Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Stravinsky, Igor Fyodorovich

(164 words)

Author(s): Jacob, Andreas
[German Version] ( Jun 5 [17], 1882, Lomonosov, near St. Petersburg – Apr 6, 1971, New York), composer who made seminal contributions to 20th-century music, above all by emancipating rhythm as a compositional parameter. After a strict upbringing in the Greek Orthodox faith, in 1910 Stravinsky went to Paris, where he made his debut with ballet scores like Le sacre du printemps (1913; ET: Rite of Spring). That first “Russian” period, which incorporated folklore elements, gave way around 1920 to neoclassical influences, as in Pulcinella (1920). In the early 1950s, Stravinsky bega…

Streeter, Burnett Hillman

(151 words)

Author(s): Chapman, Mark D.
[German Version] (Nov 17, 1874, Croydon – Sep 10, 1937, Basel), was educated at Queen’s College in Oxford, where he remained for the rest of life as fellow (1905), Dean Ireland Professor (1932), and provost (1933). An influential New Testament scholar, Streeter published Studies in the Synoptic Problem (1911) and The Four Gospels (1924). With his essay “The Historic Christ” in Foundations (1912), where he denied the historical resurrection, he earned his reputation as a ¶ Modernist. His later work, including Reality: A New Correlation of Science and Religion (1924) and The Buddha and …

Streit, Robert

(187 words)

Author(s): Collet, Giancarlo
[German Version] (Oct 27, 1875, Fraustadt, Posen [now Wschowa, Poland] – Jul 31, 1930, Frankfurt am Main), OMI (1897; Oblates: III, 1). Streit and J. Schmidlin were pioneers of Catholic missiology, especially missionary bibliography. Streit began his philosophical and theological studies in Liège but soon moved to Hünfeld to assist in the order’s newly opened house of studies. Following ordination in 1901, from 1902 to 1912 he worked in the editorial office of the order’s monthly, Maria Immaculata. He deplored the scarcity of Catholic missiological literature, urged that…

Strigel, Victorinus

(167 words)

Author(s): Collet, Giancarlo
[German Version] (Dec 26, 15224, Kaufbeuren – Jun 26, 1569, Heidelberg). After studying in Freiburg im Breisgau, Leipzig, and Wittenberg (1542–1546, M.A. 1544), Strigel received a teaching appointment at the Gymnasium Academicum in Jena, where he lectured on classical literature, the Epistles of Paul, and the works of Melanchthon. Disputes with M. Flacius and his refusal to sign the Weimar Book of Confutation led to his dismissal in 1559. After his rehabilitation in 1562, he distanced himself from…

Strimesius, Samuel

(115 words)

Author(s): Spehr, Christopher
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1648, Königsberg [Kaliningrad] – Jan 28, 1730, Frankfurt an der Oder). After studying in Frankfurt an der Oder, Cambridge, and Oxford, Strimesius was appointed professor of philosophy at Frankfurt in 1674. In 1679 he became pastor of the Reformed Nikolaikirche and associate professor of theology; in 1696 he was appointed full professor and received his Dr.theol. Strimesius worked actively for a Lutheran and Reformed union. In 1703 he participated in the Collegium charitativum in Berlin as a Reformed irenicist; in his Kurtzer Entwurff der Einigkeit (1704) he…

Strindberg, Johan August

(604 words)

Author(s): Detering, Heinrich
[German Version] ( Jan 22, 1849, Stockholm – May 14, 1912, Stockholm) grew up in impoverished lower middle class circumstances, which – like extensive areas of his life – he depicted in strongly fictionalized autobiographical texts ( Tjänstekvinnans son, 1886, publ. 1913; ET: Son of a Servant, 1966). During and after discontinued attempts at a theatrical or university education, Strindberg lived in various cities (including Stockholm, Paris, Copenhagen, and Berlin), working as a critic, translator, freelance writer, dramaturge, and theatri…


(810 words)

Author(s): Stock, Konrad
[German Version] The term striving (Gk hormḗ, órexis; Lat. inclinatio, appetitus, conatus) denotes a fundamental concept of ethics (see esp. Trappe); its phenomenal illumination is always conditioned by insights of fundamental anthropology (theory of personhood). From the perspective of Christian dogmatics, it denotes a “being after” or “pursuing” a “for-the-sake-of-which,” an end or set of ends that is determined by certainty of a highest good; it is the basis of all sustained self-activity on the ¶ part of individual or social actors. Attainment of this end means happ…

Strong, Augustus Hopkins

(157 words)

Author(s): Dockery, David S.
[German Version] (Aug 3, 1836, Rochester,NY – Nov 29, 1921, Rochester, NY) was one of the most influential Baptist theologians of the 20th century. His early theological formation was shaped by the New Divinity School at Yale University where he completed his undergraduate degree in 1857. He pursued his seminary work at Rochester Theological Seminary, where he later served effectively as professor and president from 1871 to 1911. Strong’s incredible influence shaped Baptist thinkers like W. Rausch…

Strong, Josiah

(90 words)

Author(s): Gunther Brown, Candy
[German Version] ( Jan 19, 1847, Naperville, IL – Apr 28, 1916, New York) was a pioneer of the Social Gospel movement. He urged ecumenical action to eliminate poverty and disease, and argued that “Anglo- Saxons” should elevate other “races.” Educated at Lane Seminary (1869–1871) and ordained a Congregationalist minister, he wrote Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis (1885) and founded the American League for Social Service in 1898. Candy Gunther Brown Bibliography S. Curtis, A Consuming Faith: The Social Gospel and Modern American Culture, 2001.


(1,443 words)

Author(s): Rese, Friederike | Heidermanns, Frank | Figl, Johann
[German Version] I. The Term The term structuralism is a collective name for an intellectual movement that shaped the human sciences and intellectual life in general, especially in France, in the 1950s and 1960s. Inspired by Ferdinand de Saussure’s linguistic studies, proponents of structuralism analyzed the enormous diversity of phenomena perceptible to the senses, seeking to define their common invariant structures. Just as the term structure is derived from Latin structura, a fabric of different but interrelated elements, the structuralists examined phenomena p…

Struensee, Adam

(206 words)

Author(s): Jakubowski-Tiessen, Manfred
[German Version] (Sep 8, 1708, Neuruppin – Jun 20, 1791, Rendsburg). After studying in Halle and Jena, Struensee was appointed court chaplain in Berleburg in 1730 and pastor in Halle in 1732, where he was also appointed professor of theology. In 1757 he was appointed pastor and provost in Altona as well as consistorial councilor. In 1759 he was made royal general superintendent in Schleswig and Holstein, an office in which he served as an important protector of the Pietists against the rationalists, who dominated public discussion. He welcomed the active missionary activity of the ¶ Herrnh…


(700 words)

Author(s): Schmid, Konrad | Dautzenberg, Gerhard
[German Version] I. Old Testament The concept of stubbornness in the Old Testament has several Hebrew equivalents, most of which denote “hardening,” usually of the heart as the center of human volition (esp. כבד לב/ kbd lb, “make the heart heavy”; חזק לב/ ḥzq lb, “harden the heart”; קשׁה ערף/לב/ qšh ʿrp/ lb, “stiffen the neck/heart”). The most important OT foci for stubbornness are Exod 4–14, Pharaoh’s stubbornness or “hardness of heart” during the plague series, and Isa 6:9, Isaiah’s commission to speak so as not to be understood (cf. Ezek 3:7ff.). The conflict narrative in Exod 4–14,…

Studenica Monastery

(294 words)

Author(s): Kraft, Ekkehard
[German Version] is the oldest Serbian monastery; it stands near the river of the same name in southwestern Serbia. It was built between 1183 and 1196 by Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja, who entered it as a monk under the name of Simeon in 1196 and served as its abbot until he moved to Athos. He died in 1199 in ¶ the Serbian monastery Hilandar on Athos, but in 1207 his remains were brought to Studenica by his son Sava and were reburied there. Sava played a central role in the cult of Nemanja that grew up in Studenica (Simeon Mirotočivi, “the myrrh-streaming”…

Student Associations

(1,108 words)

Author(s): Fix, Karl-Heinz
[German Version] I. General Student associations are the umbrella organizations of student groups and societies associated with universities and colleges, which serve a wide variety of purposes and interests – political, social, athletic, and cultural; they also vary in their denominational association or attitude toward religion, gender, principles of conduct, and attitude toward student traditions. Student societies as interest groups and living units are as old as the universities. The nationes, collegia, and bursae (Bursa) of the Middle Ages were followed by comp…

Student Church

(1,586 words)

Author(s): Wasserberg, Günter | Hartmann, Richard
[German Version] I. Protestant The Evangelische StudentInnengemeinde der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (ESG) identifies itself as an ecumenically focused “church of Jesus Christ at the university” (preamble to the ESG statutes, 21 Sep, 2001). It functions in tension between belonging to the institutional church (Evangelical Church in Germany and its member churches) and its conception of itself as an independent student association. This fundamental dynamic is rooted in the history of the ESG. 1 History. The ESG is an outgrowth of the Deutsche Christliche Studentenvere…

Student Movements

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Gilcher-Holtey, Ingrid
[German Version] In 1968 a wave of protests, culminating in April and May, attacked the institutional order of the Western democracies, challenged the monopoly on representation enjoyed by the established parties and organizations, and confronted them with a counter-public that rejected the traditional authority structures of the institutions of postwar society and criticized its fundamental values and assumptions. In each country, one group behind the protests was the students. In Italy some of t…


(494 words)

Author(s): Wende, Sven
[German Version] In this article, student is used in the sense of a person enrolled in an institution of higher education for the purpose of completing a course of study, to acquire specialized knowledge, skills, and proficiencies based on an academic foundation and under regular supervision. Their historical precursors were the scholares of the early medieval schools of medicine and law as well as the cathedral and monastery schools, from which two earliest universities developed in the 11th and 12th centuries: Bologna (II) and Paris (II). The …

Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Mission

(271 words)

Author(s): Zoh, Byoung-ho
[German Version] The history of the world’s Christian Student Missionary Movement (the national student movements are also viewed as student societies), with its concerns for unity and overseas mission, is divided broadly into three periods. It had its roots in the Pietistic movement that arose at the German university of Halle in the 17th century and continued in England at Oxford’s Holy Club and Cambridge’s Inter-Christian Union (1877). But, as a full-scale movement, it began life in 1889 with t…

Studios Monastery

(273 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] monastery in the Psamathia quarter of Constantinople, founded by Studios, who was patricius and consul in 454. Its church, a three-aisled basilica dedicated to John the Baptist, was begun in 450; it was converted into a mosque after 1453. Today it is the only pre-Justinian church ruin in Istanbul. It was among the largest and most important monasteries of the capital, with great wealth. During the iconoclastic controversy (Veneration of images: VI) in the 8th and 9th centuries, under its abbot ( hegoumenos) Theodore of Studios it became the most important intel…


(256 words)

Author(s): Metzler, Karin
[German Version] The Studios monastery, founded in 463, played a significant political role from the beginning of the 8th century. During the period of iconoclasm (Veneration of images: IV), under Theodore of Studios it successfully defended the position of the iconodules. Theodore restructured the monastery with a strict division of labor and an effective hierarchy. Its scriptorium and library were culturally significant: they could not be accused of producing any iconoclastic forgeries, and they…


(352 words)

Author(s): Diedrich, Hans-Christian
[German Version] In 1866 officials in Kherson province (Ukraine), in southern Russia, discovered religious groups that they immediately called Stundists ( štundy, štundisty, etc., from Ger. Stunde, “hour,” used for private devotional meetings), associating their origin with ¶ the revivalist (Revival/Revival movements: I) Pietists of the nearby Reformed settlement of Rohrbach near Odessa. Their influence is dubious, however, especially that of their oft-mentioned pastor Johannes Bonekemper, who had already left Russia in 1848. His so…


(457 words)

Author(s): Deeg, Max
[German Version] (Pāli thūpa, Chinese ta, Japanese , Tibetan mchod-rten), a Buddhist ritual structure (Buddhism: I, 6) whose architectural form diversified as Buddhism spread through Central, East, and Southeast Asia (see also Pagoda). In the earliest period of Buddhism, the stūpa functioned as a round funerary mound (see fig.) in which the ashes or relics of outstanding figures were buried. But there also appear to have been commemorative structures similar in form ( caitya) but dedicated to deities or ancestors, for example of a noble clan. The locus classicus for the establish…

Stupperich, Robert

(160 words)

Author(s): Brecht, Martin
[German Version] (Sep 13, 1904, Moscow – Sep 4, 2003, Münster), studied Protestant theology and Eastern European history in Berlin, earning his habilitation in 1940. He was awarded an honorary D.theol. in 1953. He served as a pastor in the Confessing Church under O. Dibelius, whose biography he published in 1989. His 1930 dissertation on union negotiations between Catholics and Protestants in the 1530s was pioneering. From 1946 to 1972, he taught as professor of church history in Münster; he was h…

Sturm, Beata

(165 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Dec 17, 1682, Stuttgart – Jan 11, 1730, Stuttgart), daughter of a jurist, was one of the most important women in Pietism; after her death, she was venerated as a saint. Apart from a brief period in Blaubeuren, she spent her entire life in Stuttgart. Par-¶ tially blind since childhood and orphaned at the age of 11, she deliberately remained single and several times “affianced” herself to Jesus. She actively committed herself and her fortune to helping the poor, the sick, and widows, so that later she came to be called the “Wü…

Sturmi (Sturmius), Saint

(173 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Martina
[German Version] (c. 704, Lorch [?] – Dec 779, Fulda), first abbot of Fulda. Related to the dukes of Bavaria, Sturmi was a disciple of Boniface; he was ordained to the priesthood c. 734. After three years as a missionary and hermit in Hersfeld, he was commissioned by Boniface to find a suitable site for a monastery. In 744 Fulda was founded, with the support of Carloman, the Frankish mayor of the palace. After Boniface’s death in 754, Sturmi succeeded in having his remains buried at Fulda, despite…

Sturm, Jakob

(319 words)

Author(s): Arnold, Matthieu
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1489, Straßburg [Strasbourg] – Oct 30, 1553, Straßburg). After studying in Heidelberg from 1501 to 1504 and Freiburg im Breisgau from 1505 to 1509, he joined the Straßburg Sodalitas literaria, led by J. Wimpfeling and S. Brant, through which he had contact with Erasmus. From 1517 to 1522, he served as librarian and secretary to the count palatine Henry of Wittelsbach; then he was appointed dean of Straßburg cathedral. Sturm’s sympathies with Humanism led him to convert to…

Sturm, Johannes

(315 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1507, Schleiden, Eifel – Mar 3, 1589, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). After an education by the Brothers of the Common Life (Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life) in Liège and (along with J. Sleidanus) at the Collegium trilingue in Leuven, he came to Paris in 1529, where he studied medicine and lectured on Humanistic subjects. In 1533 he joined the Reformed group at the court of Francis I of France. In 1536 he fled to Straßburg, where M. Bucer and Jakob Sturm entrusted him wit…

Sturm und Drang

(9 words)

[German Version] Sentimentalism/Sturm und Drang

Sturzo, Luigi

(176 words)

Author(s): Steck, Friedemann
[German Version] (Nov 26, 1871, Caltagirone, Sicily – Aug 8, 1959, Rome), was ordained to the priesthood in 1894 and received his Dr.theol. in 1896. From 1905 to 1920 he was (acting) mayor of Caltagirone. Since the 1890s he had been appealing to the conscience of politically passive (“non-participating”) conservative, clericalist Catholics. His 1919 appeal “A tutti gli uomini liberi e forti” was followed by the formation of the Partito Popolare Italiano, the third-largest party in the Italian parl…

Stuttgart Confession of Guilt

(671 words)

Author(s): Ruddies, Hartmut
[German Version] The historical roots of the Stuttgart Confession of Guilt issued by the council of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) on Oct 18/19, 1945, go back to the period following World War I. The declaration itself, as a confession of guilt, left the sheltered sphere of academic theological reflection in order to make a new beginning for the Evangelical Church in Germany (I) after 1945. Its aim was to address the meaning of supra-individual involvement in guilt in such a way that ever…

Stutz, Ulrich

(346 words)

Author(s): Landau, Peter
[German Version] (May 6, 1868, Zürich – Jul 5, 1938, Berlin), studied law in Zürich and Berlin; his teachers included Otto v. Gierke (1841–1921) and P. Hinschius. In 1895 he was appointed associate professor in Basel and in 1896 full professor in Freiburg im Breisgau. In 1904 he moved to Bonn, where he founded an institute of canon law; in 1917 he and his institute moved to Berlin. In 1910 he founded the Kirchenrechtliche Abhandlungen, followed in 1910 by the Kanonistische Abteilung of the Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, which he edited until his death; in 1…


(333 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof
[German Version] Stylitism was a special form of early Christian asceticism, in which the stylite stood for long periods, usually for life, on a platform atop a pillar (Gk στῦλος/ stýlos, hence “stylite”), which often was raised in stages, sometimes to a height of more than 20 m, as a visible expression of the ascetic ideal of extreme homelessness and immobility. It was the duty of monks to provide the stylite with sustenance and communion. As motivation the sources speak of total separation from the world and proximity to heaven. Proposed non-Christian models have been ruled out. ¶ This rad…

Suárez, Francisco

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Sparn, Walter
[German Version] ( Jan 5, 1548, Granada – Sep 25, 1617, Lisbon), SJ, leading theologian, philosopher, and legal theorist of Spanish Scholasticism. Suárez studied in Salamanca. Initially rejected for lack of aptitude, he was accepted into the Jesuits in 1564. In 1571 he began teaching philosophy in Segovia; after 1574 he taught theology in Valladolid, Segovia, and Alcalá. In 1580 he began teaching at the Collegium Romanum in Rome. In 1585 sickness forced him to return to Alcalá, where he succeeded …


(6 words)

[German Version] Depth Psychology


(345 words)

Author(s): Hermsen, Edmund
[German Version] A subculture is a partial culture of a society that differs from the socially dominant (primary) culture in its values, norms, attitudes, needs, lifestyles, and symbols, as well as its behavior patterns, organizations, institutions, and traditions. Subcultures presuppose differentiated and pluralistic societies. The term itself goes back to the sociological study of delinquency in the 1940s: the deviant but internally strictly codified behavior of juvenile delinquents could be explained as the result of social discrimination and lack ¶ of opportunities for …


(136 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (Gk ὑποδιάκοvος). In the liturgical hierarchy (II, 2) of the Orthodox Church, the subdeacon stands in fourth place: in first place stands the bishop (III, 2); then follow priest/presbyter (Priesthood: III, 2), deacon (VII), subdeacon ( Ipodiakon), reader, psalm singer, baptized laypersons, and, finally, catechumens. The subdeacon assists the bishop serving at the altar in a particular manner. He receives the Eucharist (Communion: III, 3), as do baptized laypersons, before the iconostasis (wall of images). In the worship service today, the subdeacon wears the stoi…


(206 words)

Author(s): Wenning, Robert
[German Version] (Σοβατα, Isr. Ḥorvat Šivṭā, Arab. As-Subēta), Byzantine city in the Negeb. It was a Nabatean settlement in the late 1st century ce (pottery, a Nabatean inscription); architecture in the form of houses and stables appears in the 4th/5th centuries. It was an agricultural city (wine presses) and a pilgrimage center, with three churches. In the center is the south church (mid-4th cent., initially monoapsidal, later triapsidal) with a baptistery and a mosque attached on the north side (coexistence). Its …


(215 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] village in Latium, in the valley of the Aniene east of Rome. Here Benedict of Nursia is said to have lived in a cave (Sacro Speco) as a hermit and to have later joined with companions to form a monastic settlement in rooms of a former villa of the emperor Nero (monastery of San Clemente). In the years that followed, he is said to have founded ten additional monasteries before going to Monte Cassino in 529. Two of them are still standing today: San Benedetto (Sacro Speco) and, low…

Subject and Object

(1,014 words)

Author(s): Schnepf, Robert
[German Version] Today the terms subject and object usually denote the person who knows (the epistemic subject) as distinct from what is known (the object of cognition). Most of the common meanings of subjective derive from this definition of subject (Subjectivity). In everyday usage, though, objective usually describes something that is not subjective, the thing as it truly is. This everyday usage was preceded by a complex history of subject and object as technical philosophical terms, closely tied to the development of epistemology and metaphysics. Subject derives from Latin subie…


(1,150 words)

Author(s): Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] Subjectivism is unmistakably a polemical term, and is associated with political theory. It presupposes the rise of subjectivity as a paradigm in modern philosophy (III, 2). The charge of purely subjective knowledge it articulates is grounded in epistemology (II), whence it found its way into ethics, philosophy of religion, and theology, as well as aesthetics. Whoever uses it lays claim to a superior form of knowledge, which must be able to say in turn how it relates to the subjectivity that is inescapable in all forms of knowledge. The term subjectivism allows old and …

Subjectivity/Subjectivity Theories

(1,313 words)

Author(s): Engemann, Wilfried
[German Version] I. Terminology 1. The term subject has gone through many changes of meaning (Subject and object) throughout its history. Initially it did not refer to the category in the epistemological process that defines things and assigns them corresponding meanings; it included semantic features that today we often associate with the term object. 2. This understanding of the subject, which was definitive throughout the period of Scholasticism and beyond, was replaced by a contrary interpretation. In the controversy over the Cartesian cogito ergo sum, the subject came to b…


(319 words)

Author(s): Fraas, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] S. Freud’s psychoanalysis teaches that reality requires converting an unsatisfied sex drive (libido) into culturally valuable and socially approved modes of behavior (art, humor) as a compromise between the demands of the id and the superego developed in the process of socialization. This compromise is enabled by “defense mechanisms” (A. Freud), a series of behavioral strategies including such constructive forms as repression, substitution, conversion, and projection. A response t…


(1,076 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Mädler, Inken
[German Version] I. Philosophy The expression the sublime (Ger. das Erhabene) refers to our experience of objects that by virtue of their greatness (physical or metaphysical), power, or perfection make us conscious of our own exaltation, often with an accompanying awareness of the limits of our own capacity. In the debate with poetic enthusiasm (I) in antiquity, the sublime was discussed using the term ὕψος ( hýpsos, “height”) as a category of poetics and rhetoric (I): in ¶ the works of writers like Plato, Aristotle, Aristophanes, and Pseudo-Longinus, the issue was the fu…


(5 words)

[German Version] Christology


(1,117 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | de Wall, Heinrich | Hausmanninger, Thomas
[German Version] I. Social Science Subsidiarity is a principle that regulates the relationship between the state and non-state social agents. It presupposes personal responsibility on the part of individuals as well as limitation of public regulatory authority over them and the groups to which they belong. Human beings can exist only in social communities, into which they must be integrated. At the same time, their endowment with reason allows them to act on their own responsibility, and the communit…

Substance Abuse

(9 words)

[German Version] Drug and Alcohol Addiction

Substance/Substance and Accident

(1,192 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter
[German Version] Substance (from Lat. substantia) generally denotes what is constant in contrast to the variation of its conditions and attributes, which are called accidents vis-à-vis substance. Substance is what stays constant as it bears its attributes, as the etymology of the word indicates: substantia (from the verb substare) means literally “what stands firm” and “is beneath”; accidens (present participle of the verb accidere) means that which arises or eventuates. In philosophical usage, substantia and accidens generally represent Greek οὐσία/ ousía and συμβεβηκός/ symb…


(3,183 words)

Author(s): Winter, Franz | Janowski, Bernd | Frey, Jörg | Schaede, Stephan | Pree, Helmuth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term substitution, originating in the language of law, is used primarily in Christian theology, but it is well suited for use in religious studies as well, even though so far there has been no detailed systematic treatment of it. In the most general sense, we speak of substitution when the true subject affected or acting (God, an individual like the king, or a collective) is represented by another ¶ entity (a person or group, an animal, or an object) as a substitute involved (actively or passively) in the action, acting for the…

Substitutionary Gift

(223 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz
[German Version] In human societies, exchange transactions always involve exchanging different things, of equal or unequal value; the symmetry or asymmetry of the exchange is an expression of a particular relationship. This holds not just for exchanges of goods but for other types of exchange, for example in the system of justice (Blood revenge), and not least in contacts with the powers that dominate life, articulated in part by exchanges of gifts. In special cases, the “normal” gifts given by hu…

Suburbicarian Dioceses

(187 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] The suburbicarian dioceses are those in the region adjacent ( suburbium) to Rome. Most have had a checkered history: Albano, Frascati (replacing Tusculum, which replaced Labicum and was de facto an episcopal see from 1058 to 1197, recognized nominally until 1537), Ostia, Palestrina, Porto (united the Santa Rufina [Silva Candida] by Callistus II), Sabina (the result of incorporating the see of Nomentum into the see of Forum Novum; united ¶ with Poggio Mirteto in 1925), Velletri (united with Ostia in 1150, separated once more in 1914, and united with …
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