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Tapas and Asceticism
(9,090 words)

The foundations and basic framework of tapas are shared by all Jains and have their roots in some of the earliest of shared practices and literatures. The particular ways asceticism manifests may differ depending on the models derived from the narrative literature, and sometimes, regional practices. Accordingly, sinc…

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Kelting, M. Whitney, “Tapas and Asceticism”, in: Brill's Encyclopedia of Jainism Online, Denison University University of Edinburgh University of Bergen University of California, Berkeley John E. Cort, Paul Dundas, Knut A. Jacobsen, Kristi L. Wiley. Consulted online on 27 September 2023 <>
First published online: 2020

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