Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

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John, Epistles of
(6,501 words)

Since antiquity, three letters (Epistle) attributed to John have belonged to the canon of the New Testament. Among these letters, the first one is better attested than the second and the third. First witnesses of the First Letter of John are Papias (in Eus. Hist. eccl. 3.39.17, see Aland, 2001, 547), where “the earlier letter” should be 1 John, and Polycarp in his (Second) Letter to the Philippians (7:1), where 1 John 4:2 (see 2 John 7) is…

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Beutler, Johannes, “John, Epistles of”, in: Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online, General Editor David G. Hunter, Paul J.J. van Geest, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte. Consulted online on 08 August 2022 <>
First published online: 2018

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