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Jain Meditative and Contemplative Practices
(12,428 words)

There is an abundance of material dealing with the Jain tradition in which an emphasis has been placed on the avoidance of harm (ahiṃsā) and asceticism (tapas) as the chief constituents of Jain spiritual practice. What has been overlooked to some degree, however, is the evidence from some of the earliest extant Jain literature, wh…

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Hooper, Giles, “Jain Meditative and Contemplative Practices”, in: Brill's Encyclopedia of Jainism Online, Denison University University of Edinburgh University of Bergen University of California, Berkeley John E. Cort, Paul Dundas, Knut A. Jacobsen, Kristi L. Wiley. Consulted online on 05 June 2023 <>
First published online: 2020

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