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Formative Period of Jainism (c. 500 BCE – 200 CE)
(7,679 words)

There is no unanimity on the question of when Jainism came into existence. The Jains themselves maintain that it was originally taught by Tīrthaṅkaras (ford makers). The most recent Tīrthaṅkara, still according to the Jains, was Mahāvīra, the last Tīrthaṅkara in the present world period, though not the first. According to a relativ…

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Bronkhorst, Johannes, “Formative Period of Jainism (c. 500 BCE – 200 CE)”, in: Brill's Encyclopedia of Jainism Online, Edited by: John E. Cort, Denison University, Paul Dundas, University of Edinburgh, Knut A. Jacobsen, University of Bergen, Kristi L. Wiley, University of California, Berkeley. Consulted online on 20 September 2019 <>
First published online: 2018
First print edition: 20181022

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