Sacramentum Mundi Online

Get access Subject: Religious Studies

Edited by: Karl Rahner with Cornelius Ernst and Kevin Smyth.
Advisor for the online edition: Karen Kilby, Durham University

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Sacramentum Mundi Online is the online edition of the famous six volume English reference work in Catholic Theology, edited (in 1968-1970) by Karl Rahner, one of the main Catholic theologians of the 20th century. Sacramentum Mundi: An Encyclopedia of Theology was originally published by Herder Verlag, and is now available online at Brill.

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(2,287 words)

Author(s): Viktor Соnʐemius
1. General. Quietism is a mystical religious attitude found in all the higher religions which consists in seeking union with the divinity by passive tranquillity and renunciation of personal initiative. The term appeared in France about 1687 in connection with the trial of Miguel de Molinos, and is used in a narrower sense to denote a movement of Catholic spirituality in the 17th century, to which ecclesiastical condemnation has given an unfavourable and dubious connotation. Furthermore, because …


(8,073 words)

Author(s): Karlheinɀ Müller
A. The Story of the Finds 1947 is normally given as the year in which the first manuscripts were brought to light by Bedouin of the half-nomad tribe of the Taámireh on the north-west shore of the Dead Sea. This date rests on two facts. The shepherd Muhammad ad-Dib himself gave the year 1947 as the date of his accidental discovery. And it was in 1947 that seven manuscripts appeared in Bethlehem for the first time. Four of these scrolls came into the possession of the Syrian Orthodox Metropolitan Mar Jeshue Samuel, who showed them in February 1948 to the American School of Oriental Research (ASOR), where J. C. Trever and W. H. Brownlee at once recognized their value. After the expert W. F. Albright had signified his agreement, the director of the ASOR, M. Burrows, gave a first account of them to the press. Meanwhile E. L. Sukenik had. independently acquired in December 1947 the other three manuscripts, for the Hebrew University at Jerusalem. He pronounced upon the value of the manuscripts even before the Syrian Metropolitan had made contact with the ASOR, but could not prevent the other four manuscripts being brought for a time to the U. S. A. in 1948. Y. Yadin only succeeded in acquiring the scrolls for the Hebrew University in 1954. On 13 February 1955 the Israeli government announced that it was in possession of all the manuscripts of the first find. Up to February 1956, the Jordan Department of Antiquities (G. L. Harding) with the support of the École Archéologique Française de Jérusalem (R. de Vaux) brought to safety further remains of some 600 manuscripts, by a series of purchases from the Bedouin and by five campaigns of excavations in which eleven caves all told produced finds. After the “Six Days’ War” (5 to 10 June 1967) all the manuscripts of the Jordanian government’s museum came into the possessi…