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Swadhyaya Movement and Pandurang Shastri Athavale
(3,395 words)

Swadhyaya is one of the least well-known  religious movements that arose in the mid-20th century in the western states of India. Although this movement now has global presence in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Sweden, Portugal, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, and in many other African, Caribbean, and Middle Eastern/Gulf countries, it has not received the attention of scholars of Hinduism except in a few introductory articles (Sriva…

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Jain, Pankaj, “Swadhyaya Movement and Pandurang Shastri Athavale”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism Online, Editor-in-Chief Associate Editors Knut A. Jacobsen, Helene Basu, Angelika Malinar, Vasudha Narayanan. Consulted online on 29 January 2022 <>
First published online: 2018

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