Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism Online

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Time and Destiny
(5,153 words)

Notions of time (kāla) and destiny (daiva, bhāgya, vidhi) are important factors in the interpretation of favorable and unfavorable circumstances for ritual, social, political, or individual activities. Calculation of time units and assessment of the qualities of time have been important for ritual performances since vedic times. In later texts time emerges as a cosmic entity that can be detect…

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Malinar, Angelika, “Time and Destiny”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism Online, Editor-in-Chief Associate Editors Knut A. Jacobsen, Helene Basu, Angelika Malinar, Vasudha Narayanan. Consulted online on 29 March 2023 <>
First published online: 2018

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