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The Formative Period of Jainism (c. 500 BCE – 200 CE)
(7,601 words)

There is no unanimity on the question of when Jainism came into existence. The Jains themselves maintain that it was originally taught by Tīrthaṅkaras (ford makers). The most recent Tīrthaṅkara, still according to the Jains, was Mahāvīra, the last Tīrthaṅkara in the present world period, though not the first. According to a relatively late…

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Bronkhorst, Johannes, “The Formative Period of Jainism (c. 500 BCE – 200 CE)”, in: Brill's Encyclopedia of Jainism Online, Denison University University of Edinburgh University of Bergen University of California, Berkeley John E. Cort, Paul Dundas, Knut A. Jacobsen, Kristi L. Wiley. Consulted online on 28 November 2023 <>
First published online: 2020

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