Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

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(3,882 words)

Pneumatomachi, or “Pneumatomachians” (also “Macedonians”), is the name ancient and modern theologians give to those who opposed the doctrine of the divinity of the Holy Spirit, especially in the period surrounding the Council of Constantinople (381 CE). The controversy includes debate about the exegesis of ke…

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Humphries, Thomas, “Pneumatomachi”, in: Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online, General Editor David G. Hunter, Paul J.J. van Geest, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte. Consulted online on 03 June 2023 <>
First published online: 2018

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