Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online

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(3,879 words)

Pneumatomachi, or “Pneumatomachians” (also “Macedonians”), is the name ancient and modern theologians give to those who opposed the doctrine of the divinity of the Holy Spirit, especially in the period surrounding the Council of Constantinople (381 CE). The controversy includes debate about the exegesi…

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Humphries, Thomas, “Pneumatomachi”, in: Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online, General Editor David G. Hunter, Paul J.J. van Geest, Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte. Consulted online on 21 April 2021 <>
First published online: 2018

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