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Kaivalya and Mokṣa
(6,683 words)

From a sociological perspective, Jainism can be viewed as a cultural system encoding the procedures of a complex mode of life in which the ideology of the path to freedom from rebirth (mokṣa) represents a realm of value functioning in unresolved tension with another, complementary realm of value, that which privileges living in the world in a state of moral and material well-being.1 No doubt this understanding of Jainism is valid for a substantial part of the tradition’s past. However, the signific…

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Dundas, Paul, “Kaivalya and Mokṣa”, in: Brill's Encyclopedia of Jainism Online, Denison University University of Edinburgh University of Bergen University of California, Berkeley John E. Cort, Paul Dundas, Knut A. Jacobsen, Kristi L. Wiley. Consulted online on 29 May 2023 <>
First published online: 2020

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