Religion Past and Present

Get access Subject: Religious Studies
Edited by: Hans Dieter Betz, Don S. Browning†, Bernd Janowski and Eberhard Jüngel

Religion Past and Present (RPP) Online is the online version of the updated English translation of the 4th edition of the definitive encyclopedia of religion worldwide: the peerless Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG). This great resource, now at last available in English and Online, Religion Past and Present Online continues the tradition of deep knowledge and authority relied upon by generations of scholars in religious, theological, and biblical studies. Including the latest developments in research, Religion Past and Present Online encompasses a vast range of subjects connected with religion.

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Systems Theory

(3,570 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef | Hesse, Heidrun | Herms, Eilert | Dinkel, Christoph | Evers, Dirk
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Systems theory considers religion one social system alongside others, like the economy, law (Law and Jurisprudence), politics, and education and analyzes it in terms of the function it discharges. The evolutionary approach of systems theory assumes that in primordial local communities the function of religion was nonspecific and was fulfilled in combination with other functions – military, economic, and familial. The transition to modern societies witnessed a dif…

Szegedi (Stephan Kis)

(107 words)

Author(s): Hőrcsik, Richard
[German Version] (1505, Szeged – 1572, Ráckeve), Reformed bishop and Hungarian theologian of European renown. A student of Luther and Melanchthon, he received his doctorate from Wittenberg. After returning to Hungary, he served as rector and pastor in several churches; he spent three years in Turkish captivity. In 1554 he was elected bishop of the Baranya district. Theologically he was close to H. Bullinger, but his “liberal” attitude made it easy for him to harmonize the views of the European Reformers, as his famous dogmatic treatise Theologiae sincereae loci communes (1584) shows. R…

Szenczi Molnár, Albert

(308 words)

Author(s): Hőrcsik, Richard
[German Version] (Aug 30/Sep 1, 1574, Szenc – Jan 17, 1634, Kolozsvár), Hungarian Reformed pastor, philologist, and translator of the Psalms and the Bible. After studying in Hungary, in 1590 he embarked on a study tour that took him to Wittenberg, Heidelberg, and Straßburg (Strasbourg). In 1599 he began work as a proofreader in Frankfurt; then he moved to Altdorf, where he wrote his most important work, a Latin-Hungarian dictionary, which remained in use until the mid-19th century, and published h…

Szikszai, György

(103 words)

Author(s): Hőrcsik, Richard
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1738, Békés – Jun 30, 1803, Debrecen), Hungarian Reformed churchman, church publicist, and independent theologian. After studies in Hungary (Békés, Hódmezővársárhely, Debrecen), he studied at the universities of Basel and Utrecht beginning in 1763. After returning to Hungary, he served as a pastor in Békés, Makó, and after 1786 in Debrecen. He was an active participant in the Synod of Buda in 1791 (Hungary). His best-known work is Kresztyéni tanítások és imádságok (1786), a book of prayers and meditations still in use today after 90 printings. Richard Hőrcsi…

Sztárai, Mihály

(162 words)

Author(s): Hőrcsik, Richard
[German Version] (Michael; early 16th cent., Drávasztára – 1575, Pápa?), Hungarian Reformer. As a Franciscan friar, he earned an M.A. at Padua. After joining the Lutheran Reformation, in 1531 he was one of the founders of the Reformed College in Śarospatak. Later he returned to his home in southern Hungary, now occupied by the Turks. After 1544 he lived in Laskó; in 1554 he was elected bishop of the church district of Baranya, where he established 120 Protestant congregations. Later he moved to Gyula; in 1564 in he ¶ returned to Sárospatak as a pastor. In 1567 he moved to Pápa, wher…
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