Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Sohm, Rudolph

(568 words)

Author(s): Pawlowski, Hans-Martin
[German Version] (Oct 29, 1841, Rostock – May 16, 1917, Leipzig), studied law in Rostock, Heidelberg, and Berlin; after his habilitation in Göttingen in 1866, he was appointed to professorships at Freiburg (1870), Straßburg (now Strasbourg; 1872), and Leipzig (1887). ¶ He had intended initially to devote himself primarily to legal history, but in Straßburg he found himself compelled to take a position on the “struggle between state and church just [triggered] . . . in Germany . . . by the Vatican Council” (Pawlowksi, 307f.) – later cal…

Söhngen, Gottlieb

(179 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter
[German Version] (May 21, 1892, Cologne – Nov 14, 1971, Munich), Catholic fundamental theologian and philosopher of religion. He headed the Albertus Magnus Academy in Cologne from 1924 to 1930. In 1937 he was appointed professor at Braunsberg. From 1947 to 1958 he held the chair of fundamental theology and philosophical propaedeutics at the University of Munich. Within the context of Neoscholasticism, he sought to break through a purely restorative Thomism and open theology to the sweep of salvati…

Söhngen, Oskar

(256 words)

Author(s): Bunners, Christian
[German Version] (Dec 5, 1900, Wuppertal-Barmen – Aug 28, 1983, Berlin). A student of R. Otto’s, he ¶ received his Dr.phil. in 1922 and his Lic.theol. in 1924. In 1926 he was appointed to a pastorate in Cologne and in 1932 became a consultant to the High Consistory in Berlin. In 1936 he became chief consistorial councilor. From 1951 to 1969 he served as spiritual vice-president in the chancery of the Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union in Berlin, where he also taught at the Academy of Music as a lecture…

Sohn, Georg

(195 words)

Author(s): Mahlmann, Theodor
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1551, Rosbach vor der Höhe, Wetterau – Apr 23, 1589, Heidelberg), began his studies in Marburg in 1566 and moved to Wittenberg in 1569; a conversion experience in July of 1570 led him to change from law to theology, receiving his M.A. on Sep 6, 1571. In 1572 be was back in Marburg, where he was appointed professor of theology in 1574, receiving his Dr.theol. on Jan 9, 1578. In 1584 he went to Heidelberg. In Marburg he developed the Melanchthonianism of his Wittenberg teac…

Sōka Gakkai

(280 words)

Author(s): Hase, Thomas
[German Version] (“Value-Creating Society”), a lay Buddhist organization (Buddhism: I, 2.e) established in Japan in the 20th century and today one of the largest of the Japanese new religious movements (I; Japan: VI, 2). The predecessor organization of the Sōka Gakkai was founded in 1930 by Tsunesaburō Makiguchi (1871–1944) and Josei Toda (1900–1958), both adherents of Nichiren Buddhism, which traces its roots back to Nichiren. Borrowing from Nichiren, Makiguchi created a theory of values and educ…

Sokolow, Nahum

(179 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Barbara
[German Version] ( Jan 16, 1861, Wyszogród, Poland – May 17, 1936, London), Hebrew writer, journalist, and leading Zionist politician. His tireless journalistic activity in all the major Jewish media of his time served as his platform, so that he counts as one of the founding fathers of Hebrew journalism. He held high offices in Zionism early on: he was invited to become general secretary in 1906, and in 1911 he was elected to the Zionist Executive; from 1920 to 1931 he was its chairman. From 1931…

Solano, Francisco

(172 words)

Author(s): Toepsch, Alexandra
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1549, Mantilla, Andalusia – Jul 14, 1610, Lima, Peru), joined the Franciscan order in 1569 and worked initially as a domestic missionary. In 1589 he was sent to Peru aboard a ship carrying African slaves; from Peru he was sent to Santiago del Estero in what is now Argentina. Using that as a base, he preached the gospel for 15 years among the Tonokoté, counseled their chiefs, and healed the sick. He returned to the Franciscan house in Lima as guardian. Today many places in…

Soler, Mariano

(223 words)

Author(s): Toepsch, Alexandra
[German Version] (Mar 25, 1846, San Carlos, Uruguay – Sep 26, 1908, Gibraltar), studied theology from 1868 to 1874 at the Gregorianum in Rome, earning a Dr.theol. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1872. In 1875 he returned to Uruguay, where he founded the Catholic Club of Montevideo, a lyceum for university studies – the first free university in Uruguay and the Society of Science and the Arts. In 1879 he became a parish priest in Montevideo. From 1884 to 1890, he served as vicar general of the …

Solesmes Abbey

(238 words)

Author(s): Saulnier, Daniel
[German Version] The Benedictine Abbey of Solesmes, in western France 50 km from Le Mans, was founded c. 1010 and survived until the French Revolution (1792). In 1833 P.L.P. Guéranger acquired the abbey and established it as a retreat house for prayer and study, marking the beginning of the revival of Benedictine monasticism in France. The abbey gained increasing fame through the role of Dom Guéranger in the life of the church in the 19th century. His Institutions liturgiques (1840–1851) and L’année liturgique (1841–1866) contributed substantially to the renewal of liturgical…

Solidarity

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Figl, Johann | Zürcher, Markus Daniel | Baumgartner, Alois
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term solidarity (from neo-Lat. solidaritas, derived from solidus, “solid, firm”; Fr. solidarité) denotes the cohesiveness of a “group,” ultimately society, expressed in a generally ethical sense of cohesion. In the history of the term, originally borrowed from legal usage (Wildt, Baumgartner), É. Durkheim (1893) distinguishes the “organic solidarity” of a differentiated modern society from the “mechanical solidarity” of so-called primitive societies, in which the individ…

Solin

(155 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] in Croatia near Split, was an Illyrian city that became a Roman colony under Julius Caesar. It flourished under the Empire, since it had an excellent harbor and good communications with the interior, and became the capital of the province of Dalmatia. Christianity spread very early and intensively in Salona. The city and its surroundings and the nearby island of Brattia (Brac) contain the ruins of a large number of churches and buildings over the tombs of martyrs, dating from the…

Sölle, Dorothee

(376 words)

Author(s): Kuhlmann, Helga
[German Version] (Sep 30, 1929, Cologne – Apr 27, 2003, Göppingen). After studying classical and Germanic philology, philosophy, and Protestant theology, she taught in a Gymnasium and was an adviser in higher education. She received her habilitation in Cologne in 1971; from 1975 to 1987 she was professor of systematic theology at Union Theological Seminary in New York; in 1994 she received an honorary professorship from Hamburg. From the late 1960s on, she was active in organizing political nighttime prayers in Cologne, in church conferences, in the peace movem…

Solmization

(166 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] is a method of learning the individual musical pitches of a piece of vocal music by means of specific solmization syllables; it goes back to Guido of Arezzo, who derived it from the hymn assigned to the feast of John the Baptist ( Ut queant laxis Resonare fibris/ Mira gestorum Famuli tuorum,/ Solve poluti Labii reatum,/Sancte Johannes). The initial pitches of each half-line of the hymn melody (not specifically liturgical in the MA) produce a rising six-tone scale or hexachord (C=ut, D=re, E=mi, F=fa, G=sol, A=la). ¶ Scales from F to D ( hexachordum molle) and from G to E ( hexach…

Solomon

(1,558 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Lattke, Michael
[German Version] I. Bible 1. Literary analysis. The primary source for Solomon (Heb. ְׁשׁלמה/ šĕlōmōh) is 1 Kgs 1–12. It has a chiastic structure centered on the account of the design, construction, and dedication of the Jerusalem temple (II, 4; 1 Kgs 5–8); it is flanked by descriptions of Solomon’s illustrious wisdom and reign (1 Kgs 3f. and 9f.), with narratives of his rise and decline constituting the outward framework (1 Kgs 1f. and 11f.). This overall structure is a product of Deuteronomistic historiogra…

Solomonic Writings

(3,079 words)

Author(s): Lattke, Michael
[German Version] I. Wisdom of Solomon 1. Canonicity and versions. The Wisdom of Solomon ( Sapientia Salomonis) is classified as a deuterocanonical or apocryphal book (Apocrypha). Both terms reflect its inclusion in the Septuagint, but the Muratorian Canon (Muratorian Fragment) even recognizes the book of Wisdom written in Greek by “friends of Solomon” as part of the New Testament. In general, though, it is classed among the antilegomena of the Old Testament. In the LXX, which itself influenced the (initially an…

Solovetsky Monastery

(312 words)

Author(s): Troitski, Aleksandr N.
[German Version] The Solovetsky Monastery (Spaso Preobraženskii Soloveckii monastyr’), with the ¶ Redeemer Cathedral of the Transfiguration, is the most famous monastery of northern Russia (Russian monasteries); it was founded on the Solovetsky Islands in 1436 by St. German (died 1479/1484), who lived there from 1429 to 1435 together with St. Savvattii (died Sep 27, 1435) and St. Zossima. By 1450 the monastery had already been given the entire archipelago; later it also received extensive mainland propertie…

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeyevich

(894 words)

Author(s): George, Martin
[German Version] ( Jan 16/28, 1853, Moscow – Jul 31/Aug 13, 1900, Uzkoe, near Moscow), mystic, poet, pamphleteer, and theologian; still the most significant religious philosopher produced by Russia. Growing up in a devout and cultured family, Solovyov began to engage in ascetic exercises while still a child. He studied the natural sciences in Moscow from 1869 to 1872. His personal involvement with the philosophy of Plato, B. Spinoza, F.W.J. Schelling, A. Schopenhauer, and E. v. Hartmann brought hi…

Solstice

(314 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen
[German Version] In the Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice marks the reversal of the sun’s apparent movement and hence the beginning of summer (with Jun 21/22 as the longest days); the winter solstice on Dec 21/22 with the shortest days similarly marks the beginning of winter. These turning points determine the chronology of the recurrent seasons of the year in the form of a calendar. The calendar in turn determines major feast days and times of ritual observance (Feasts and festivals). Preh…

Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich

(267 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Christine
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1918, Kislovodsk – Aug 3, 2008, Moscow) studied, among other things, mathematics and literature in Rostov na Donu. In 1945 he was sentenced to eight years in a labor camp. He was rehabilitated in 1957. In 1969 he was expelled from the Soviet writers’ union and the following year was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1974 he was deported from the Soviet Union and emigrated in 1976 to the United States, returning to Russia in 1994. His short stories include: A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962) – the diary of a day in the prison camp from a prison…

Somalia

(806 words)

Author(s): Spindler, Marc
[German Version] The Republic of Somalia was created on Jul 1, 1960, from a merger of British Somaliland Protectorate and Italian Somalia. It covers an area of 637, 657 km2, mostly flat desert with mountains in the north. Somalia is known for its recurring droughts, sporadic floods, and an overwhelmingly torrid climate. According to the last reliable count of 1975 Somalia is approaching a population of 8 million, including a large number of nomads. Permanent warfare has displaced large numbers of people in the country and abroad. Consequently, a…

Somaschi

(178 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ordo Clericorum Regularium a Somasc[h]a, CRS), an order of regular clergy founded in Somasca, Lombardy, in 1534 by the Venetian noble Gerolamo Miani (St. Emiliani, c. 1486–1537) in the spirit of Catholic reform as a Compagnia dei Servi deipoveri (“Society of servants of the poor”). It was to have a pastoral, charitable, and educational apostolate, focused especially on education of orphans. After a difficult beginning, the order consolidated but almost died out c. 1800. Later it experienced a slow revival, which las…

Sombart, Werner

(333 words)

Author(s): Aldenhoff-Hübinger, Rita
[German Version] ( Jan 19, 1863, Ermsleben ­– May 28, 1941, Berlin). After studying political science, Sombart received his doctorate from Berlin, where he studied with G. Schmoller, the leader of the “younger” historical school of economics. After a brief period of practical work, he joined the University of Breslau (Wrocław) as an associate professor in 1890; in 1906 he moved to the Berlin School of Commerce. Finally in 1917 he succeeded A.H.G. Wagner as a full professor at the Frederick William University in Berlin. His Sozialismus und soziale Bewegung im 19. Jahrhundert (1896; ET: So…

Soner, Ernst

(160 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (or Sohner; Dec 1572, Nuremberg – Sep 28, 1612, Altdorf, near Nuremberg), appointed district physician in Nuremberg in 1603 and professor of medicine at the Reichsstädische Akademie in Altdorf in 1605. In 1607/1608 he served as its rector. During an educational tour in 1598, he had been converted by Andreas Wojdowski and Christoph Ostorodt in Leiden to the theological views of their teacher F. Socinus; on his return to Altdorf, he promoted their ideas among his close friends. He w…

Song of Songs, The

(1,290 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter | Otto, Eckart
[German Version] I. Place and Date While individual poems like Song 1:9–11 may go back to the preexilic period, collections, redaction(s), and linguistic revision(s) date from just before and especially during the 3rd century bce. The text contains several loanwords: pardēs (4:13: “orchard,” from Old Iranian), ¶ ʾ appiryôn (3:9: “palanquin,” most likely from Gk), and qinnāmôn (4:14: “cinnamon,” ultimately from Malay kayu manis, “sweet wood”), along with several words borrowed from Old Indic. Beside numerous lexical and grammatical Aramaisms, it exhibits fea…

Song Sermon

(289 words)

Author(s): Henkys, Jürgen
[German Version] A song sermon (or hymn sermon) is a liturgical address based on a hymn (Church song) as an embodiment and anchor of faith and thus meets the obligation of public preaching to be biblical, ecclesiastical, and contemporary. The hymn sermon’s roots go back to the 16th century ( J. & C. Spangenberg). It flourished well into the 18th century, when it also provided fertile soil for the growth of hymnology, but it ¶ disappeared with the arrival of rationalism, which was so at odds with the stock of traditional hymns. It was the studies of Rößler and work don…

Songs Rabbah

(8 words)

[German Version] Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah

Sonntag, Karl Gottlob

(169 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1765, Radeberg – Jul 17, 1827, Riga), Protestant theologian inclined toward moderate rationalism (III); he left a deep impression on the ecclesiastical and spiritual life of Livonia. After studying at Leipzig from 1784 to 1788, he became rector of the cathedral school in Riga. He was appointed senior pastor in 1791, assessor of the Livonian supreme consistory in 1799, and general superintendent in 1803. He deserves credit for reshaping the liturgy, creating a hymnal, prom…

Son of God

(2,958 words)

Author(s): Zeller, Dieter | Karrer, Martin | Nüssel, Friederike
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Son of God as a title applied to an individual must be distinguished from children of God (Child of God) applied to several individuals or a group (e.g. the Israelites). The New Testament title alludes to Davidic messiahship, based on 2 Sam 7:14a (Messiah: II, 2), where God promises Solomon fatherly oversight and appoints him as his representative on earth. Ps 2:7 (cf. Pss 89:27f.*; 110:1–3) uses that text to assert the worldwide dominion of the king of Israel. The “begetting” a…

Son of Man in the New Testament

(1,001 words)

Author(s): Müller, Mogens
[German Version] The expression Son of Man (Gk ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνϑρώπου/ ho hyiós toú anthrṓ pou) is the most frequent self-designation of Jesus in the Gospels, appearing in 82 passages – 69 in the Synoptics (14 in Mark, 30 in Matthew, 25 in Luke), 13 in John. Not counting parallels, there are 38 Synoptic Son-of-Man logia. In addition there are 24 Synoptic logia whose parallels lack the expression, frequently substituting I. Except for John 12:34 (and Luke 24:7), Son of Man appears in the Gospels only on the lips of Jesus; outside the Gospels, it appears only in Acts 7:56 (cf. L…

Sonthom, Emanuel

(184 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (anagram of E. Thomson; dates unknown), English merchant in Danzig (Gdansk) and Stade (presence documented from 1599 to 1612). Under the title Güldenes Kleinot der Kinder Gottes (Frankfurt am Main, 1612), he translated the First Booke of the Christian Exercise (1582) of the English ¶ Jesuit Robert Persons (or Parsons), which he knew in a Protestant version by Edmund Bunny ( A Booke of Christian Exercise, 1584). After the edition published in Lüneburg in 1632, which included a third section probably written by J. Gesenius, “Sonthom” (so called f…

Soothsayer

(5 words)

[German Version] Divination/Manticism

Sophia of Jesus Christ (NHC III, 4; BG 8502/3; SJC)

(88 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Judith
[German Version] In the Sophia, the risen Christ instructs his disciples concerning the supreme God and his emanations. The work probably originated in the 2nd century as a revision of Eugnostos (NHC III, 3; V, 1; Nag Hammadi), combining Christian and Gnostic ideas. Judith Hartenstein Bibliography Ed.: D. Parrott, ed., Nag Hammadi Codices V,2–5 and V,1, NHS 27, 1991 J. Hartenstein, “Eugnostos und die Weisheit Jesu Christi,” in: Nag Hammadi Deutsch, vol. I, GCS.NF 8, 2001, 323–379 (bibl.).

Sophiology

(579 words)

Author(s): Ruppert, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] In the West, the liturgical and doxological veneration of Sophia as the personified wisdom of God (Prov 8; Wis 8; Sir 24), still found in Alcuin’s church poetry, was gradually relegated to a mystical and esoteric fringe ( J. Böhme, New Age); in Russian Orthodox piety, however, Sophia remained a living reality in the church – in liturgical lections and hymns, and above all in church dedications and iconography. The earliest Russian churches were dedicated to St. Sophia – for exampl…

Sophistic School

(1,021 words)

Author(s): Rese, Friederike
[German Version] a school of Greek philosophy (I) in the 5th and 4th centuries bce. After the pre-Socratics, who were more interested in natural philosophy, and prior to Socrates, the Sophists turned their attention to political life. They thought of themselves as teachers who would be paid to teach young Greek men faculties they could employ to gain political influence, especially the faculty of “speaking well” (εὖ λέγειν/ eú légein) but also the faculty of political virtue (Virtues; ¶ ἀρετή/ aretḗ ). This classic era of Sophistics was followed by a second phase during th…

Sophocles

(269 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard
[German Version] (497/496, Athens – 406 bce), Athenian tragedian, who had his debut in 470. Seven of his plays (out of probably 113) have survived: Ajax and the Trachinian Women, written in the 450s, Antigone (c. 440), Oedipus the King (436–433), Electra (a late work), Philoctetes (409), and Oedipus at Colonus (performed posthumously in 401). His tragedies present individuals in extreme situations, whose behavior can overstep the limits of hubris. The protagonists are contrasted with figures representing the average person (Chrysothemis, Ismene…

Sophronius

(226 words)

Author(s): Perrone, Lorenzo
[German Version] (c. 550, Damascus – Mar 11, 638, Jerusalem). After studying rhetoric, Sophronius traveled to Palestine in 578 and there became a monk. He and John Moschus undertook journeys to Egypt, Sinai, Syria, Cyprus, Rome, and North Africa. In 634 he became patriarch of Jerusalem. In his synodal letter to Sergius I of Constantinople, he stated his resistance to Monenergism as a possible resolution of the conflict with the Monophysites. Shortly before his death, he surrendered the holy city t…

Sopron

(187 words)

Author(s): Csepregi, Zoltán
[German Version] a city on the western edge of Hungary. Already affected by the Reformation in 1520, it had become predominantly Lutheran by the mid-16th century. Simon Gerengel was active as a preacher from 1565 to 1571. The Counter-Reformation put an end to the city’s unique symbiosis of Protestants and Catholics, but Protestant worship was able to continue even during the “decade of mourning” of Hungarian Protestantism (1671–1681). In the 17th century, many noble Austrian families took refuge …

Sorcery

(5 words)

[German Version] Magic

Sosthenes

(6 words)

[German Version] Paul’s Associates

Soter

(175 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[German Version] presbyter-bishop in Rome between c. 166 and 175, responsible for external relations: his responsibilities included Christians traveling to Rome, organizing aid missions, and probably correspondence with the Corinthians (Dionysius of Corinth in Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 23.10f.). In the second half of the 2nd century, the presbyters in charge of external relations became increasingly more important than the other presbyters in the city, so that Anicetus and Soter became the forerunners of monepiscopacy in Rome. The Roman…

Soteriology

(5 words)

[German Version] Redemption/Soteriology

Soto, Domingo de

(189 words)

Author(s): Augusto Rodrigues, Manuel
[German Version] (1495, Segóvia – Nov 15, 1560, Salamanca), a Dominican, was one of the most important masters of the “school of Salamanca” and among the most important representatives of late Scholasticism in Spain. After studying in Alcalá and Paris, where he heard the lectures of Francis of Vitoria, he became a professor at the University of Salamanca. He was a theological adviser to Emperor Charles V and represented the Dominican order at the Council of Trent. He defended B. de Las Casas in th…

Soto, Pedro de

(169 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard
[German Version] (c. 1495, Alcalá – Apr 20, 1563, Trent), Catholic controversialist. He joined the Dominicans in 1518 and supported the reform of his order. In 1542 he was appointed confessor to Charles V, an office from which he resigned in 1548 because he thought the imperial court was not attacking the Reformation vigorously enough. He played a role in founding the University of Dillingen, where he lectured in theology from 1549 to 1555. In 1555 he accepted a posting to England but remained onl…

Soubirous, Bernadette, Saint

(179 words)

Author(s): Ries, Markus
[German Version] (baptized Marie- Bernarde; religious name: Marie-Bernard; Jan 7, 1844, Lourdes – Apr 16, 1879, Nevers), joined the Sisters of Charity of Nevers as a novice in 1866 but did not take ¶ permanent vows until 1878. Bernadette was born to an impoverished family and suffered from asthma, cholera, and tuberculosis of the bone. Between Feb 11 and Jul 16 of 1858, she experienced 18 visions in a grotto beside the Gave near Lourdes, encountering a white “something” ( aquerò), then a luminous “small young lady” ( uo pétito demizéla), which she experienced as an apparition of the …

Soul

(8,968 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Seebass, Horst | Gödde, Susanne | Necker, Gerold | Rudolph, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. Phenomenology Western, Christian connotations of the concept of the soul, imposed on the religio-historical evidence by outside studies, must be generally excluded if the soul is understood as the principle of manifestations of life that are perceptible (or culturally considered to be perceptible), although they are rarely categorized under a common umbrella term. It is therefore reasonable to speak of a multiplicity of souls – for example four among the Ob-Ugrians (Hasenfratz, Einführung, 38–41), five among the Proto-Germanic peoples ( ib…

Soul Bird

(169 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl
[German Version] The fugitive soul is represented pictorially in many forms. Late, principally Roman sarcophagi depict Prometheus (Culture hero) forming a human being as a statuette, to which Athena adds a butterfly (Gk ψυχή/ psychḗ ). Frequently the soul is represented as a bird. The soul bird itself comes from ancient Egypt. In the earliest period, a bird resembling a stork, later a falcon, was considered the embodiment of divine powers called ba. Probably on account of a later shift in meaning, this term was already translated by Horapollon as psychḗ or “soul.” In the Old Kingdom…

Soul, Sleep of the

(275 words)

Author(s): Link, Christian
[German Version] According to Augustine of Hippo ( De haeresibus 83; MPL 42, 46), the notion of a sleep or death of the soul was already current among the “Arabs” in the time of Origen. This means that souls in the “intermediate sate” share the fate of their mortal bodies, rising to life again with them only on the Last Day. This idea, with various rationales, was later advocated by Pope John XXII, the Renaissance savant P. Pomponazzi, a few Anabaptist groups, A. v. Karlstadt, and Luther. The arguments f…

South Africa

(1,920 words)

Author(s): Hofmeyr, Johannes Wynand
[German Version] I. General South Africa, located at the southern tip of the African continent (Africa), extends across around 1,220,000 km2. In the new South Africa there are nine provinces: Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, North-West, Northern Cape, Eastern Cape, and Western Cape. South Africa’s population is estimated to be about 42 million (75.2% Black, 13.6% White, 8.6% Colored, and 2.6% Indian). Some 60% of Whites are of Afrikaner descent and most of the rest are of British descent. Th…

South African Missions

(362 words)

Author(s): Hexham, Irving
[German Version] Roman Catholic missionaries entered South Africa during the 16th century. The first serious Protestant missionaries were Moravian Brethren (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: II,4) who arrived in 1792. London Missionary Society missionaries followed in 1799. The British annexation of the Cape in 1806 led to conflicts between missionaries like J.T. van der Kemp and J. Philip. The British expelled Roman Catholic missionaries in 1806, only allowing them officially to return in 1837. The…

South America

(8 words)

[German Version] America, Latin America
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