Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Somaschi

(178 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ordo Clericorum Regularium a Somasc[h]a, CRS), an order of regular clergy founded in Somasca, Lombardy, in 1534 by the Venetian noble Gerolamo Miani (St. Emiliani, c. 1486–1537) in the spirit of Catholic reform as a Compagnia dei Servi deipoveri (“Society of servants of the poor”). It was to have a pastoral, charitable, and educational apostolate, focused especially on education of orphans. After a difficult beginning, the order consolidated but almost died out c. 1800. Later it experienced a slow revival, which las…

Sombart, Werner

(333 words)

Author(s): Aldenhoff-Hübinger, Rita
[German Version] ( Jan 19, 1863, Ermsleben ­– May 28, 1941, Berlin). After studying political science, Sombart received his doctorate from Berlin, where he studied with G. Schmoller, the leader of the “younger” historical school of economics. After a brief period of practical work, he joined the University of Breslau (Wrocław) as an associate professor in 1890; in 1906 he moved to the Berlin School of Commerce. Finally in 1917 he succeeded A.H.G. Wagner as a full professor at the Frederick William University in Berlin. His Sozialismus und soziale Bewegung im 19. Jahrhundert (1896; ET: So…

Soner, Ernst

(160 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (or Sohner; Dec 1572, Nuremberg – Sep 28, 1612, Altdorf, near Nuremberg), appointed district physician in Nuremberg in 1603 and professor of medicine at the Reichsstädische Akademie in Altdorf in 1605. In 1607/1608 he served as its rector. During an educational tour in 1598, he had been converted by Andreas Wojdowski and Christoph Ostorodt in Leiden to the theological views of their teacher F. Socinus; on his return to Altdorf, he promoted their ideas among his close friends. He w…

Song of Songs, The

(1,290 words)

Author(s): Müller, Hans-Peter | Otto, Eckart
[German Version] I. Place and Date While individual poems like Song 1:9–11 may go back to the preexilic period, collections, redaction(s), and linguistic revision(s) date from just before and especially during the 3rd century bce. The text contains several loanwords: pardēs (4:13: “orchard,” from Old Iranian), ¶ ʾ appiryôn (3:9: “palanquin,” most likely from Gk), and qinnāmôn (4:14: “cinnamon,” ultimately from Malay kayu manis, “sweet wood”), along with several words borrowed from Old Indic. Beside numerous lexical and grammatical Aramaisms, it exhibits fea…

Song Sermon

(289 words)

Author(s): Henkys, Jürgen
[German Version] A song sermon (or hymn sermon) is a liturgical address based on a hymn (Church song) as an embodiment and anchor of faith and thus meets the obligation of public preaching to be biblical, ecclesiastical, and contemporary. The hymn sermon’s roots go back to the 16th century ( J. & C. Spangenberg). It flourished well into the 18th century, when it also provided fertile soil for the growth of hymnology, but it ¶ disappeared with the arrival of rationalism, which was so at odds with the stock of traditional hymns. It was the studies of Rößler and work don…

Songs Rabbah

(8 words)

[German Version] Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah

Sonntag, Karl Gottlob

(169 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1765, Radeberg – Jul 17, 1827, Riga), Protestant theologian inclined toward moderate rationalism (III); he left a deep impression on the ecclesiastical and spiritual life of Livonia. After studying at Leipzig from 1784 to 1788, he became rector of the cathedral school in Riga. He was appointed senior pastor in 1791, assessor of the Livonian supreme consistory in 1799, and general superintendent in 1803. He deserves credit for reshaping the liturgy, creating a hymnal, prom…

Son of God

(2,958 words)

Author(s): Zeller, Dieter | Karrer, Martin | Nüssel, Friederike
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Son of God as a title applied to an individual must be distinguished from children of God (Child of God) applied to several individuals or a group (e.g. the Israelites). The New Testament title alludes to Davidic messiahship, based on 2 Sam 7:14a (Messiah: II, 2), where God promises Solomon fatherly oversight and appoints him as his representative on earth. Ps 2:7 (cf. Pss 89:27f.*; 110:1–3) uses that text to assert the worldwide dominion of the king of Israel. The “begetting” a…

Son of Man in the New Testament

(1,001 words)

Author(s): Müller, Mogens
[German Version] The expression Son of Man (Gk ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνϑρώπου/ ho hyiós toú anthrṓ pou) is the most frequent self-designation of Jesus in the Gospels, appearing in 82 passages – 69 in the Synoptics (14 in Mark, 30 in Matthew, 25 in Luke), 13 in John. Not counting parallels, there are 38 Synoptic Son-of-Man logia. In addition there are 24 Synoptic logia whose parallels lack the expression, frequently substituting I. Except for John 12:34 (and Luke 24:7), Son of Man appears in the Gospels only on the lips of Jesus; outside the Gospels, it appears only in Acts 7:56 (cf. L…

Sonthom, Emanuel

(184 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (anagram of E. Thomson; dates unknown), English merchant in Danzig (Gdansk) and Stade (presence documented from 1599 to 1612). Under the title Güldenes Kleinot der Kinder Gottes (Frankfurt am Main, 1612), he translated the First Booke of the Christian Exercise (1582) of the English ¶ Jesuit Robert Persons (or Parsons), which he knew in a Protestant version by Edmund Bunny ( A Booke of Christian Exercise, 1584). After the edition published in Lüneburg in 1632, which included a third section probably written by J. Gesenius, “Sonthom” (so called f…

Soothsayer

(5 words)

[German Version] Divination/Manticism

Sophia of Jesus Christ (NHC III, 4; BG 8502/3; SJC)

(88 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Judith
[German Version] In the Sophia, the risen Christ instructs his disciples concerning the supreme God and his emanations. The work probably originated in the 2nd century as a revision of Eugnostos (NHC III, 3; V, 1; Nag Hammadi), combining Christian and Gnostic ideas. Judith Hartenstein Bibliography Ed.: D. Parrott, ed., Nag Hammadi Codices V,2–5 and V,1, NHS 27, 1991 J. Hartenstein, “Eugnostos und die Weisheit Jesu Christi,” in: Nag Hammadi Deutsch, vol. I, GCS.NF 8, 2001, 323–379 (bibl.).

Sophiology

(579 words)

Author(s): Ruppert, Hans-Jürgen
[German Version] In the West, the liturgical and doxological veneration of Sophia as the personified wisdom of God (Prov 8; Wis 8; Sir 24), still found in Alcuin’s church poetry, was gradually relegated to a mystical and esoteric fringe ( J. Böhme, New Age); in Russian Orthodox piety, however, Sophia remained a living reality in the church – in liturgical lections and hymns, and above all in church dedications and iconography. The earliest Russian churches were dedicated to St. Sophia – for exampl…

Sophistic School

(1,021 words)

Author(s): Rese, Friederike
[German Version] a school of Greek philosophy (I) in the 5th and 4th centuries bce. After the pre-Socratics, who were more interested in natural philosophy, and prior to Socrates, the Sophists turned their attention to political life. They thought of themselves as teachers who would be paid to teach young Greek men faculties they could employ to gain political influence, especially the faculty of “speaking well” (εὖ λέγειν/ eú légein) but also the faculty of political virtue (Virtues; ¶ ἀρετή/ aretḗ ). This classic era of Sophistics was followed by a second phase during th…

Sophocles

(269 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard
[German Version] (497/496, Athens – 406 bce), Athenian tragedian, who had his debut in 470. Seven of his plays (out of probably 113) have survived: Ajax and the Trachinian Women, written in the 450s, Antigone (c. 440), Oedipus the King (436–433), Electra (a late work), Philoctetes (409), and Oedipus at Colonus (performed posthumously in 401). His tragedies present individuals in extreme situations, whose behavior can overstep the limits of hubris. The protagonists are contrasted with figures representing the average person (Chrysothemis, Ismene…

Sophronius

(226 words)

Author(s): Perrone, Lorenzo
[German Version] (c. 550, Damascus – Mar 11, 638, Jerusalem). After studying rhetoric, Sophronius traveled to Palestine in 578 and there became a monk. He and John Moschus undertook journeys to Egypt, Sinai, Syria, Cyprus, Rome, and North Africa. In 634 he became patriarch of Jerusalem. In his synodal letter to Sergius I of Constantinople, he stated his resistance to Monenergism as a possible resolution of the conflict with the Monophysites. Shortly before his death, he surrendered the holy city t…

Sopron

(187 words)

Author(s): Csepregi, Zoltán
[German Version] a city on the western edge of Hungary. Already affected by the Reformation in 1520, it had become predominantly Lutheran by the mid-16th century. Simon Gerengel was active as a preacher from 1565 to 1571. The Counter-Reformation put an end to the city’s unique symbiosis of Protestants and Catholics, but Protestant worship was able to continue even during the “decade of mourning” of Hungarian Protestantism (1671–1681). In the 17th century, many noble Austrian families took refuge …

Sorcery

(5 words)

[German Version] Magic

Sosthenes

(6 words)

[German Version] Paul’s Associates

Soter

(175 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[German Version] presbyter-bishop in Rome between c. 166 and 175, responsible for external relations: his responsibilities included Christians traveling to Rome, organizing aid missions, and probably correspondence with the Corinthians (Dionysius of Corinth in Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 23.10f.). In the second half of the 2nd century, the presbyters in charge of external relations became increasingly more important than the other presbyters in the city, so that Anicetus and Soter became the forerunners of monepiscopacy in Rome. The Roman…
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