Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Stigel, Johann

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (May 13, 1515, Fiemar, near Gotha – Feb 11, 1562, Jena). After attending school in Gotha, Stigel went to Wittenberg in 1531 to study law, philology, astronomy, medicine, and physics. He received his master’s degree on Apr 20, 1542; on Aug 27, 1543, he was appointed to a professorship in the faculty of arts. In 1548 he was called to Jena to build up the Hohe Schule in cooperation with V. Strigel and was offered a chair. His contacts indicate that he was associated with the circle o…


(381 words)

Author(s): Mödl, Ludwig
[German Version] The noun stigma comes from Greek στίγμα/ stígma, “tattoo, mark” – a brand or tattoo serving for adornment or as a token of ownership. As an apotropaic sign that someone belongs to a deity, it was rejected by the Old Testament (cf. Exod 13:16; Lev 19:28), but it entered the language as an eschatological token (cf. Isa 44:5; Ezek 9:4; Rev 13:16f.). In Gal 6:17, Paul uses the term for the visible marks left by his apostolic ministry (affliction and heartache: 2 Cor 6:4; whipped, stoned, shi…


(167 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Stigmatines (Stimmatini, Bertoniani, Congregatio Presbyterorum a Sacris Stigmatibus Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, CSS, CPS), founded in Verona (northern Italy) in 1816 by the popular missionary Gaspare Bertoni (1777–1853). Following the model of the previously suppressed Jesuits, the Stigmatines were intended as a missionary and educational ministry. As of 2009, there were 441 members, primarily in Italy, Brazil, the United States, and South Africa. The generalate is in Rome. II. Stigmatine Sisters (Stimmatine, Povere Figlie delle Sacre Stimmate di S…

Stiles, Ezra

(104 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1727, North Haven, CT – May 12, 1795, New Haven, CT), Congregationalist minister and college president, entering the ministry (1755) as pastor of the Second Congregational Church in Newport, Rhode Island. There he opposed the slave trade and engaged in a variety of scientific and literary ¶ pursuits. He became president of Yale in 1778. His life-long support of liberty led him to oppose schemes to send an Anglican bishop to the colonies. He prophesied a great future for the independent United States. Mark A. Noll Bibliography E.S. Morgan, The Gentle Puritan: A …

Stillingfleet, Edward

(94 words)

Author(s): Carter, Grayson
[German Version] (Apr 17, 1635, Cranborne, Dorset – Mar 27, 1699, Westminster), Latitudinarian theologian and antiquary. After becoming a fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge, in 1653, he published a series of works, including his Irenicum (1659), Origines Sacrae (1662), and Rational Account (1664), which established his reputation as a theologian and brought rapid preferment. He then became, in succession, archdeacon of London, dean of St. Paul’s, and bishop of Worcester. Grayson Carter Bibliography Works: The Works, ed. R. Bentley, 6 vols., 1709/1710 On Stillingfleet: W. …

Stipend, Ministerial

(601 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Hans-Peter
[German Version] Together with old-age pension and survivors’ benefits, the ministerial stipend is the heart of the adequate livelihood the churches owe their clergy, who can then devote themselves totally to their pastoral ministry as a full-time vocation and be financially independent to fulfill the duties assigned to them at ordination. This obligation to support the clergy follows from the decision made by the Early Church and consciously ratified by the churches of the Reformation that minist…

Stip, Gerhard Chryno Herman

(106 words)

Author(s): Wüstenberg, Ulrich
[German Version] (May 4, 1809, Norden, East Frisia – Jun 21, 1882, Potsdam), theologian and hymnologist. He studied in Göttingen and Bonn. After serving a parish in Osteel, near Norden, he became a private tutor to C.K.J. Bunsen in London. After 1842 he worked as an independent scholar in Potsdam in the field of hymn and hymnal reform. He put special emphasis on the principle of confessional legitimacy and strict preservation of hymns in their original form. Ulrich Wüstenberg Bibliography Works include: Beleuchtung der Gesangbuchsbesserung, 1842 Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851 (e…

Stirner, Max

(209 words)

Author(s): Eßbach, Wolfgang
[German Version] (actually Johann Casper Schmidt; Oct 25, 1806, Bayreuth – Jun 25, 1856, Berlin), a member of the group of intellectuals called Young Hegelians. Stirner radicalized the Young Hegelian reinterpretations of Hegel’s philosophy of spirit/mind – L. Feuerbach’s turn toward anthropology and B. Bauer’s toward “purecriticism” – by asserting the anonymous facticity of each individual existence as an infungible vital substance and a source of authentic intellectual creation. It was in opposit…

St. John, Feasts of

(236 words)

Author(s): Brüske, Gunda
[German Version] The Nativity of John the Baptist is celebrated by the Catholic, Anglican, Byzantine, and Coptic churches on Jun 24 (it is also in the Lutheran Calendar of Saints), the Beheading on Aug 29; the earliest evidence of both observances dates from the 5th century. The date of the nativity observance was determined in the West in relationship to Christmas and Luke 1:36; later the feast incorporated customs associated with the summer solstice. The Byzantine church later established a seco…

St. John’s Hospitallers

(11 words)

[German Version] Knights of Malta/St. John’s Hospitallers

St. John’s Wine

(190 words)

Author(s): Guth, Klaus
[German Version] The calendar of the saints (Hagiography) has several feasts of St. John. The medieval legend of the poisoned chalice probably inspired the introduction of sharing St. John’s wine at the end of the liturgy on Dec 27 (beginning in the 13th cent.). The blessing of St. John’s wine in the church inculturated the earlier custom of memorial drinking (from the Carolingian court) in the late German Middle Ages. “Memorial drinking” also took place on the feast days of other saints. Through …


(179 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] The town of Stobi (modern Gradsko) in what is today Macedonia came into existence no later than the 3rd century bce. It flourished during the Roman Empire, as the remains of various structures attest, serving as a junction on the important north-south road to Thessalonica and linking with the Via Egnatia toward the northeast. Stobi took on special importance in Late Antiquity, when it became the capital of the province of Macedonia Secunda. Its conquest by the Goths under Theodoric the Great in 479 b…

Stock, August

(178 words)

Author(s): Zuckschwerdt, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 13, 1863, Zadelow, Pomerania [now Sadłowo, Poland] – Nov 7, 1924, Berlin-Lichterfelde), Protestant clergyman. He served in rural ministry until 1896, when he was appointed pastor of the church of St. Catherine in Brunswick. There, working in the spirit of E. Sulze, he endeavored to form a “living congregation,” committed not only to worship and the sacrament but also to activity ministry, including social service. The gathering place was now the “community hall,” whose constr…

Stöckel, Leonhard

(147 words)

Author(s): Gottas, Friedrich
[German Version] (1510, Bartfeld, Upper Hungary [now Bardejov, Slovakia] – Jun 7, 1560, Bartfeld), studied theology in Wittenberg with Luther and Melanchthon. As rector of the Bartfeld Gymnasium, he implemented the cultural and educational program of the Humanists and Reformers and introduced academic drama. He adapted the Augsburg Confession for five towns in Upper Hungary: Bartfeld, Kaschau, Eperies, Leutschau, and Zeben (now Bardejov, Košice, Prešov, Levoča, and Sabinov, Slovakia). Today his authorship of the Confessio Pentapolita (1549) ascribed to him is no longer…

Stöcker, Helene Hulda Caroline Emilie

(205 words)

Author(s): Hildmann, Philipp W.
[German Version] (Nov 13, 1869, Elberfeld – Feb 23, 1943, New York), campaigner for women’s rights and journalist. With the Bund für Mutterschutz und Sexualreform that she founded in 1905, she took up the cause of improving the legal and social position of single mothers and their children. In the periodicals Mutterschutz (1905–1907) and Die Neue Generation (1908–1933) that she edited, she ¶ advocated a “new ethics” of relations between the sexes based on mutual love and equal rights and campaigned for universal women’s suffrage, sexual enlightenment, and decriminalized abortion. A r…


(7 words)

[German Version] Agriculture and Stock-Farming

Stockmayer, Otto

(178 words)

Author(s): Thiede, Werner
[German Version] (Oct 21, 1838, Aalen, Württemberg – Apr 11, 1917, Hauptwil, Switzerland). Stockmayer was converted while working as a private tutor in Switzerland. After studying theology, he served Free churches in Tavannes, Geneva, and L’Auberson. In 1874 he took part in the Oxford Meeting to Promote Scriptural Holiness and became a leading theologian and itinerant preacher for the Holiness movement (I). After 1878 he served as head of a convalescent home he founded in Hauptwil, in which pastor…

Stoddard, Solomon

(85 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1643, Boston, MA – Feb 11, 1729, Northampton, MA), Congregationalist minister, in 1672 called as the second pastor of Northampton Congregational Church. Against Boston’s ministers he favored opening the Lord’s Supper to all respectable persons as a “converting ordinance.” Two years before his death he presided over the installation of his grandson, J. Edwards, as his successor in the Northampton pulpit. Mark A. Noll Bibliography P.J. Tracy, American National Biography, ed. J.A. Garraty et al., vol. XX, 1999, 822f.

Stoecker, Adolf

(404 words)

Author(s): Greschat, Martin
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1835, Halberstadt – Feb 7, 1909, Bolzano-Gries), Protestant clergyman and politician. He served as pastor in Seggerde (1863) and Hamersleben (1866), then as divisional chaplain in Metz (1871), before coming to Berlin in 1874 as fourth court chaplain and cathedral preacher. He was a gifted speaker and commentator, influenced by the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements). His guiding vision, both ecclesiastically and politically, was that of a Protestant church firmly…


(452 words)

Author(s): Bees, Robert
[German Version] As an “intellectual movement” (Pohlenz), from the outset Stoicism (Stoics) was influential beyond the members of the school itself. It attracted personalities who did not exactly consider themselves Stoic philosophers but did reflect certain specific Stoic teachings in their work. Examples include the poet Aratus, who begins his Phainomena with an invocation to Zeus that recalls the hymn of Cleanthes to Zeus, and Strabo, who opens his geography with a defense of Homer in the spirit of the Stoics. The theory behind Hellenistic u…
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