Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

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The Hebrew word for the Jewish law is תּוֹרָה/torah. The Septuagint mostly translates this expression with νόμος/nomos: 193 times out of 223 references; the closest competitor is νόμιμος/nomimos, which translates תּוֹרָה six times (Abegg, 2001, 205). Already in the Old Testament the meaning of torah/nomos shows a broad variety of possibilities (García Lopez, 1995, 631). Thus, in early Judaism one should not limit the meaning of “Torah” to the Pentateuch (see the critique of Müller, 1996,…

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Tiwald, Markus, “Law/Decalogue/Torah”, in: Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online, General Editor David G. Hunter, Paul J.J. van Geest, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte. Consulted online on 11 December 2023 <>
First published online: 2018

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