Seminary, she married Calvin Ellis Stowe, a biblical scholar, in 1836. After writing for popular periodicals, she gained international fame for Uncle Tom’s Cabin (2 vols., 1852), written to protest against the Fugitive Slave Act (1850), which required northerners to assist in the capture and return of escaped southern slaves. Th…

St. Paul’s Cathedral (London)

(304 words)

Author(s): Freigang, Christian
[German Version] The original London cathedral, begun by Bishop Mellitus in 604, was replaced between 1087 and 1148 by a three-aisle Romanesque church more than 100 m long. The crossing tower, completed in 1221/1222, was extended at the beginning of the 14th century; until destroyed by fire in 1561, it was some 150 m high. The crypt and choir, proportional to the nave, were constructed between c. 1258 and 1327 (esp. in the last quarter of the 13th cent.), modeled on Ely Cathedral (choir ending in …

St. Peter’s Basilica (Rome)

(707 words)

Author(s): Hubert, Hans W.
[German Version] (Basilica di San Pietro), in the Vatican, is the burial church of the apostle Peter and the main church of the popes residing there. The old basilica was begun by Constantine the Great between 319 and 322 in thanksgiving for his victories over his opponents Maxentius and Licinius. The five-aisle basilica with a transept was some 123 m long. It formed the western terminus of a gently rising axial public space, which included a forecourt, a flight of stairs, and an atrium with an ou…

St. Petersburg

(554 words)

Author(s): Patock, Coelestin | Galinskij, Feofan
[German Version] I. City and Eparchy 1. St. Petersburg was built in 1703 by Tsar Peter the Great in wetlands at the mouth of the Neva, to be a “window on the Baltic.” It has two patrons: the apostle Peter and St. Alexander Nevski, in whose honor the tsar founded a monastery in 1724. From 1712 to 1728 ¶ and from 1732 to 1918, St. Petersburg was the capital of Russia. It was called Petrograd after 1914; the October Revolution began there in 1917 (Soviet Union); from 1924 to 1991 it was called Leningrad. Peter the Great founded the Academy of Sciences, the…

Strachan, John

(154 words)

Author(s): Goodwin, Daniel
[German Version] (Apr 12, 1778, Aberdeen, Scotland – Nov 1, 1867, Toronto, Canada), Anglican bishop and officeholder. Strachan graduated from the University of Aberdeen in 1797, and moved to Kingston, Upper Canada, in 1799, where he became a schoolmaster. In 1804 he was ordained priest in the Church of England. An effective educator and church administrator, ¶ Strachan moved to York (Toronto) in 1812 where he sought to influence Upper Canada’s political developments. He maintained that his Church should receive all of the funds from lands set aside in…

Strack, Hermann Lebrecht

(283 words)

Author(s): Wiese, Christian
[German Version] (May 6, 1848, Berlin – Oct 5, 1922, Berlin), conservative Protestant theologian and student of Judaism. After studying in Berlin and Leipzig, he was appointed associate professor of Old Testament and Near Eastern languages in Berlin in 1877. In 1883 he was a cofounder of the Institutum Judaicum in Berlin (which he headed after 1886), devoted to scholarly study of Jewish history, literature, and culture but also committed to mission to Jews (Jewish missions). Although Strack’s miss…

Stradella, Alessandro

(194 words)

Author(s): Konold, Wulf
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1644 [?], Rome – Feb 25, 1682, Genoa), Italian composer. He sang as a choirboy and studied with Ercole Bernabei; his earliest known composition dates from 1663 (a motet for the ¶ queen of Sweden). In 1665 he entered the service of the Colonnas, a family of Roman nobility, and traveled to Venice and Florence. Involvement in a theft of church property caused him to leave Rome. He was probably in Vienna in 1670, composing primarily for the musical stage. After 1675 he concentrated on oratorios, the best-known being his San Giovanni Batista. He had numerous affairs and…


(2,942 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Bultmann, Christoph | Feldmeier, Reinhard | Feldtkeller, Andreas | Grözinger, Albrecht
[German Version] I. Religious Studies From the outset, religions are involved in processes of exchange with their (religious) environment. This structural relationship to the surrounding world finds expression in internal representations of what is “strange/alien/foreign” or “other” and is part of the self-reference of religious systems. Because other religions are often experienced as competing entities, in most traditions they represent a great challenge to the adherents’ own identity. Therefore re…


(1,820 words)

Author(s): Arnold, Matthieu
[German Version] I. City and Bishopric 1. City. The site was settled even before the Romans. The original urban core grew out of the Roman castellumArgentorate; in the time of Augustus, it had 5,000/ 6,000 inhabitants. The Alemanni, who took the town from the Romans in 406, renamed it: Gregory of Tours (6th cent.) called it Stradeburg. Taken by Attila in 451, it continued to grow: 20,000 inhabitants in the late 13th century, 26,481 in 1697, 49,948 in 1789, and 272,975 in 2006. The history of Strasbourg bears witness to …

Straube, Karl

(132 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christoph
[German Version] ( Jan 6, 1873, Berlin – Apr 27, 1950, Leipzig), the most important organ virtuoso and teacher in the first half of the 20th century. In 1895 he was appointed assistant organist of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kirche in Berlin and in 1897 organist in Wesel. In 1902 he became organist of the Thomaskirche in Leipzig; in 1918 he was appointed musical director of the Thomanerchor and conductor of the Gewandhaus choir, a post he held until 1932. In 1919 he founded the Institute of Church Music in…

Strauch, Aegidius

(194 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1632, Wittenberg – Feb 13, 1682, Danzig [Gdansk]). After studying in Leipzig and Wittenberg (with A. Calovius), he was appointed professor of philosophy in Wittenberg, receiving his Dr.theol. in 1664. In the Syncretistic Controversy, he vigorously opposed the Helmstedt theologians. In 1669 he was appointed rector of the Gymnasium in Danzig and pastor of Sankt Trinitatis. In 1673 he was removed from office on account of his anti-Catholic sermons; his removal produced an up…

Strauß, David Friedrich

(580 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] ( Jan 27, 1808, Ludwigsburg –Feb 8, 1874, Ludwigsburg), Protestant theologian and writer. The son of a struggling merchant, Strauß attended the Latin school in Ludwigsburg and in 1821 entered the minor seminary in Blaubeuren. There he met F.C. Baur, whose teaching left a deep impression on him. With his friends C. Märklin, F.T. Vischer, and Wilhelm Zimmerman (later a prominent liberal historian of the German Peasants’ War), he began his theological studies in 1825 at the Tübingen …

Strauß, Gerhard Friedrich Abraham

(190 words)

Author(s): Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] (Sep 24, 1786, Iserlohn – Jul 19, 1863, Berlin). After studies in Halle and Heidelberg from 1805 to 1808, with C. Daub as his most important teacher, Strauß was appointed pastor in Ronsdorf in 1809 and in Elberfeld in 1814; from 1822 to 1859 he was professor of practical theology in Berlin as well as fourth court chaplain and cathedral preacher (1856 senior court chaplain). He was appointed senior consistorial councilor in 1836 and made a member of the High Consistory in 1850. He was a close ¶ friend of J.W.A. Neander and an outstanding preacher and pastor. With a re…

Strauß, Jakob

(189 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (c. 1480, Basel – after 1526), began his theological studies as a Dominican in Freiburg im Breisgau in 1516 and earned his doctorate in theology before he joined the Reformation movement in 1521. Initially he preached Reformation theology in the vicinity of Innsbruck. In 1522 he visited Wittenberg and then went to Wertheim am Main. From 1523 to 1525 he preached in Eisenach (Thuringia), where his 51 theses against the charging of interest triggered the “Eisenach usury controversy” …

Strauss, Leo

(159 words)

Author(s): Meier, Heinrich
[German Version] (Sep 20, 1899, Kirchhain, Hesse – Oct 18, 1973, Annapolis, MD), philosopher who undertook to reestablish political philosophy by returning to its Socratic roots, disputing the criticism of F. Nietzsche and M. Heidegger. After emigrating to the United States in 1938, he taught in New York and Chicago, inaugurating an influential hermeneutical school that pays particular attention to the exoteric-esoteric “art of careful writing.” Strauss identified the “theologico-political problem…

Strauß, Richard

(176 words)

Author(s): Jacob, Andreas
[German Version] ( Jun 11, 1864, Munich – Sep 8, 1949, Garmisch), composer committed to an emphatically interpreted expressive principle. From an upper-class background, he considered himself substantially an agnostic, and so it is not surprising that he wrote no church music apart from a few early works (Masses). In various symphonic tone poems (e.g. Also sprach Zarathustra, opus 30, 1896, after F. Nietzsche’s work with the same title), he placed himself in the tradition of the New German School around F. Liszt. Opera became the most important genre in Strauß’s work; his Salome (1905)…
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