Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

Subscriptions: see brill.com

Sohm, Rudolph

(568 words)

Author(s): Pawlowski, Hans-Martin
[German Version] (Oct 29, 1841, Rostock – May 16, 1917, Leipzig), studied law in Rostock, Heidelberg, and Berlin; after his habilitation in Göttingen in 1866, he was appointed to professorships at Freiburg (1870), Straßburg (now Strasbourg; 1872), and Leipzig (1887). ¶ He had intended initially to devote himself primarily to legal history, but in Straßburg he found himself compelled to take a position on the “struggle between state and church just [triggered] . . . in Germany . . . by the Vatican Council” (Pawlowksi, 307f.) – later cal…

Söhngen, Gottlieb

(179 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter
[German Version] (May 21, 1892, Cologne – Nov 14, 1971, Munich), Catholic fundamental theologian and philosopher of religion. He headed the Albertus Magnus Academy in Cologne from 1924 to 1930. In 1937 he was appointed professor at Braunsberg. From 1947 to 1958 he held the chair of fundamental theology and philosophical propaedeutics at the University of Munich. Within the context of Neoscholasticism, he sought to break through a purely restorative Thomism and open theology to the sweep of salvati…

Söhngen, Oskar

(256 words)

Author(s): Bunners, Christian
[German Version] (Dec 5, 1900, Wuppertal-Barmen – Aug 28, 1983, Berlin). A student of R. Otto’s, he ¶ received his Dr.phil. in 1922 and his Lic.theol. in 1924. In 1926 he was appointed to a pastorate in Cologne and in 1932 became a consultant to the High Consistory in Berlin. In 1936 he became chief consistorial councilor. From 1951 to 1969 he served as spiritual vice-president in the chancery of the Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union in Berlin, where he also taught at the Academy of Music as a lecture…

Sohn, Georg

(195 words)

Author(s): Mahlmann, Theodor
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1551, Rosbach vor der Höhe, Wetterau – Apr 23, 1589, Heidelberg), began his studies in Marburg in 1566 and moved to Wittenberg in 1569; a conversion experience in July of 1570 led him to change from law to theology, receiving his M.A. on Sep 6, 1571. In 1572 be was back in Marburg, where he was appointed professor of theology in 1574, receiving his Dr.theol. on Jan 9, 1578. In 1584 he went to Heidelberg. In Marburg he developed the Melanchthonianism of his Wittenberg teac…

Sōka Gakkai

(280 words)

Author(s): Hase, Thomas
[German Version] (“Value-Creating Society”), a lay Buddhist organization (Buddhism: I, 2.e) established in Japan in the 20th century and today one of the largest of the Japanese new religious movements (I; Japan: VI, 2). The predecessor organization of the Sōka Gakkai was founded in 1930 by Tsunesaburō Makiguchi (1871–1944) and Josei Toda (1900–1958), both adherents of Nichiren Buddhism, which traces its roots back to Nichiren. Borrowing from Nichiren, Makiguchi created a theory of values and educ…

Sokolow, Nahum

(179 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Barbara
[German Version] ( Jan 16, 1861, Wyszogród, Poland – May 17, 1936, London), Hebrew writer, journalist, and leading Zionist politician. His tireless journalistic activity in all the major Jewish media of his time served as his platform, so that he counts as one of the founding fathers of Hebrew journalism. He held high offices in Zionism early on: he was invited to become general secretary in 1906, and in 1911 he was elected to the Zionist Executive; from 1920 to 1931 he was its chairman. From 1931…

Solano, Francisco

(172 words)

Author(s): Toepsch, Alexandra
[German Version] (Mar 10, 1549, Mantilla, Andalusia – Jul 14, 1610, Lima, Peru), joined the Franciscan order in 1569 and worked initially as a domestic missionary. In 1589 he was sent to Peru aboard a ship carrying African slaves; from Peru he was sent to Santiago del Estero in what is now Argentina. Using that as a base, he preached the gospel for 15 years among the Tonokoté, counseled their chiefs, and healed the sick. He returned to the Franciscan house in Lima as guardian. Today many places in…

Soler, Mariano

(223 words)

Author(s): Toepsch, Alexandra
[German Version] (Mar 25, 1846, San Carlos, Uruguay – Sep 26, 1908, Gibraltar), studied theology from 1868 to 1874 at the Gregorianum in Rome, earning a Dr.theol. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1872. In 1875 he returned to Uruguay, where he founded the Catholic Club of Montevideo, a lyceum for university studies – the first free university in Uruguay and the Society of Science and the Arts. In 1879 he became a parish priest in Montevideo. From 1884 to 1890, he served as vicar general of the …

Solesmes Abbey

(238 words)

Author(s): Saulnier, Daniel
[German Version] The Benedictine Abbey of Solesmes, in western France 50 km from Le Mans, was founded c. 1010 and survived until the French Revolution (1792). In 1833 P.L.P. Guéranger acquired the abbey and established it as a retreat house for prayer and study, marking the beginning of the revival of Benedictine monasticism in France. The abbey gained increasing fame through the role of Dom Guéranger in the life of the church in the 19th century. His Institutions liturgiques (1840–1851) and L’année liturgique (1841–1866) contributed substantially to the renewal of liturgical…

Solidarity

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Figl, Johann | Zürcher, Markus Daniel | Baumgartner, Alois
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term solidarity (from neo-Lat. solidaritas, derived from solidus, “solid, firm”; Fr. solidarité) denotes the cohesiveness of a “group,” ultimately society, expressed in a generally ethical sense of cohesion. In the history of the term, originally borrowed from legal usage (Wildt, Baumgartner), É. Durkheim (1893) distinguishes the “organic solidarity” of a differentiated modern society from the “mechanical solidarity” of so-called primitive societies, in which the individ…

Solin

(155 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram
[German Version] in Croatia near Split, was an Illyrian city that became a Roman colony under Julius Caesar. It flourished under the Empire, since it had an excellent harbor and good communications with the interior, and became the capital of the province of Dalmatia. Christianity spread very early and intensively in Salona. The city and its surroundings and the nearby island of Brattia (Brac) contain the ruins of a large number of churches and buildings over the tombs of martyrs, dating from the…

Sölle, Dorothee

(376 words)

Author(s): Kuhlmann, Helga
[German Version] (Sep 30, 1929, Cologne – Apr 27, 2003, Göppingen). After studying classical and Germanic philology, philosophy, and Protestant theology, she taught in a Gymnasium and was an adviser in higher education. She received her habilitation in Cologne in 1971; from 1975 to 1987 she was professor of systematic theology at Union Theological Seminary in New York; in 1994 she received an honorary professorship from Hamburg. From the late 1960s on, she was active in organizing political nighttime prayers in Cologne, in church conferences, in the peace movem…

Solmization

(166 words)

Author(s): Boisits, Barbara
[German Version] is a method of learning the individual musical pitches of a piece of vocal music by means of specific solmization syllables; it goes back to Guido of Arezzo, who derived it from the hymn assigned to the feast of John the Baptist ( Ut queant laxis Resonare fibris/ Mira gestorum Famuli tuorum,/ Solve poluti Labii reatum,/Sancte Johannes). The initial pitches of each half-line of the hymn melody (not specifically liturgical in the MA) produce a rising six-tone scale or hexachord (C=ut, D=re, E=mi, F=fa, G=sol, A=la). ¶ Scales from F to D ( hexachordum molle) and from G to E ( hexach…

Solomon

(1,558 words)

Author(s): Dietrich, Walter | Lattke, Michael
[German Version] I. Bible 1. Literary analysis. The primary source for Solomon (Heb. ְׁשׁלמה/ šĕlōmōh) is 1 Kgs 1–12. It has a chiastic structure centered on the account of the design, construction, and dedication of the Jerusalem temple (II, 4; 1 Kgs 5–8); it is flanked by descriptions of Solomon’s illustrious wisdom and reign (1 Kgs 3f. and 9f.), with narratives of his rise and decline constituting the outward framework (1 Kgs 1f. and 11f.). This overall structure is a product of Deuteronomistic historiogra…

Solomonic Writings

(3,079 words)

Author(s): Lattke, Michael
[German Version] I. Wisdom of Solomon 1. Canonicity and versions. The Wisdom of Solomon ( Sapientia Salomonis) is classified as a deuterocanonical or apocryphal book (Apocrypha). Both terms reflect its inclusion in the Septuagint, but the Muratorian Canon (Muratorian Fragment) even recognizes the book of Wisdom written in Greek by “friends of Solomon” as part of the New Testament. In general, though, it is classed among the antilegomena of the Old Testament. In the LXX, which itself influenced the (initially an…

Solovetsky Monastery

(312 words)

Author(s): Troitski, Aleksandr N.
[German Version] The Solovetsky Monastery (Spaso Preobraženskii Soloveckii monastyr’), with the ¶ Redeemer Cathedral of the Transfiguration, is the most famous monastery of northern Russia (Russian monasteries); it was founded on the Solovetsky Islands in 1436 by St. German (died 1479/1484), who lived there from 1429 to 1435 together with St. Savvattii (died Sep 27, 1435) and St. Zossima. By 1450 the monastery had already been given the entire archipelago; later it also received extensive mainland propertie…

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeyevich

(894 words)

Author(s): George, Martin
[German Version] ( Jan 16/28, 1853, Moscow – Jul 31/Aug 13, 1900, Uzkoe, near Moscow), mystic, poet, pamphleteer, and theologian; still the most significant religious philosopher produced by Russia. Growing up in a devout and cultured family, Solovyov began to engage in ascetic exercises while still a child. He studied the natural sciences in Moscow from 1869 to 1872. His personal involvement with the philosophy of Plato, B. Spinoza, F.W.J. Schelling, A. Schopenhauer, and E. v. Hartmann brought hi…

Solstice

(314 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen
[German Version] In the Northern Hemisphere, the summer solstice marks the reversal of the sun’s apparent movement and hence the beginning of summer (with Jun 21/22 as the longest days); the winter solstice on Dec 21/22 with the shortest days similarly marks the beginning of winter. These turning points determine the chronology of the recurrent seasons of the year in the form of a calendar. The calendar in turn determines major feast days and times of ritual observance (Feasts and festivals). Preh…

Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich

(267 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Christine
[German Version] (Dec 11, 1918, Kislovodsk – Aug 3, 2008, Moscow) studied, among other things, mathematics and literature in Rostov na Donu. In 1945 he was sentenced to eight years in a labor camp. He was rehabilitated in 1957. In 1969 he was expelled from the Soviet writers’ union and the following year was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1974 he was deported from the Soviet Union and emigrated in 1976 to the United States, returning to Russia in 1994. His short stories include: A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962) – the diary of a day in the prison camp from a prison…

Somalia

(806 words)

Author(s): Spindler, Marc
[German Version] The Republic of Somalia was created on Jul 1, 1960, from a merger of British Somaliland Protectorate and Italian Somalia. It covers an area of 637, 657 km2, mostly flat desert with mountains in the north. Somalia is known for its recurring droughts, sporadic floods, and an overwhelmingly torrid climate. According to the last reliable count of 1975 Somalia is approaching a population of 8 million, including a large number of nomads. Permanent warfare has displaced large numbers of people in the country and abroad. Consequently, a…
▲   Back to top   ▲