Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism Online

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Town and City
(6,436 words)

Hindu traditions have flourished in the tens of thousands of villages in India, and Hinduism has often been identified as a religion of the village; South Asia, however, has had a number of urban civilizations and several periods of urbanization and de-urbanization since the emergence of the first cities in the Indus civilization in the 3rd millennium BCE. Urbanization, d…

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Axel Jacobsen, Knut, “Town and City”, in: Brill’s Encyclopedia of Hinduism Online, Editor-in-Chief Associate Editors Knut A. Jacobsen, Helene Basu, Angelika Malinar, Vasudha Narayanan. Consulted online on 27 January 2022 <>
First published online: 2018

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