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Tīrthaṅkaras of the Present and Future
(3,147 words)

The notion of Tīrthaṅkara is connected with the Jain understanding of the universe and the cyclic conception of time. The concern for populating the Jain cosmos and assessing that the teaching delivered by the Jinas is accessible in any part of the world at any time quickly became a significant factor. A canonical phrase such as “the arhats, the lords of the past, present and future, all say thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain thus”1 can be interpreted as a manner of expressing the totality and eterna…

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Balbir, Nalini, “Tīrthaṅkaras of the Present and Future”, in: Brill's Encyclopedia of Jainism Online, Denison University University of Edinburgh University of Bergen University of California, Berkeley John E. Cort, Paul Dundas, Knut A. Jacobsen, Kristi L. Wiley. Consulted online on 25 June 2022 <>
First published online: 2020

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