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On Islamic learning in Wadai, see Issa H. Khayar, Le refus de I’école. Contribution à l’étude de l’éducation chez les musulmans du Ouaddaï (Tchad), Paris, 1976, esp. ch. 3, “L’enseignement pré-coloniale”; id., Tchad. Regards sur les élites ouaddaïennes, Paris, 1984; David E. Gardinier, “Muḥammad Awuda Oulech at Abeche: a reformist Islamic challenge to French and traditionalist interests in Ouddai, Chad, 1947-1956”, ISSS, iii (1989), 159-85. See also ALA I, 50.

Muḥammad Nūr b. al-Dalīl b. ʿImrān b. Idrīs Alūmah al-Barnāwī

His son Muḥammad B-R-M-H b. Muḥammad Nūr b. al-Dalīl al…

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“Wadai”, in: Arabic Literature of Africa Online, General Editor John O. Hunwick, R.S. O’Fahey. Consulted online on 26 September 2023 <>
First published online: 2016

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