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1The Sammāniyya tradition is generally described as an offshoot of the revived Khalwatiyya affiliation associated with Muṣṭafā b. Kamāl al-Dīn al-Bakrī (d. 1749). Although the reality of a Khalwatī revival has been questioned (v. de Jong (1987), 117-32), a Sammāniyya ṭarīqa did develop into an independent order. The order subsequently spread to Egypt, the Sudan, Nigeria and south-east Asia.

In this chapter, apart from those of Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Sammān, only writings from the Sammāniyya order in the Sudan are listed. Much of the chapter is based on Ḥasan al-Fātiḥ Qarīb Allāh (q.…

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“Introduction”, in: Arabic Literature of Africa Online, General Editor John O. Hunwick, R.S. O’Fahey. Consulted online on 27 September 2023 <>
First published online: 2016

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