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Nonliberated Deities
(14,249 words)

To understand better the somewhat odd concept of “nonliberated deities” in Jainism, it will help first to understand the Jain conception of deity, divinity, and “god,” as well as the connections between liberation and divinity.1 At the heart of Jain metaphysics is the understanding that the world is fundamentally dualistic, divided between sentient self or “soul” (jīva, ātman) and insentient matter (a…

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Cort, John E., “Nonliberated Deities”, in: Brill's Encyclopedia of Jainism Online, Denison University University of Edinburgh University of Bergen University of California, Berkeley John E. Cort, Paul Dundas, Knut A. Jacobsen, Kristi L. Wiley. Consulted online on 03 December 2023 <>
First published online: 2020

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